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Trevor C. Charles


Trevor C. CharlesAssociate Chair, Graduate Studies

Bachelor of Science (BSc) UBC, Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) McMaster


Telephone: (519) 888-4567 ext. 35606

Office: Biology 1 377C

Research interests

The general research area is bacterial molecular genetics.  We have a particular interest in members of the Rhizobiales order of the Alphaproteobacteria, such as Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Ochrobactrum anthropi.   These organisms are able to interact with eukaryal hosts in symbiotic or pathogenic relationships, and share several genetic factors that direct these relationships.  We are using comparative and functional genomics approaches to investigate some of these genetic factors so that we can improve our understand of these complex interactions.  Our research on functional genomics of microbial communities is directed towards functional metagenomics, which is the design and implementation of metagenomic library screens for the metabolic functions.  This is part of the Canadian MetaMicroBiome Library project, based at the University of Waterloo.

The Alfalfa nodule

Trevor C. Charles bacteria used for molecular genetics


Recent publications

  • Schallmey, M., Ly, A., Wang, C., Meglei, G., Voget, S., Streit, W.R., Driscoll, B.T., Charles, T.C. 2011. Harvesting of novel polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase encoding genes from a soil metagenome library using phenotypic screening. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 321:150-156.
  • Heil, J.R., Nordeste, R.F., Charles, T.C. 2011. The Fluorescence Theatre: A cost-effective device using theatre gels for fluorescent protein and dye screening. Can. J. Microbiol. 57:339-342.
  • Hao, Y., Charles, T.C., Glick, B.R. 2011. ACC deaminase activity in the avirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain D3. Can. J. Microbiol 57:278-286.
  • Nordeste, R.F., Trainer, M.A., Charles, T.C. 2010. Methods for the isolation of genes encoding novel PHB cycle enzymes from complex microbial communities. Methods Mol. Biol. 2010:235-246.
  • Hao, Y., Charles, T.C. and Glick, B.R. 2010. ACC deaminase increases the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation frequency of commercial canola cultivars. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 307:185-190.
  • Trainer, M.A., Capstick, D., Zachertowska, A., Lam, K.N., Clark, S.R. and Charles, T.C. 2010. Identification and characterization of the intracellular poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase enzyme PhaZ of Sinorhizobium meliloti. BMC Microbiol. 10:92.
  • Wang, C., Kemp, J., Da Fonseca, I.O., Equi, R.C., Sheng, X., Charles, T.C. and Sobral, B.W. 2010. Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 loss-of-function deletion mutation in chvI and its phenotypic characteristics. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 23:153-160.
  • Hao, Y., Winans, S.C., Glick, B.R. and Charles, T.C. 2010. Identification and characterization of new LuxR/LuxI-type quorum sensing systems from metagenomic libraries. Environ. Microbiol. 12:105-117.
  • Bélanger, L., Dimmick, K.A., Fleming, J.S. and Charles, T.C. 2009. Null mutations in Sinorhizobium meliloti exoS and chvI demonstrate the importance of this two-component regulatory system for symbiosis. Mol. Microbiol. 74:1223-1237.
  • Biglari, M., Scharer, J.M., Nicholson, R.V. and Charles, T.C. 2009. Evaluation of bacterial community structure and its influence on sulfide oxidation in a bio-leaching environment. Geomicrobiol. J. 26:44-54.
  • Lee, K.D., Gray, E.J., Mabood, F., Jung, W.-J., Charles, T.C., Clark, S.R.D., Ly, A., Souleimanov, A., Zhou, X. and Smith, D.L. 2009. The class IId bacteriocin thuricin-17 increases plant growth. Planta 229:747-755.
  • Duan, J., Müller, K.M., Charles, T.C., Vesely, S. and Glick, B.R. 2009. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase genes in rhizobia from southern Saskatchewan. Microb. Ecol. 57:423-436.
  • Jacob, A.I., Adham, S.A.I., Capstick, D.S., Clark, S.R.D., Spence, T. and  Charles, T.C. 2008. Mutational analysis of the Sinorhizobium meliloti SDR family reveals substantial contribution to symbiosis and catabolic diversity. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 21:979-987.
  • Hao, Y., Charles, T.C. and Glick, B.R. 2007. ACC deaminase from plant growth-promoting bacteria affects grown gall development. Can. J. Microbiol. 53:1291-1299.
  • Wang, C., Sheng, X., Equi, R.C., Trainer, M.A., Charles, T.C. and Sobral, B.W.S. 2007. Influence of the PHB granule-associated proteins (PhaP) on PHB accumulation and symbiotic nitrogen fixation in Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021. J. Bacteriol. 189:9050-9056.
  • Safronova, V., Chizhevskaya, E., Bullitta, S., Andronov, E., Belimov, A., Charles, T.C. and Lindström, K. 2007. Presence of a novel 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer insert in Bradyrhizobium canariense strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 267:207-212.
  • Wang, C., Saldanha, M., Sheng, Y., Shelswell, K.J., Walsh, K.T., Sobral, B.W.S. and Charles, T.C. 2007. Roles of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and glycogen in symbiosis of Sinorhizobium meliloti with Medicago sp. Microbiol. 153:388-398.
  • Gray, E.J., Lee, K.D., Souleimanov, A.M., Di Falco, M.R., Zhou, X., Ly, A., Charles, T.C., Driscoll, B.T and Smith, D.L. 2006. A novel bacteriocin, thuricin 17, produced by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus thuringiensis NEB17: isolation and classification. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100:545-554.
  • Trainer, M.A. and Charles, T.C. 2006. The role of PHB metabolism in the symbiosis of rhizobia with legumes. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 71:377-386.
  • Bhathena, J., Driscoll, B.T. and Charles, T.C. Archibald, F.S. 2006. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorous limitation on the activated sludge biomass in a Kraft mill biotreatment system. Water Environ. Res. 78:2303-2310.
  • Wang, C., Meek, D.J., Panchal, P., Boruvka, N., Archibald, F.S., Driscoll, B.T. and Charles, T.C. 2006. Isolation of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate metabolism genes from complex microbial communities by phenotypic complementation of bacterial mutants. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:384-391.
  • Aneja, P., Zachertowska, A. and Charles, T.C. 2005. Comparison of the symbiotic and competition phenotypes of Sinorhizobium meliloti PHB synthesis and degradation pathway mutants. Can. J. Microbiol. 51:559-604.
  • Mao, C., Qiu, J., Wang, C., Charles, T.C. and Sobral, B.W. 2005. NodMutDB: a database for genes and mutants involved in symbiosis. Bioinformatics 21:2927-2929.
  • Aneja, P. and Charles. T.C. 2005. Characterization of bdhA, encoding the enzyme D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, from Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 242:87-94.
  • Ma., W., Charles, T.C. and Glick, B.R. 2004. Expression of an exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene in Sinorhizobium meliloti increases its ability to nodulate alfalfa. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:5891-5897.
  • Aneja, P., Dai, M., Lacorre, D.A., Pillon, B. and Charles, T.C. 2004. Heterologous complementation of the exopolysaccharide synthesis and carbon utilization phenotypes of Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 PHB synthesis mutants. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 239:277-283.


Publication links on Google Scholar

Sinorhzobium meliloti genome

Sinorhzobium meliloti ORFeome




Earth Microbiome Project

University of Waterloo iGEM Team

University of Waterloo

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