Proceedings of the 15th Canadian Congress on Leisure Research

Leisure influences of digital natives: Understanding how adolescents’ leisure is affected by smartphone use

Michaela Allaby, University of New Brunswick

Adolescents today are considered “digital natives” (Palfrey & Gasser, 2013). They are more connected and tech-savvy than previous generations (Catalyst, 2015). While some researchers have provided evidence that there is value digital natives derive from being “plugged in” (e.g., Walsh, White & Young, 2010), others have found it to be a distraction and makes connections in the non-digital world more difficult (e.g., Lepp, Barkley & Karpinski, 2014).

Home activities that were previously accomplished using a desktop computer or laptop are now being replaced with smartphones (Catalyst, 2015). Lepp (2014) describes smartphones as an “influential social object which permeates nearly every aspect of life from work to leisure” (p. 219). The purpose of this study is to explore adolescents’ experiences with having and using a smartphone and how these experiences influence and are influenced by with their leisure.

Approximately 63% of adolescents are exchanging text messages every day (Lenhart, 2012) consequently, text messaging is now considered to the most common form of communication among adolescent peer groups (Skierkowski & Wood, 2012). On average, adolescents aged 13-18 are spending nine hours on entertainment media use (watching television, movies and online videos; playing video, computer and mobile games; reading and listening to music; and using social media and the internet) which excludes time spent on homework or at school (Common Sense Media, 2015).

Phenomenology will guide the design of this research (van Manen, 1990). Purposive sampling will be used to select participants between the ages of 13 and 18. Participants will be required to be living at home with both parents, attending school and have had a smartphone for at least two years. Participants will be recruited via social media such as Facebook and Twitter.  Data will be collected through semi-structured interviews to develop an understanding of the nature and meaning of participants’ lived experiences. Patton (2002) suggests when using a phenomenological approach, a qualitative study hopes to “reveal the meaning of lived experiences from the perspective of the participant” and “[focuses] on the everyday way in which people make sense of the world” (p. 161). Data analysis will follow Van Manen’s  (1990) holistic and detailed line-by-line approaches to isolating thematic aspects within the interview texts and formulating themes. Focusing on a small targeted group, this phenomenological study attempts to explore understandings, perceptions and beliefs about a specific circumstance or event (Cottrell & McKenzie, 2005). There is limited research on adolescents’ experiences with having and using a smartphone and how smartphone use may influence their leisure behaviour. Therefore, the phenomenological approach will be useful when investigating both the meanings and experiences from the perspective of adolescents in New Brunswick.


Catalyst Canada. (2015). With growth comes change: the evolving mobile landscape in 2015. (Retrieved March 1, 2016)

Common Sense Media. (2015). The common sense census: Media use by tweens and teens. (Retrieved March 1, 2016)

Cottrell,R. R. & McKenzie, J. F. (2005). Health promotion & education in research methods: using the five chapter these/dissertation model. Sunbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers.

Lenhart, A. (2012). Pew Internet. (Retrieved March 1, 2016)

Lepp, A. (2014). Exploring the relationship between cell phone use and leisure: An empirical analysis and implications for management. Managing Leisure, 19(6), 381-389.

Lepp, A., Barkley, J. E. & Karpinski, A. C. (2014). The relationship between cell phone use, academic performance, anxiety and satisfaction with life in college students. Computers in Human Behaviour, 31, 343-350.

Palfrey, J. & Gasser, U. (2013). Born digital: Understanding the first generation of digital natives. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Skierkowski, D. & Wood, R. M. (2012). To text or not to text? The importance of text messaging among college-aged youth. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 744-456.

van Manen, M. (1990). Researching lived experience: Human science for an action sensitive pedagogy. London, ON, Canada: Althouse Press.

Walsh, S. P., White, K. M. & Young, R. (2010). Needing to connect: The effects of self and others on young people’s involvement with their mobile phones. Australian Journal of Psychology, 62(4), 194-203.

Author contact

Michaela Allaby
​University of New Brunswick
Fredericton NB  E3A 8R2 

Return to concurrent session 8

Tourism employment for refugees: An approach for empowerment and integration

Thabit Alomari, University of Waterloo

The refugees’ dilemma is one of the most complex global issues nowadays. It is a humanitarian and moral issue, a security matter, and emerging research subject. It is a collective problem as well as one of individuals, and it also takes various forms on different levels: local, national and international. The purpose of this study is to explore and build an understanding of how tourism and hospitality, as fields of employment, serve to empower and integrate Syrian refugees through preparing and training in tourism and hospitality services to join the labor market of hosting countries. This study is interdisciplinary within the social sciences, and the theoretical approaches of such theorists a Caroline Brettell and James Hollifield will be employed. Further, the study will include mixed quantitative and qualitative research methods with heavily reliance on ethnographic and phenomenological methods. Further objectives is multifold: (1) to identify the challenges Syrian refugees face when attempting to integrate in the host communities; (2) to identify and examine the factors that enable Syrian refugees to enhance their livelihood in targeted refugee camps and non-camp spaces; (3) to develop economic and tourism related initiatives for those refugees; (4) to test the initiative’s applicability in the targeted refugee spaces. Ultimately, this research will lend itself to providing refugees with economic opportunities that can reduce the level of poverty and unemployment. It will provide effective and suitable ways and methods to enhance the integration and involvement of Syrian refugees in economic activities, and improve the socialization and livelihoods of these people in first asylum countries or their new homes.


Brettell, C. B., & Hollifield, J. F. (2014). Migration theory: Talking across disciplines. Routledge.

Bryman, A., & Teevan, J. J. (2005). Social research methods (Canadian Edition ed.): Oxford University press Oxford.

Danish Refugee Council (DRC, 2014). 

Ekey, A. (2008). The effect of the refugee experience on terrorist activity. Journal of Politics & International Affairs4, 13-29.

Feldman, S. J. (2007). Development assisted integration: A viable alternative to long term residence in refugee camps?. The Fletcher Journal of Human Security22, 49-68.

Joppe, M. (2012). Migrant workers: Challenges and opportunities in addressing tourism labour shortages. Tourism Management33(3), 662-671.

Lundborg, P. (2013). Refugees' employment integration in Sweden: Cultural distance and labor market performance. Review of International Economics21(2), 219-232.

McKay, S. (Ed.). (2008). Refugees, recent migrants and employment: challenging barriers and exploring pathways. Routledge.

Tomlinson, F., & Egan, S. (2002). From marginalization to (dis) empowerment: organizing training and employment services for refugees. Human Relations55(8), 1019-1043.

UNHCR Multi-Sector Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Informal Tented Settlements in Jordan – August 2014

UNHCR (2015) Syria Regional Refugee Response Inter-agency Information Sharing Portal Response (retrieved on Nov. 2015)

Wright, A. M., Dhalimi, A., Lumley, M. A., Jamil, H., Pole, N., Arnetz, J. E., & Arnetz, B. B. (2016).

Unemployment in Iraqi refugees: The interaction of pre and post‐displacement trauma. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology57(6), 564-570.

Author contact

Thabit Alomari
169-350 Columbia Street
Waterloo ON  N2L 6P1

Return to concurrent session 6

Healthy aging and eustress in the context of leisure among older adults with chronic conditions

Jaesung An, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
Laura L. Payne, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
Toni Liechty, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign

An increasing aging population has shifted attention toward better understanding aspects of healthy aging (Payne & Heavenrich, 2010). Over 90 percent of U.S. older adults report at least one chronic condition, which can compromise quality of life and increase stress (Jopp & Smith, 2006). However, not all stress experiences are negative. The concept of eustress (i.e., good stress) has yet to be studied thoroughly, especially among older adults with chronic conditions. Also, despite decades of studies, no consensual definition for healthy aging exists (Hung, Kempen & De Vries, 2010). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of eustress, leisure and healthy aging among older adults with a chronic condition. The overall aims of this study were to: 1) explore how, if at all, do older adults experience eustress in the context of leisure; 2) examine whether people who view stress as a positive challenge (eustress) are able to better maintain involvement in their valued leisure activities; and 3) understand the meaning of leisure activities to older adults including if and how leisure engagement contributes to healthy aging. Qualitative inquiry using grounded theory was used to guide the study design since relatively little is known about the role of eustress in leisure and healthy aging among older adults with chronic conditions. Using theoretical sampling, 11 older adults living in one of three locations (i.e., own home, independent living community & assisted living community) participated in an in-depth interview with the lead researcher. Five men and six women aged 64 to 90 participated in the study. Constant comparative analysis (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) with Corbin & Strauss’s (1990) three stages of coding (i.e., open, axial, and selective) was employed to analyze the data. Five themes emerged that described how participants defined healthy aging in the context of leisure: avoiding boredom, keeping mind and body active, meaningful social connections, sense of purpose, and enjoyment and satisfaction. By engaging in leisure activities, older adults expressed that they had more control of their lives and a stronger sense of purpose. Leisure engagement reduced feelings of boredom which they associated with feeling “uselessness” or “withdrawal from society”. Other outcomes of leisure discussed by participants were enjoyment and keeping their minds active which they considered important aspects of healthy aging. Although participants described benefits of leisure as an important part of their lives, it was noticeable that they did not emphasize the physical benefits of leisure. Instead they focused on emotional, cognitive and social benefits. Participants who described being actively engaged in leisure with high levels of satisfaction and sense of purpose were better able to experience eustress, creating a space for older adults to better maintain their valued leisure activities. Because older adults greatly value leisure, and their meaning of healthy aging emphasized emotional, cognitive and social benefits, practitioners should focus on providing them with programs and services that emphasize a variety of leisure opportunities tailored to their needs. For future research, the concept of boredom among older adults needs more attention.


Corbin, J. M., & Strauss, A. (1990). Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria. Qualitative sociology13(1), 3-21.

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The discovery grounded theory: strategies for qualitative inquiry. Aldin, Chicago.

Hung, L. W., Kempen, G. I. J. M., & De Vries, N. K. (2010). Cross-cultural comparison between academic and lay views of healthy ageing: a literature review. Ageing and Society30(08), 1373-1391.

Jopp, D., & Smith, J. (2006). Resources and life-management strategies as determinants of successful aging: On the protective effect of selection, optimization, and com- pensation. Psychology & Aging, 21(2), 253-265.

Payne, L. L. & Heavenrich, C. (2010). Stop aging and start living: The theory and practice of positive aging. International Journal of Disability and Human Development, 10 (2), 97-102.

Author contact

Jaesung An
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)
104 Huff Hall, 1206 South 4th Street
Champaign IL 61820 USA

Return to concurrent session 3

The intersection between mining contaminants and hunting in Northern Ontario communities

Carly Andrews, University of Ottawa
Paul Heintzman, University of Ottawa

Mining has played an instrumental role in the Canadian economy for centuries. In Ontario alone, there are 43 active mines that produce 21% of Canada’s current mineral production and contribute approximately 10.7 billion dollars to the Canadian economy (Ontario Prospectors Association, 2015). Although profitable, mines are at the epicenter of a number of environmental concerns across Canada.

Researchers have been documenting the effects of mining contaminants on Indigenous communities for years. Of particular concern has been the effect that these contaminants may have on animals hunted for food.  Since consuming and harvesting animals are important aspects of Indigenous physical, mental and spiritual health, the potential for contamination places these people at high risk for health problems (Dunk, 2002; Manore & Miner, 2006; Pufall et al., 2010).

Although hunting is often perceived as an Indigenous activity, it is also important to many non-Indigenous Canadians and it is time that we begin including their voices in hunting discourse (Ferrara & Lanoue, 2004; Manore & Miner, 2006). Many hunters throughout Canada find that engaging in recreational hunting activities is a healthy way to stay connected with oneself, others, and the environment (Manore & Miner, 2006; Wisher, 1999). It lies at the core of the values, individual identity and way of life of many of those who participate in this activity.

This research is a work-in-progress that focuses on the intersection between hunters and mining contaminants.  Specifically, the study will seek to answer two research questions. The first question is, “how does the perception of environmental risk associated with mining contaminants (e.g., expansion and waste disposal) affect the hunting practices, health and well-being of hunters not living on a reserve living in Northern Ontario communities?”  The second research question asks, “is there a relationship between hunting practices, including the consumption of hunted foods, of hunters not living on a reserve and their health status and personal well-being?”

Using a voluntary, self-administered questionnaire, 100 participants (50 hunters and 50 non-hunters) from each of the five Northern Ontario communities selected (Onaping Falls, Kirkland Lake, Porcupine, Wawa, and Hearst) for a total of 500 participants, will be asked questions pertaining to their hunting routines, rationale for hunting, perceptions of their health and whether they feel that perceptions of mining contaminants have changed the way that they hunt.

This paper will present results from ongoing data collection.  Findings from this study will help to create inclusive communities by developing our knowledge of non-Indigenous hunters and engaging them in decisions that have the potential to affect their leisure activities. In the future, the results of this study may be helpful in forming a coalition between Indigenous and non-Indigenous hunting communities in their defence of hunting, which hunters feel is often under siege (Manore & Miner, 2006). This study can also inform industries and stakeholders of important socio-cultural aspects of nearby communities that have been overlooked during environmental assessments.


Dunk, T. (2002). Hunting and the politics of identity in Ontario. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 13(1), 36-66. 

Ferrara, N., & Lanoue, G. (2004). The self in northern Canadian hunting societies: "Cannibals" and other "monsters" as agents of healing. Anthropologica, 46(1), 69-83. Ontario mining and exploration directory.

Manore, J. & Miner, D.  (2006) The culture of hunting in Canada.  Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Ontario Prospectors Association. (2015). Symposium conducted at the meeting for the Northeastern Mines, Kirkland Lake and Thunderbay, Ontario.

Pufall, E. L., Jones, A. Q., McEwen, S. A., Lyall, C., Peregrine, A. S., & Edge, V. L. (2011). Perception of the importance of traditional country foods to the physical, mental, and spiritual health of Labrador Inuit. Arctic, 64(2), 242–250. 

Wisher, R. (1999). Woodsy therapy. American Enterprise, 10(1), 70.

Author contact

Carly Andrews
University of Ottawa
2 Bayou Street
​Onaping ON  P0M 2R0

Return to concurrent session 9

Benefits of snowboarding for Canadians with (dis)Abilities: Influencing the future legacy of snowboarding

Janice Arndt, Dalhousie University

In the spirit of the conference theme, Engaging Legacies, the proposed poster presentation will explore the immerging interest in adaptive snowboarding for individuals with a (dis)Ability. Early pioneers of snowboarding challenged social norms and fought for access to shared space (Hunt, 2013). Similarly, people with a (dis)Ability are challenging social views and stigmas by engaging in a sport that continues to be viewed as extreme. Research suggests that 3% of people with an acquired (dis)Ability participate in adaptive recreation or sports and 50% are interested in participating (Perrier, et al. 2015). Furthermore, changes surrounding the sport are underway. A Sit-Snowboard was developed in Norway making the sport more accessible in Europe (Prodaptive, 2016). Snowboarding is included in both the Special Olympics and Paralympics, advancing the sport in countries like the United States (Canadian Paralympic Committee, 2013; Special Olympics, 2016). Canada currently only participates in the Paralympics for snowboarding. However, the development of Canada’s National Disabilities Act will have an impact on the future of recreation and sports for Canadians living with a (dis)Ability (Prime Minister of Canada, 2016). Adaptive snowboarding is growing in Canada despite the gaps in appropriate and relevant discovery programs, qualified instructors and coaches, and adaptive equipment. As people with a (dis)Ability face more barriers than those without a (dis)Ability a collaboration between professionals in health, recreation & sport, and academics may be beneficial to improving accessibility of the sport. Exploring the benefits of adaptive snowboarding may contribute to the understanding of how adaptive snowboarding impacts one’s mental, physical, social, and environmental health. My research interests in this area are two fold, a) to highlight the benefits of snowboarding and its adaptive forms, and b) to identify opportunities to support the development of barrier-free snowboarding in Canada. The research on snowboarding is relatively limited and unexplored in relation to health benefits, and individuals with a (dis)Ability, warranting new research in this area. The proposed poster presentation will focus on the results of a literature review, an analysis of adaptive snowboard programs in Canada, and to identify potential areas for future research to influence the development and legacy of adaptive snowboarding for Canadians with (dis)Abilities.


Canadian Paralympic Committee. (2013). Paralympic sport: Para-Snowboard

Hunt, K. (2013). A business case analysis of the snowboarding industry. Journal of Business Case Studies, 9(2), 111-120.

Perrier, M., Shirazipour, C., & Latimer-Cheung, A. (2015). Sport participation among individuals with acquired physical disabilities: Group differences on demographics, disability, and health action process approach constructs. Disability and Health Journal, 216-222. 

Prime Minister of Canada. (2016). Minister of sport and persons with disabilities mandate

Prodaptive. (2016). Getting a rig. 

Special Olympics. (2016). Special Olympics (fact sheet): Snowboarding

Author contact

Janice Arndt
Dalhousie University
2550 Joseph Street
Halifax NS  B3L 3H2

Return to poster presentations

Word of mouth dynamics in an online sport community

Nadina Ayer, University of Waterloo
Ron McCarville, University of Waterloo

Online communities represent important virtual spaces “where people come together with others to converse, exchange information or other resources, learn, play, or just be with each other” (Resnick & Kraut, 2011, p. 1). They are communication vehicles independent of time and location (Rheingold, 1994). As a result, they offer users a convenient, timely, and a reliable way to socialize with others (Chayko, 2008). In many ways, virtual communities have replaced or at least extended more traditional communities. For example, a typical tennis club offers the opportunity for people living in close proximity to come together to share interests, emotions, knowledge and expertise. This same club, in a virtual format, extends this same opportunity to enthusiasts around the globe. Thousands of these members can engage in simultaneous discussions of any aspect of the sport. An online community, such as “Talk Tennis” offers the opportunity to do just that. It is the oldest message board of its kind, consisting of approximately 39, 000 voluntary members with more than 9.67 million posts. Its international focus offers a culturally diverse environment in which members share, learn, commiserate and engage. With a support system in place consisting of staff and policies, it helps support, mediate, and facilitate interactions between its thousands of members. This study explores interpersonal dynamics within the Talk Tennis message board. Talk Tennis is organized into sub-categories covering a wide area of tennis related interests from competitive tennis to equipment, instruction, miscellaneous, and classifieds. The community has an international orientation with region based categories (Australia and Europe) and language based forums (Tennis Warehouse).The intent of this study is to further our understanding of how online community participation evolves and how interpersonal dynamics play out within the posts on this site. Readily available data from the online message board and its sub-forums are used to help understand online dynamics between posters as they discuss various topics. Guided by symbolic interactionism, this netnographic study seeks insights on the motives, nature of participation and its meaning in helping us understand how posters relate to and engage in their online sport community. In particular, we are interested in the evolving nature of word of mouth communication. In traditional communities, members seeking information often turn to trusted friends and relatives for advice.  In virtual communities, like Talk Tennis, those seeking assistance are doing so from strangers. Conversely, those offering advice and aid are doing so to strangers they will never meet. How do these dynamics play out in the virtual world? The study’s insights offer information on how traditional “community-based” dynamics are reproduced and enhanced in online community settings of a message board. The results extend notions of online sport culture, having practical implications for service providers and other posters.


Chayko, M. (2008). Portable communities: The social dynamics of online and mobile connectedness. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Resnick, P. & Kraut, R. E. & (2011). Chapter 1: Introduction. In R.E. Kraut & P. Resnick with S. Kiesler et al. (Eds.), Building successful online communities: Evidence-based social design (pp. 1-19). Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Rheingold, H. (1994). A slice of life in my virtual community. In L.M. Harasim (Ed.), Global networks: Computers and international communication (pp. 57-80). Cambridge, MA: Addison Wesley.

Author contact

Nadina Ayer
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 38187

Return to poster presentations

Exploring residents’ support for hosting the Olympic Games: Single and multiple host-city bid perspectives

Jordan Bakhsh, University of Waterloo
Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo

Residents’ support for the Olympic Games has been explored extensively in tourism and event management-related literature (Gursoy & Kendall, 2006; Hiller & Wanner, 2015). With growing concerns associated with hosting the Olympic Games, such as negative economic and political impacts (Ritchie, 1984), less cities seem willing to host and bid for an Olympic Games. Given these sources of resistance and declining bids in an age of global austerity, the IOC changed their policy regarding host-city structures to better attract bids. As a result, the IOC moved its stance from solely allowing for single host-city (SHC) bid arrangements to allowing for multiple host-city (MHC) bid arrangements (IOC, 2014). To date, no previous study has explored support in a MHC bid context.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence residents’ support to host the 2028 Summer Olympic Games as part of a MHC bid arrangement, and SHC bid arrangement. The factors (i.e. antecedents) of resident support employed in this investigation are consistent with Gursoy and Kendall’s (2006) model of resident support for hosting mega-sport events. These factors/antecedents include: Perceived Benefits/Costs (economic, social, and cultural), Community Concern (environment, schools, crime, recreation, culture, economic development, and roads/transportation), Community Attachment (sense of belonging to the community), and Ecocentric Attitude (orientation to sound environmental practices).

A quasi-experimental survey design was used in the present investigation. Participants were enrolled in undergraduate courses at University of Waterloo and George Brown College during the Winter 2016 term (n = 200). Respondents were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical bid arrangements: (1) Toronto; SHC bid for the 2028 Summer Olympic Games (n=100), or (2) Toronto and Montreal; MHC bid for the 2028 Summer Olympic Games (n=100).

The questionnaires assessed each of the resident support constructs using standardized Likert-type scaling procedures utilized by Gursoy and Kendall (2006). Results from the linear regression analyses revealed that Gursoy and Kendall’s model performed better in the SHC bid context (39.3% variance explained, 6/8 factors significant predictors) than in the MHC bid context (27.3% variance explained, 1/8 factors significant predictors). A significant relationship between perceived benefits and overall support was observed in both bid contexts (b=0.568, p<0.001; b=0.553, p<0.001). Interestingly, the relationship between perceived costs and overall support was only significant in the SHC bid arrangement (b=-0.185, p=0.026).

Our findings shed insights into how support (and the aforementioned antecedents/factors) might differ between SHC and MHC bid arrangements. Specifically, our results suggested that relative importance of perceived benefits and perceived costs in garnering support to host the Olympics (and their antecedents) may differ between the types of bid arrangement. We conclude that extant models (e.g. Gursoy & Kendall, 2006) of resident support to host mega-sport events need to be explored and validated in MHC bid contexts. A better understanding of residents’ support for hosting mega-sport events is critical for elected officials and bid stakeholders.


Gursoy, D., & Kendall, K.W. (2006). Hosting mega events: Modeling locals’ support.  Annals of Tourism Research, 33(3), 603-623.     

Hiller, H.H., & Wanner, R.A. (2015). The psycho-social impact of the Olympics as an urban festival: a leisure perspective. Leisure Studies, 34(6), 672-688. IOC. (2014) Olympic agenda 20+20 recommendations.

Ritchie, J.B. (1984). Assessing the impact of hallmark events: Conceptual and research issues. Journal of Travel Research, 23(1), 2-11.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for the appendices.

Author contact

Jordan Bakhsh
333 Erin Trail
Newmarket ON  L3Y 6K2

Return to concurrent session 4

The Lost River: Dams, diversions, and the death of recreational canoe tripping on Quebec's Rupert River

Cameron Baldassarra, McMaster University

This paper proposal is based on original research, conducted in 2014, during the completion of the author's MA in geography. The Lost River examines shifting uses and perceptions of the Rupert River, through a Bourdieusian, class-based analysis of the leisure practices of recreational canoe trippers. Emphasis is placed on the complex relationships between the Rupert River's primary users, and their shared connection to a powerful natural environment.

Located in the James Bay region of Northern Quebec, the Rupert drains a massive watershed stretching from Lac Mistassini, 600km west to the shores of James Bay. The river was frequently used by canoeists, but following the 2009 completion of Hydro-Quebec's dam and diversion project, experienced a marked decline in leisure activities. This paper explores the pre-2009 history and geography of the Rupert, with the aim of explaining the post 2009 decline of recreational canoe tripping. This decline occurred in spite of Hydro-Quebec's efforts to maintain navigable routes, portages and water levels, following consultations with local indigenous communities. To determine the reasons for this apparent abandonment, interviews were conducted with 12 current and former members of the recreational canoe tripping community.

The historical and theoretical contexts of The Lost River are comparable to recent environmental histories and historical geographies that detail the often contradictory role of major North American watersheds as places of industry, conservation, recreation, and the lifeblood of indigenous communities. Matthew Evenden's Fish vs. Power (2004), and Richard White's The Organic Machine (2011), stand out in the literature in their detailed acknowledgement of the complexity of river users, their communities, and their competing interests on major watersheds. Additionally, The Lost River problematizes the performative nature of canoeing, and embraces Bruce Erickson's critiques of the canoe as a national symbol of whiteness, and masculinity (Erickson, Canoe Nation, 2013). This work invites a wider discussion of geographically-dependent recreational pursuits of the leisure class, class-based perceptions of wilderness, and the role of the canoe in Canadian culture.


Bourdieu, P. (1984): Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Evenden, M. (2004): Fish vs. Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Erickson, B. (2013): Canoe Nation. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

Erickson, B. (2011): “A Phantasy in White in a World That is Dead”: Grey Owl and the Whiteness of Surrogacy. In Baldwin, A., Cameron, L. and Kobayashi, A. (eds): Rethinking The Great White North: Race, Nature and the Historical Geographies of Whiteness in Canada. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.

White, R. (1995): The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River. New York: Hill and Wang.

Author contact

Cameron Baldassarra
CNH 619, McMaster University
1280 Main Street West
Hamilton ON  L8S 4L9
905-525-9140, ext. 24270

Return to concurrent session 7

The challenges of integration: Exploring community sport councils in Ontario

Martha Barnes, Brock University
Laura Cousens, Brock University

The lack of integration in Canada’s sport system is evident at the community level with sport clubs such as basketball exhibiting weak and informal linkages resulting in limited opportunities for collaboration (MacLean, Cousens & Barnes, 2011). Although community sport has been referred to as a network (Thibault & Harvey, 1997; Misener & Doherty, 2009), in practice, community sport delivery often fails to embrace the notion that collaboration is essential. By way of example, Vail (2007) suggested that local tennis clubs were unsuccessful in connecting with community leaders to increase the sport’s ability to enhance participation. Community sport councils (CSCs) “act as an information conduit for policy and sport-related initiatives while providing leadership, integration, and a collective voice for sport in the community” (Misener, Harman & Doherty, 2013, p.301). Given the potential for CSCs to enhance collaboration and integration between sport organizations, local governments (i.e. recreation), schools, and service clubs, the Ontario Sport Alliance (OSA) unveiled an action plan in the early 2000s to create 50 CSCs. The vision of the OSA was that CSCs would be governed and overseen by community sport clubs to create networks of key stakeholders in their respective communities. In doing so, the CSCs would become central actors in community sport. Seeking to understand the emergence of CSCs in communities and the factors that facilitated or inhibited the ability of these organizations to sustain their existence and achieve the vision set out by the OSA, this research looked to neo-institutional theory. Neo-institutional theory offers a lens which focuses attention on the organizational fields in which the CSCs were seeking to enter, the nature of legitimacy in the organizational fields, as well as the capacity of the leaders to mobilize resources and engage new members (Colyvas & Powell, 2006; Jepperson, 1991). Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify the factors that influenced the integration of community sport councils in Ontario. A basic qualitative design was used to uncover and interpret meaning as we were interested in understanding sport council integration from the perspectives of those involved with each of the councils included with this project (Merriam, 2002). Data were collected through in-depth interviews (n = 9), documents and a content analysis of CSC’s websites (Merriam). Findings suggest varying levels of CSC integration into their communities; from those that functioned solely as information providers to those that were embedded in the community exhibiting strong linkages with key stakeholders and had the capacity to provide meaningful services to community sport clubs. Factors such as; support from the local government, the provision of services valued by community sport organizations, linkages to key stakeholders, stable board of directors and access to resources were identified as facilitating integration. Competition with existing organizations, high board turnover, a lack of resources, and failure to engage community sport organizations were factors which limited integration. Implications from this research highlight the fact that as new organizational forms, CSCs must negotiate many obstacles in an effort to gain legitimacy and integrate into their community.


Colyvas, J. A., & Powell, W. W. (2006). Roads to Institutionalization: The Remaking of Boundaries between Public and Private Science. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 315-363.

Jepperson, R. L., (1991). Institutions, institutional efforts, and institutionalism. In W. W. Powell and P. J. DiMaggio (Eds.), The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (143-163). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

MacLean, J., Cousens, L., & Barnes, M. (2011). Look who’s linked with whom: A case study of one community basketball network. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 562-575.

Merriam, S. (2002). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2009). A case study of organizational capacity in nonprofit community sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23, 457-482.

Misener, K., Harman, A., & Doherty, A. (2013). Understanding the role of a local sports council in community sports development. Managing Leisure, 18(4), 300-315.

Thibault, L., & Harvey, J. (1997). Fostering interorganizational linkages in the Canadian sport delivery system. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 45-68.

Vail, S. E. (2007). Community development and sport participation. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 571–596.

Author contact

Martha Barnes
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1
905-688-5550, ext. 5011

Return to concurrent session 3

Exploring “learn-to” sport programs for newcomers to Canada

Simon J. Barrick, University of Calgary
William Bridel, University of Calgary
Joan Bard Miller

Sport and leisure participation is commonly cited as integral to the integration of newcomers to Canada (ICC, 2014). Newcomers also espouse the benefits of sport and leisure participation (ICC, 2014), while identifying distinct participation barriers (Livingston & Tirone, 2012). These barriers include program costs, transportation, and navigating Canada’s bureaucratic sport system (Livingston et al., 2008; Livingston & Tirone, 2012).

​In this presentation, we will outline findings from a collaborative research project examining “learn-to” sport programs for newcomers to Canada. In this study, we interviewed program organizers and coaches, as well as parents of newcomer participants about their experiences in the programs as well as overall strengths and weaknesses. These programs involved a range of sports (skating, hockey, soccer, and curling) hosted throughout Canada (mainly in Alberta, Ontario, and Quebec).

Theory and Methods
Social constructionist perspectives of race and ethnicity, as well as critical insights on Canadian multiculturalism influenced this project (Bannerji, 2000; Mackey, 2002). Namely, we recognized that ethnic identities are fluid and dynamic (Tirone & Shaw, 1997; Tirone & Pedlar, 2000), while also being mindful that “essentialist categories of ‘race’ and ethnicity do have some level of resonance with lived experiences and this is something that we need to both address and interrogate rigorously” (Gunaratnam, 2003, p. 33).

We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with a total of 18 administrators, coaches, and parents representing six different sport programs. The interviews ranged in length from 15 minutes to 1.5 hours. Through subsequent self-reflexive note taking, memoing, and research team meetings, we uncovered various core themes from the research data. These themes were then shared with study participants to ensure our interpretations were accurate.

Findings and Discussion
The core emergent themes included: overcoming barriers to program participation, addressing language and cultural considerations, valuing community partnerships, and understanding skating as “Canadian”. These themes illustrate the diverse, intersecting considerations that program administrators and coaches of newcomer sport and leisure programs must be attentive to. Notably, program administrators stressed establishing intersectoral collaborations as a key to running “learn-to” sport programs for newcomers, as well as ensuring their long-term sustainability. These findings will also be put into conversation with existing literature on newcomer sport and leisure in Canada to address numerous service delivery barriers (Donnelly & Nakamura, 2006; Livingston & Tirone, 2012; Rich, Misener, & Dubeau, 2015).

This study has revealed how well designed sport and leisure programs can successfully introduce newcomers to the Canadian sport system. I will conclude by outlining how the aforementioned themes can provide lessons to other programs about how best to meet the needs of newcomers by integrating them into inclusive and accessible sport programs. This presentation illustrates that sport programs in Canada can be welcoming spaces for diverse populations through cultivating positive legacies for growth built on collaboration and embracing diversity.


Bannerji, H. (2000). The dark side of the nation: Essays on multiculturalism, nationalism and gender. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Donnelly, P., & Nakamura, Y. (2006). Sport and multiculturalism: A dialogue. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Heritage.

Gunaratnam, Y. (2003). Researching “race” and ethnicity: Methods, knowledge, and power. London, England: Sage Publications.

Institute for Canadian Citizenship (2014). Playing together: New citizens, sports, and belonging. Toronto, Canada.

Livingston, L. & Tirone, S. (2012). Understanding structural barriers in amateur sport and the participation of immigrants in Atlantic Canada. In J. Joseph, S. Darnell, & Y. Nakamura (Eds.), Race and sport in Canada: Intersecting inequalities. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Livingston, L., Tirone, S., Smith, E., & Miller, A.J. (2008). Participation in coaching by Canadian immigrants: Individual accommodations and sport system receptivity. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 3(3), 403-415.

Mackey, E. (2002). The house of difference: Cultural politics and national identity in Canada (Vol. 23). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Rich, K. A., Misener, L., & Dubeau, D. (2015). “Community Cup, We Are a Big Family”: Examining Social Inclusion and Acculturation of Newcomers to Canada through a Participatory Sport Event. Social Inclusion3(3), 129-141.

Tirone, S., & Pedlar, A. (2000). Understanding the leisure experience of a minority ethnic group: South Asian teens and young adults in Canada. Society and Leisure, 23(1), 145-169.

Tirone, S., & Shaw, S. M. (1997). At the center of their lives: Indo-Canadian women, their families and leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 29, 2, 225-244.

Author contact

Simon Barrick
University of Calgary
1134a – 250 Collegiate Blvd NW
Calgary AB  T2N 5A6

Return to concurrent session 6

The Vancouver 2010 Olympics, sense of belonging to local community, and life satisfaction among youth in British Columbia: A regional-level analysis

Simon J. Barrick, University of Calgary
Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo
Andrew T. Kaczynski, University of South Carolina

The Olympics are often praised for their ability to accrue benefits to host communities, particularly increased community cohesion, as well as other health and wellbeing outcomes (Coalter, 2004; Valera & Guàrdia, 2002). To date, robust empirical evidence of these types of social impacts are lacking in the leisure and sport literature (Chalip, 2006; Devine, 2013). Using nationally representative data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), the purpose of our exploratory investigation was to examine associations between the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games, sense of belonging to local community, and life satisfaction among youth residing in host regions. Our study responds to calls in the literature (e.g., Potwarka & Leatherdale, 2016) for more regional-level analyses of social impacts (i.e., areas that house Olympic venues). Moreover, few investigations of the social impacts of mega-sport events have targeted youth populations residing in host communities (Griffiths & Armour, 2013).

Data from both sexes, aged 12–19 were extracted from the CCHS 2007–2008 (n = 1,007,499); 2009–2010 (n = 1,041,552); and 2011–2012 (n = 1,037,017) (Statistics Canada, 2013a). The CCHS is a repeat cross-sectional nationally representative survey, with a central objective of gathering health-related data at the subprovincial levels of geography (health regions) (Statistics Canada, 2013b). Respondents answered questions about their sense of belonging to local community and overall life satisfaction (Statistics Canada, 2013a). Data extracted from the CCHS represented two-year time period estimates. We focused on three health regions where Olympic venues were located (Greater Vancouver, North Shore, and Richmond). We conducted a time series (bootstrap) analysis of the 2007-2008 (pre-event); 2009-2010 (year leading to the event and year of the event); and 2011-12 (post event) years to capture changes in youth self-reported sense of belonging to local community and life satisfaction in and around the Olympic year.

No statistically significant changes were observed in the sense of belonging or life satisfaction measure among youth when considering data at the national and provincial levels. At the regional level however, a significant increase in the percentage of youth who reported their sense of belonging to their local community as “very strong” or “somewhat strong” from 2007–2008 (65.4%) to 2009–2010 (78.7%) was observed in the Richmond, BC, health region (z = 2.05, p = .04). A significant increase in the percentage of youth who reported being satisfied with their life in general from 2007-2008 (92.2%) to 2009-2010 (98.9%) was also observed in Richmond. These significant increases were not sustained in the subsequent two-year period, and percentages returned to baseline in the years following the event. No significant changes in either measure were observed for any of the other regions or time periods under investigation. Our study demonstrates that positive social impacts can result from staging mega-sport events in host communities. Moreover, findings underscore the intense but fleeting nature of positive social impacts that may result in host communities (Potwarka et al., 2016). We advocate for more regional-level analyses of event impacts to better understand localised effects occurring in host communities.


Chalip, L. (2006). Towards social leverage of sport events. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 11(2), 109-127.

Coalter, F. (2004). Stuck in the blocks? A sustainable sporting legacy? In After the Goldrush: The London Olympics Institute for Public Policy Research/DEMOS, London, UK: London.

Devine, C. (2013). London 2012 Olympic legacy: a big sporting society? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 5(2), 257-279.

Griffiths, M., & Armour, K. (2013). Physical education and youth sport in England: Conceptual and practical foundations for an Olympic legacy? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics5(2), 213-227.

Potwarka, L. R., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2016). The Vancouver 2010 Olympics and leisure-time physical activity rates among youth in Canada: any evidence of a trickle-down effect?. Leisure Studies35(2), 241-257.

Potwarka, L.R., Teyplo, H., Fortune, D., & Mair, H. Launching off but falling fast: Experiences of becoming more physically active in response to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Winter Games. Event Management, 20(3), 297-312.

Statistics Canada. (2013a). Table 105-0502: Health indicator profile, two year period estimates, by age group and sex, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2013 boundaries) and peer groups

Statistics Canada. (2013b). Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Annual Component – 2013 Questionnaire

Valera, S., & Guàrdia, J. (2002). Urban social identity and sustainability Barcelona’s Olympic Village. Environment and Behavior34(1), 54-66.

Author contact

Simon Barrick
University of Calgary
1134a – 250 Collegiate Blvd NW
Calgary AB  T2N 5A6

Return to concurrent session 4

Exploring stay-at-home, single, and gay fathers’ perspectives on their children’s outdoor risky play

Michelle Bauer, University of Ottawa

Presently in Canada, fewer children are engaging in outdoor risky play (Tremblay et al., 2015). This is largely due to an increase in overprotective parenting and hypervigilance (Little, Sandseter, & Wyver, 2012). Parents play an influential role in their children’s adoption of safety strategies and parental perspectives on risky play are important to understand children’s approach to danger and risk (Brussoni et al., 2012). While researchers have examined fathers’ perspectives on children’s outdoor risky play in traditional families (i.e. where mothers are primary caregivers) (Brussoni et al., 2012), there is a lack of research on non-traditional fathers’ perspectives. In this paper, I explore fathers’ perspectives on their children’s outdoor risky play in families where traditional gender roles are challenged. My paper addresses the questions, “what are stay-at-home, single, and gay fathers’ perspectives on children’s outdoor risky play behaviours?” and “what roles does masculinity play in these perspectives?” To gain insight into these questions, I will recruit a minimum of five stay-at-home, five single, and five gay fathers, for a total of fifteen participants. Each participant is asked to participate in two interviews. The first semi-structured interview addresses questions relating to masculinity, fatherhood, and children’s outdoor risky play. The second interview is a photo-elicitation interview and occurs weeks after the first interview. During the second photo-elicitation interview, participants will be asked to further discuss their children’s outdoor risky play, while referring to photographs they took of their children playing outside. Participants are asked to take at least ten photographs for this component of the study. My questions and approach are framed by social constructionist views on reality and post-structural feminist theory. Critical discourse analysis is used to gain important insight into participant perspectives and will be used to analyze patterns in language and discourses and the influences of these on greater societal power-relations. I will present preliminary findings from semi-structured interviews and photo-elicitation interviews with stay-at-home, single, and gay fathers of children aged 4-12 in Ottawa, Toronto, and Montreal. Children that are 4-12 learn critical safety strategies that they will use throughout their lives (Sandseter, 2009; Van Mechelen and Verhagen, 2005). This research makes a timely contribution to bridging the gap in knowledge that exists between the fields of gender, sexuality, family dynamics, and injury prevention, and fits nicely within the conference theme of “Engaging Legacies” that promotes inclusive communities.


Brussoni, M., Olsen, L. L., Pike, I., & Sleet, D. A. (2012). Risky play and children’s safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 3134-3148.  

Little, H., Sandseter, E. B. H., & Wyver, S. (2012). Early childhood teachers' beliefs about children's risky play in Australia and Norway. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 13(4), 300-316.

Sandseter, E. B. H. (2009). Risky play and risk management in Norwegian preschools—A qualitative observational study. Safety Science Monitor, 13(1), 1-12.

Tremblay, M. S., Gray, C., Babcock, S., Barnes, J., Bradstreet, C. C., Carr, D.,…Brussoni, M. (2015). Position statement on active outdoor play. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 6475-6505. 

Van Mechelen, W., & Verhagen, E. (2005). Injury prevention in young people - time to accept responsibility (Essay). The Lancet, 366(Supplement 1), S46-S46.

Author contact

Michelle Bauer
University of Ottawa
School of Human Kinetics
2007 Place de l’Opera
Saint-Lazare QC  J7T 3C6

Return to concurrent session 3

Développement et validation d’un outil de mesure de la prise de risque récréative et sportive chez les jeunes entre 14 et 24 ans: Résultats

Emilie Belley-Ranger, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Hélène Carbonneau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
François Trudeau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

La pratique d’activités récréatives et sportives comporte de nombreux bienfaits pour tous les individus de la société tant sur le plan de la santé physique que de la santé mentale. En revanche, la pratique sportive comporte des risques de blessures sportives. De nombreux facteurs peuvent mener à une blessure sportive. Parmi ceux-ci se trouve la prise de risque. Les adolescents et les jeunes adultes sont particulièrement touchés par les blessures sportives d’une part (Hamel & Tremblay, 2012) et par la prise de risque d’autre part (Paquette, 2014). Plusieurs facteurs endogènes (recherche de sensations, perception du risque, aspects psychoaffectifs, consommation et âge) et exogènes (influence sociale, facteur récréatif et sportif, équipement de protection et environnement physique) composent la prise de risque (Belley-Ranger & Carbonneau, 2014; Carbonneau, Marcotte Miaux & Belley-Ranger, 2013). La présente étude consiste au développement et à la validation d’un outil de mesure de la prise de risque récréative et sportive chez les adolescents et les jeunes adultes entre 14 et 24 ans. Le développement de cet outil s’inscrit dans une recherche plus vaste menée dans une perspective de recherche avec le milieu de pratique. La méthodologie abordée dans cette étude suit les étapes proposées par De Vellis (2012).  Au nombre de 8, ces étapes permettent de guider le chercheur dans un processus systématique. La première étude rassemble les étapes suivantes : 1) mise de l’avant du phénomène à mesurer, 2) création d’un bassin d’items, 3) choix de l’outil de mesure, 4) évaluation des items par une enquête d’experts, 5) inclusion des items à retenir. Alors que la deuxième étude rassemble les trois dernières étapes : 6) prétest, 7) analyses psychométriques de l’outil de mesure et 8) optimisation de la longueur de l’outil de mesure. La validation de l’outil s’est réalisé en trois étapes à savoir une enquête d’experts, deux groupes de discussion, et une étude instrumentale (test-retest) soit les étapes 4 à 8 du processus décrit par DeVellis (2012). La collecte de données du prétest s’est close durant l’été 2016 avec 496 participants au premier temps de mesure et 121 participants au deuxième temps de mesure pour un taux de réponse au deuxième temps de mesure de 24,39%. Au premier temps de mesure, l’échantillon est composé de 55,4% (n=275) de femmes et de 43,5 % (n=216) d’hommes. Tandis qu’au deuxième temps de mesure, les femmes représentent 75% (n=92) de l’échantillon, contre 23,1 % (n=28) d’hommes. Concernant l’âge, les participants sont âgés entre 14 et 24 ans soit au premier temps de mesure (M=18,73, ÉT= 2,73) et au deuxième temps de mesure (M=19,12, ÉT=2,70).  L’objet de la communication est de présenter les résultats de la structure de l’échelle de la prise de risque récréative et sportive.


Belley-Ranger, E., & Carbonneau, H. (2014). L’évolution des dimensions associées à la prise de risque en loisir entre 14 et 24 ans selon l’âge. 38 (3-4), Revue Loisir/Leisure. 

Carbonneau, H., Marcotte, P., Miaux, S. & Belley-Ranger, E. (2013). Rapport final, Prise de risque en loisir de 14 à 24 ans : Facteurs de risque et de prévention. Rapport remis au Ministère de l’Éducation, du Loisir, et du Sport.

DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (Vol. 26). Sage Publications.

Hamel, D., & Tremblay, B. (2012). Études des blessures subies au cours de la pratique d'activités récréatives et sportives au Québec en 2009-2010.  Québec: Institut national de santé publique du Québec.

Paquette, L. (2014). Sports extrêmes et prise de risques chez les jeunes. Dans J. Monzée (Éd.), Neurosciences, psychothérapie et développement affectif de l'enfant (tome 3). (pp. 159-178). Montréal : Éditions Liber.

Author contact

Emilie Belley-Ranger
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500
Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 5H7
819-376-5011, ext. 3452

Return to concurrent session 9

We do exist: Intersections with bisexuality through creative analytic graphics

Lisbeth A. Berbary, University of Waterloo
Kathryn M. Wettlaufer, University of Waterloo
Ashley Flanagan, University of Waterloo

As the voices of Lesbian, Gay, and Transgender (LGT) individuals gain attention and inclusion in cultural and political spheres, bisexual individuals and their experiences continue to be silenced and excluded from the discussion (Flanders & Hartfield, 2012; Eisner, 2013; Serano, 2013). In particular, systems of biphobia, monosexism, and bisexual erasure often coordinate to limit bisexual visibility and activism within communities, academic spheres, and social justice initiatives (Bradford, 2008; Firestein, 1996; Rust, 1993). This bisexual erasure, when left unchallenged, translates into negative social experiences for bisexual individuals who must face a constant struggle to find belonging and acceptance (Bradford, 2008; Herek, 2002). Research that aims to counter-act experiences of bisexual erasure is of particular importance in our current moment because more and more young people are identifying as bisexual. A study in 2015 in the United States found that one in three millennials identified as bisexual (Dingle, 2015; Moore, 2015), while a similar 2015 study in the United Kingdom found that 43% of those ages 18-24 identified as bisexual on the Kinsey scale (Sherouse, 2015). Yet, while the number of bisexual individuals may be growing, many still lack community support and validation leaving them at greater risk for social and mental health disparities (MacLeod, Bauer, Robinson, MacKay, & Ross, 2015; Purdie-Vaughns & Eibach, 2008; Ross, Bauer, MacLeod, Robinson, MacKay & Dobinson, 2014). Past research shows that to combat the negative side effects of bisexual erasure, inquiry and outreach must focus on social initiatives that give voice to bisexual individuals and educate the public about bisexuality—debunking commonly held misperceptions about bisexual lives in order to promote inclusion (Bradford, 2008; Eisner, 2014; Serano, 2013). Therefore, this presentation uses creative analytic comics to present the findings of a queer narrative inquiry conducted with 9 bisexual/pansexual identified women within a Southern Canadian context. Informed by the frameworks of critical theory, queer theory, and arts-based social justice (Barone & Eisner, 2012; Butler, 1990; Halberstam, 2005; Hill-Collins, 1990; hooks, 2003; Ladson-Billings, 1998; Marx, 1977), this study exposed the lived experiences of bisexual women as they navigated belonging, identity, biphobia, and worked towards community transformation. In particular, this study utilized the growing popularity of graphic novels/comics in popular culture, academia, and queer studies to represent findings (Barry, 2008; Brunetti, 2011; McCloud, 2006) through analytic graphics co-created with Toronto-based comic artist, Coco Guzman (


Barone, T. & Eisner, E.W. (2012). Arts-based research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Barry, L. (2008). What is is. Montreal Quebec: Drawn and Quarterly.

Bradford, M. (2008). The bisexual experience. Journal of Bisexuality. 4(1-2), 7-23.

Brunetti, I. (2011). Cartooning: Philosophy and practice. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge

Dingle, C. (2015). New study says one in three millennials identify as bisexual

Eisner, S. (2013). Bi: Notes for a bisexual revolution. Berkley, CA: Seal Press.

Firestein, B.A. (1996). Bisexuality as a paradigm shift: Transforming our disciplines. In B.A. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 263-291). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Flanders, C.E. & Hartfield, E. (2012). Social perception of bisexuality. Psychology & Sexuality.

Halberstam, J. (2005). In a queer time and place: Transgender bodies, subcultural lives. NY, NY: New York University Press.

Herek, G. M. (2002). Heterosexuals’ attitudes toward bisexual men and women in the United States. The Journal of Sex Research, 39(4), 264-274

Hill-Collins, P. (1990). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York; Routledge.

hooks, b. (2003). Feminism: A movement to end sexist oppression. In N. McCann & S-K, Kim (Eds.). The Feminist Theory Reader, New York: Routledge.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-24.

MacLeod, M., Bauer, G. Robinson, M., MacKay, J. & Ross, L. (2015). Biphobia and anxiety among bisexuals in Ontario, Canada. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 0, 1-27.

Marx, K. (1977). The communist manifesto. In David McLellan (Ed.), Karl Marx: Selected writings (pp. 221-247). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1848)

McCloud, S. (2006). Making comics. New York: Harper Collins.

Moore, P. (2015). A third of young Americans say they aren’t 100% heterosexual

Purdie-Vaughns, V. & Eibach, R.P. (2008). Intersectional invisibility: The distinctive advantages and disadvantages of multiple subordinate-group identities. Sex Roles, 59, 377-391.

Ross, L.E., Bauer, G., MacLeod, M., Robinson, M., & MacKay, J. (2014). Mental health and substance use among bisexual youth and non-youth in Ontario, Canada. PLoS One, 9(8), 1-10.

Rust, P.C. (1993). Neutralizing the political threat of the marginal women: Lesbians’ beliefs about bisexual women. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 214-228.

Serano, J. (2013). Excluded: Making feminist and queer movements more inclusive. Berkley, CA: Seal Press.

Sherouse, B. (2015). More young adults are identifying as bisexual.

Author contact

Lisbeth A. Berbary, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Applied Health Sciences
University of Waterloo
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 35404

Return to concurrent session 8

Thinking outside the ‘box’: Crossfit, serious leisure and the broader community

Brandon D. Blenkarn, Dalhousie University
Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University

CrossFit defines itself as a fitness regime that involves a combination of constantly varied gymnastics, weightlifting and cardiovascular conditioning performed at a high intensity (Glassman, 2007). With over 13,000 affiliate gyms and an estimated two to four million ‘CrossFitters’ worldwide, the fitness regime is in a state of steady growth and popularity (Price, 2015). Despite this large surge in popularity, there has been little research on CrossFit from a leisure perspective.

Because of the committed and rewarding nature of involvement in CrossFit, it aligns in many ways with Stebbins’ conceptualization of serious leisure as activities requiring significant inputs of time and energy and also yielding durable benefits (Stebbins, 2007). Herz (2014) suggests that CrossFit’s all-encompassing nature is related to not just physical results but also the social community that is generated within CrossFit sites and groups. Further, CrossFit markets itself as a community-based fitness program, and Pickett, Goldsmith, Damon and Walker (2015) reported a higher sense of community in CrossFit than in other group exercise classes. At the same time, one critique of serious leisure is that it is not often framed in the context of a wider social setting (Gallant, Arai & Smale, 2013). For example, the durable social benefits of serious leisure participation are focused on individual benefits of community-based leisure and not implications for the wider community or social network (Gallant, 2016).

Pickett et al’s (2015) study details the sense of community within the gym and for its members, but understanding possible impacts within the wider community is a novel area of research.  Thus, the purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between CrossFit as a serious leisure activity and connections or implications of this involvement for the wider community outside of the gym. Through a content analysis (Krippendorf, 2013) of articles published in the CrossFit Journal, an open-sourced, online publication that details numerous aspects of CrossFit, this research will seek to identify alignment of CrossFit with the defining characteristics of serious leisure, and impacts of CrossFit at the broader community or social spheres. While this project is currently in progress, findings and implications will be available for presentation in May 2017.


Gallant, K., Arai, S., & Smale, B. (2013). Celebrating, challenging, and re-envisioning serious leisure. Leisure/Loisir, 37, 91-109.

Gallant, K. (upcoming, 2016). Serious leisure: Past, present, and possibilities. To be published in the upcoming Handbook of Leisure Theory.

Glassman, G. (2007). Understanding CrossFit

Hertz, J. (2014, June 17). The 3 reasons people are obsessed with CrossFit. Time Magazine

Krippendorff, K. (2013). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology (3rd ed.). Los Angeles; London: SAGE.

Pickett, A. C., Goldsmith, A., Damon, Z., & Walker, M. (2016). The influence of sense of community on the perceived value of physical activity: A cross-context analysis. Leisure Sciences, 38(3), 199–214. 

Price, K. (2015, July 20). No sign of CrossFit boom slowing down. Pittsburgh Tribune Review

Stebbins, R. A. (2007). Serious Leisure: A Perspective for our Time. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Author contact

Brandon D. Blenkarn
School of Health and Human Performance
Dalhousie University
PO Box 15000
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 7

Corporate fitness centre participation in Australia: A constraints perspective

James Brandner, Victoria University
Clare Hanlon, Victoria University
Melinda Craike, Victoria University
John Tower, Victoria University

Human resource management involves the attraction, motivation, and retention of high-quality employees (Dressler, 2013). To aid the retention process, employers provide employees with different fringe benefits such as company cars, mobile phones, child-care services and even corporate fitness centres (CFCs) (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). Of particular interest in this research is the CFC, which is a site-specific location that allows employees to engage in physical fitness and recreation opportunities at the workplace (Tharrett & Peterson, 2008). While CFC provision has been available as early as the 1980’s (Kitchen, 1986; Shephard, Morgan, Finucane, & Schimmelfing, 1980) and participation is associated with many benefits (e.g. physical, psychological, and emotional health improvements), CFC legacies have stagnated as participation rates rarely exceed an average of 24% (e.g. Schwetschenau et al., 2008). These rates are deemed to be insufficient by proponents (e.g. employers and fitness providers). The emphasis of increased physical activity, especially in the workplace (Edmunds & Clow, 2015; Sallis & Owen, 1999), presents an opportunity for employers to learn more about CFC constraints, negotiation efforts, and motivations to develop managerial strategies that transfer the current legacy to one of enhanced physical activity levels. As CFCs are expected to increase in number over the next five years and made accessible to more employees, research and strategy development is timely (IBISWorld, 2013; Pridham, 2013). The purpose of the current study was to explore CFC participation to inform managerial strategy development. CFC participation literature is limited (Hubbard & Mannell, 2001; Huddleston, Fry, & Brown, 2012; Schwetschenau, O'Brien, Cunningham, & Jex, 2008) and descriptive data is non-existent. The qualitative gap was addressed by conducting focus groups with employees based at a business with a well-established CFC. The sample included office, plant, and laboratory workers; and frequent and sporadic CFC users. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically via a constraints perspective, which suggests that employees will negotiate a sequence of constraints (e.g. intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural) that inhibit, prevent, or modify CFC participation (Jackson, Crawford, & Godbey, 1993). Results suggest that insufficient time due to work commitments is a key constraint; activity modification is the most frequently used negotiation strategy to overcome constraints; and employees are motivated via interpersonal support, health benefits, and stimulation of the physical activity. These findings are the first Australian-based data about CFC participation and add descriptive information to complement previous studies (e.g. Hubbard & Mannell, 2001). Initial implications for management include interval training promotion for time constrained employees, communication focused on promoting flexible physical activity programs, and health benefits associated with being involved. To shift the stagnated legacy, future research should consider a national survey to determine the generalisability of the study’s findings and to quantify the influence of constraints, negotiation efforts, and motives on CFC participation.


Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice (13th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Kogan Page.

Dressler, G. (2013). Human resource management (13th ed.). New Jersey, NJ: Pearson.

Edmunds, S., & Clow, A. (2015). The role of peer physical activity champions in the workplace: a qualitative study. Perspectives in public health, 136(4), 161-170.

Hubbard, J., & Mannell, R. (2001). Testing competing models of the leisure constraint negotiation process in a corporate employee recreation setting. Leisure Sciences, 23(3), 145-163.

Huddleston, H., Fry, M., & Brown, T. (2012). Corporate fitness member perceptions of the environment and intrinsic motivation. Revista de Psicología del Deporte, 21(1), 15-23.

IBISWorld. (2013). Corporate Wellness Services in Australia. Melbourne, Vic: IBISWorld.

Jackson, E., Crawford, D., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiaion of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11.

Kitchen, L. (1986). With Public Bodies in Mind: Employee Recreation in the Victorian Public Service. Melbourne, Vic.

Pridham, S. (2013). Corporate fitness centres: A popular amenity to attract and retain. Benefits & Pensions Monitor, 23(7), 48-50.

Sallis, J., & Owen, N. (1999). Physical activity & behavioral medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Schwetschenau, H., O'Brien, W., Cunningham, C., & Jex, S. (2008). Barriers to physical activity in an on-site corporate fitness center. Journal of Occupational health Psychology, 13(4), 371-380.

Shephard, R. J., Morgan, P., Finucane, R., & Schimmelfing, L. (1980). Factors influencing recruitment to an occupational fitness program. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 22(6), 389-398.

Tharrett, S., & Peterson, J. (2008). Fitness management (2nd ed.). Monterey, CA: Healthy Learning.

Author contact

James Brandner
83 Shetland Street
Endeavour Hills, 3802
Melbourne, Vic, Australia
+61 3 9919 5354
+61 4 52 277 669

Return to concurrent session 7

Exploring nature-based tourism and visitor learning at in-situ and ex-situ destination

Jill Bueddefeld, University of Manitoba

This research will be guided by the following research questions: How does an experience at the Assiniboine Park Zoo’s (APZ) Journey to Churchill Exhibit (ex-situ) and at Churchill, Manitoba (in-situ) impact learning and / or transformative learning (learning for behaviour change)? Additionally, what role does place play in influencing the visitor experience, particularly in relation to learning and / or transformative learning?

Nature-based tourism can be a means for people living in an urbanized world to learn about and engage with the environment, become ambassadors for places they visit, and potentially adopt more environmentally sustainable practices (Ballantyne & Packer, 2005; Falk, Ballantyne, Packer, & Benckendorff, 2012). As high carbon emissions travel to ecologically sensitive areas is often not sustainable, creative alternatives such as ex-situ sites (zoo or museum exhibits) may be necessary to mitigate air travel and carbon emissions to ensure long-term sustainability (Dawson, Stewart, Lemelin, & Scott, 2010; Gossling, 2013; Moscardo, 1996). However, there is very little research that explores how experiences at an ecologically sensitive in-situ site versus an ex-situ site differ and whether outcomes, such as learning about environmental issues, vary. Churchill, Manitoba is an excellent example of an in-situ arctic destination that is highly dependent on long-term sustainable nature-based tourism and is already experiencing the effects of climate change (Dawson et al., 2010). In Winnipeg, Manitoba the Assiniboine Park Zoo (ex-situ) opened an interpretive exhibit in 2014 called Journey to Churchill, which represents the town, ecosystems, and wildlife of Churchill, Manitoba and provides an excellent opportunity for a comparative case study of in-situ and ex-situ nature-based tourism sites.

This proposed research will be a qualitative study grounded in Constructivist Learning Theory and Transformative Learning Theory (TLT), and guided by the Contextual Model of Learning (CML). Personal meaning maps (PMMs) (a brainstorming activity used to measure free-choice learning) and interviews will be conducted for in-situ and ex-situ groups on-site and post-visit to examine changes in learning, as well as potential impacts of place-based concepts and visitor qualities. Approximately 30 participants at each site will be asked to participate in an on-site PMM and interview, and a follow-up PMM and interview in 2 - 3 months. A comparative content analysis will examine visitor learning at two sites: Churchill, Manitoba (in-situ) and the Assiniboine Park Zoo’s Journey to Churchill Exhibit (ex-situ) in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The between group analysis will examine the impact of place. While the within group analysis will examine effects of personal attributes, such as sense of place and motivation, on visitors’ learning (and learning for behaviour change).

This research will have direct implications for the APZ, the town of Churchill, as well as other ecologically sensitive tourist destinations in terms of managing and planning for meaningful tourism experiences. Additionally, this research will add to the body of knowledge regarding the use of PMMs and interviews and qualitative analyses, and add to the theoretical understanding of TLT and the CML. This paper will present the research context (through literature and previous research) and preliminary findings.

Author contact

Jill Bueddefeld
Leisure and Tourism Laboratory
147 Frank Kennedy Centre
University of Manitoba

Return to concurrent session 1

The go-along interview as an elicitation tool in leisure research

Robyn Burns, Dalhousie University
Dr. Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University
Dr. Catherine White, Dalhousie University
Dr. Lara Fenton, University of Manitoba

When there is interest in understanding lived experience, creative and innovative qualitative research methods have been favorably described in the literature as an effective means for leisure scholars to collect ‘deep’ data (Creswell, 2014; Parry & Johnson, 2006). Such methods are considered to be of particular use to researchers using community-based or action-oriented approaches that seek to address specific social problems, including disparities in mental health (Parry & Johnson, 2006). One novel qualitative method, the go-along interview, involves the researcher accompanying a research participant to a setting of interest, and most often takes the form of a walking interview (Garcia, 2009). The proposed presentation describes the recent use of go-along interviews as an elicitation tool to identify qualities and characteristics of welcoming recreation settings and programs for people living with mental health challenges. Drawing on this experience, the presentation includes a critique of the go-along, including its strengths, limitations, and utility.

The go-along interview does not play a prominent role in current leisure research, and finds more common applications in ethnography, geography, and health studies (Carpiano, 2009; Garcia, Eisenberg, Frerich, Lechner & Lust, 2012; Kausenbach, 2003). The go-along interview was well-suited as an elicitation tool to help understand the complex relationship between health and place, specifically the characteristics that made recreation welcoming and inclusive to people who self-identify as living with mental health challenges (Miaux et al., 2010). For the purpose of this study, the go-along interview involved the researcher accompanying the participant to a recreation program or setting that they experienced as welcoming, and participating in the activity alongside them. The go-along interview was used in a number of unique recreation settings including yoga, competitive board games, and a ride on the municipal ferry. At the end of the recreation activity, a follow-up interview was conducted where the shared experienced was ‘unpacked’, allowing a richer understanding of the qualities and characteristics of welcoming spaces than would have otherwise been possible through conventional interviews alone.

Relevant to leisure scholars, key learnings from the use of go-along interviews as an elicitation tool and mode of inquiry in this study include: (1) utility in access to diverse recreation programs and activities, (2) fostering shared experience in a recreation program through which questions can be crafted and tailored to yield rich qualitative data, and (3) a foundation from which the unequal power structure of the researcher-respondent dynamic present in conventional inquiry is lessened. While the go-along interview provided an innovative vantage point for observing interaction in leisure settings, a number of challenges were also noted: (1) ethical considerations, e.g. privacy/confidentiality, (2) logistical considerations, e.g.  scheduling difficulties, and (3) safety considerations for both researcher and participant, e.g being alone with a participant in an unfamiliar setting. Going forward, these considerations can be used to inform policies and practices within our field.


Carpiano, R. M. (2009). Come take a walk with me: The “go-along” interview as a novel method for studying the implications of place for health and well-being. Health & Place, 15(1), 263-272. 

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Garcia, C. M., Eisenberg, M. E., Frerich, E. A., Lechner, K. E., & Lust, K. (2012). Conducting go-along interviews to understand context and promote health. Qualitative Health Research, 22(10), 1395-1403. 

Kusenbach, M. (2003). Street phenomenology: The go-along as ethnographic research tool. Ethnography, 4(3), 455-485. 

Miaux, S., Drouin, L., Morency, P., Paquin, S., Gauvin, L., & Jacquemin, C. (2010). Making the narrative walk-in-real-time methodology relevant for public health intervention: Towards an integrative approach. Health & Place, 16(6), 1166-1173. 

Nimrod, G., Janke, M. C., & Kleiber, D. A. (2016). Leisure and aging qualitative research 15 years into the third millennium. Journal of leisure research, 48(1), 12-14.

Parry, D. C., & Johnson, C. W. (2007). Contextualizing leisure research to encompass complexity in lived leisure experience: The need for creative analytic practice. Leisure Sciences, 29(2), 119-130. 

Author contact

Robyn Burns
Dalhousie University
School of Health and Human Performance
Stairs House, 6230 South Street
PO Box 15000
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2
902 412 3089

Return to concurrent session 5

Social drinking as leisure: A qualitative systematic review

Robyn Burns, Dalhousie University
Dr. Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University

Social drinking is one of the world’s most popular leisure activities, yet most often described in the literature as deviant or detrimental (Province of Nova Scotia, 2007; World Health Organization, 2014). For many, social interactions involving alcohol form an enjoyable part of their leisure life, which can include gatherings, celebrations, cultural events, and sport, as well as leisurely attendance at venues more conventionally associated with drinking such as live music venues, craft microbreweries, pubs, and beer gardens (Buonanno & Vanin, 2012; Collins & Vamplew, 2002; Mair, 2008; Oldenburg, 1999). Despite the prominence of drinking establishments as places of leisure and popularity of social drinking as a leisure activity, literature on social drinking has been dominated by the fields of public health, addictions, and psychology (Flynn & Wells, 2013).

To develop a more general understanding of how the field of leisure research is engaged in the topic of social drinking, this qualitative systematic review (currently underway) will integrate, synthesize and describe academic and gray literature related to social drinking as a leisure activity, including topics such as third place and serious leisure. For instance, Oldenburg (1999) describes neighbourhood pubs as having the potential to embody positive ‘third place’ characteristics. The third place, pubs included, may foster a sense of belonging with one’s community, and such places have been associated with positive social and health outcomes (Glover & Parry, 2009; Oldenburg, 1999). For others, social drinking is a pursuit in serious leisure, as demonstrated by craft brew hobbyists and devotees, many of whom are entrepreneurs contributing to what has been described as the “craft beer boom” (Elkington & Stebbins, 2014; Thurnell-Read, 2015; Woodbury, 2016). Such enthusiasts, in keeping with principles of serious leisure, may experience both individual and group benefits (Elkington & Stebbins, 2014). As demonstrated by these examples, this review, embedded in leisure theory, describes the potential for social drinking as leisure to foster community and promote social cohesion.

This project makes the case for the relevance of social drinking to leisure studies, and offers an opportunity for leisure scholars to engage in discussion and debate surrounding social drinking. More broadly, this systematic review advocates for more discourse on the role of social drinking, to develop a foundation of evidence for social drinking as a leisure activity, and present a more balanced view of drinking as a leisure behavior that may not be exclusively problematic.


Buonanno, P., & Vanin, P. (2013). Bowling alone, drinking together. Empirical Economics, 44(3), 1635-1672. 

Collins, T. & Vamplew, W. (2002). Mud, sweat and beers: A cultural history of sport and alcohol. Oxford, UK: Berg.

Elkington, S. & Stebbins, R. A. (2014). The serious leisure perspective: An introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.

Flynn, A., & Wells, S. (2013). Assessing the impact of alcohol use on communities. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews, 35(2), 135-149.

Glover, T. D., & Parry, D. C. (2009). A third place in the everyday lives of people living with cancer: Functions of Gilda's Club of Greater Toronto. Health and Place, 15(1), 97-106. 

Mair, H. (2009). Club life: Third place and shared leisure in Rural Canada. Leisure Sciences, 31(5), 450-465. 

Oldenburg, R. (1999). The great good place: Cafes, coffee shops, bookstores, bars, hair salons, and other hangouts at the heart of a community. New York, NY: Marlowe & Company.

Province of Nova Scotia. (2007). Changing the culture of alcohol use in Nova Scotia: An alcohol strategy to prevent and reduce the burden of alcohol-related harm in Nova Scotia.  

Thurnell-Read, T. (2015). ‘Real ale’ enthusiasts, serious leisure and the costs of getting ‘too serious’ about beer. Leisure sciences: An interdisciplinary journal, 38(1), 68.

Woodbury, R. (2016, February 14). Digby area getting 2 microbreweries, community currently has none. CBC News. 

World Health Organization. (2014). Global status report on alcohol and health 2014

Author contact

Robyn Burns
Dalhousie University
School of Health and Human Performance
Stairs House, 6230 South Street
PO Box 15000
Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2
902 412 3089

Return to poster presentations

Mind the gap: Approaching the research and practice relationship through Plato’s notion of justice

Craig Cameron, University of Alberta

The 1985 exchange between Burdge and Godbey raises foundational questions of about the relationship between leisure research and leisure delivery. Their differing positions illustrate tensions in the relationship that have previously been framed as a gap (e.g., Samdahl, 2016). While the usefulness of this framing is questionable (e.g., Parr, 2009), it persists in shaping the way we think about this relationship (e.g., Sibthorp & Bocarro, 2014; Bennett, 2016). This paper combines Plato’s Republic and voices from the sector (i.e., academic, policy, practice) to propose that justice (right action towards others) offers a more apt frame for understanding the relationships between research and practice.

The methods align with a desire to increase the pragmatic utility data and findings to applied work (Mayan, 2009). Paper concepts are drawn from an interpretive description (Thorne, 2008) of Plato’s Republic.  Data was collected using purposeful sampling and consist of semi-structured interviews with practitioners (n=6), policy-makers (n=5), and academics (n=5) in Alberta. Questions focused on the kinds of data/knowledge that are produced within and across work domains, how data/knowledge is prioritized and used, and factors that influence data/knowledge choices. Data was analysed using conceptual analysis to identify characteristic and conditions of the concept (Morse, 2000).

Plato’s Republic is a dialogue on justice (right conduct towards others). Justice, understood as a kinetic relation of differentiated structures (Cooper, 2016), requires an understanding of and respect for the various elements that constitute and move the whole towards its ultimate end. Our ability to cultivate a just society depends on our capacity to allow these elements to thrive in conscious harmony. Focusing on knowledge/data prioritization and utilization, interviews results suggest the emergence of two primary characteristics (Personal Experience and Current Work), and one key condition (Organizational Context). The kind of knowledge/data that one prioritizes is strongly linked to their personal experience (e.g. education and work history) and current work. The extent to which someone is willing to engage with (e.g., use or create) non-preferred forms of knowledge is moderated by the structural demands of their job environment (e.g., goals, evaluations, timelines). More importantly, differences in knowledge/data prioritization and utilization were not articulated as a gap between different types of workers or work, but as a dynamic that could be leveraged, thought better understanding of the other, in the pursuit of  individual (i.e., research, policy, programs) and shared ends (i.e., stronger sector).

Interview results suggest that while academics, policy-makers and practitioners must achieve their respective acute ends, they also aspire to advance the place of leisure/recreation as essential to quality of life. This is consistent with Plato’s assumption that our ultimate end is not one of isolated perfection, but holistic goodness.  As such, the image of a gap, denoting separation, is inadequate when approaching foundational question of the relationship between research and practice. The image of justice confronts these questions in way that reinforces a discussion of integrated approaches to engaging in right action (i.e., education, research, policy, and programs).


Burdge, R.J. (1985). The coming separation of leisure studies from parks and recreation education. Journal of Leisure Research, 17(2), 133-141.

Bennett, T. (2016). From research to practice. SCHOLE, 31(2), 11-25.

Cooper, L., (2001). Beyond the tripartite soul: the dynamic psychology of the ‘Republic’.  The Review of Politics, 63(2), 341-372.

Godbey, G., (1985). The coming cross-pollination of leisure studies and recreation and park education: a response. Journal of Leisure Research, 17(2), 142-158.

Mayan, M.J., (2009). Essential of qualitative inquiry. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, Inc.

Morse, J.M. (2000). Exploring pragmatic utility: concept analysis by critically appraising the literature. In B. Rodgers & K . Knafi (Eds.), Concept development in nursing (pp. 333-352). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Parr, M.G., (2009). The relationship between leisure theory and recreation practice. Leisure Sciences: An interdisciplinary Journal, 18(4), 315-332.

Plato (n.d.). Repubic. (G.M.A. Grube , Trans.). Indianapolis : Hackett Publishing Company.

Samdahl, D.M., (2016). Professional constraints. SCHOLE, 31(1), 3-14.

Sibthorp, J. & Bocarro, J. (2014). Leisure research and the legacy of George Daniel Buter. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(1), 1-5.

Thorne, S., (2008). Interpretive description. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press, Inc.

Author contact

Craig Cameron
University of Alberta
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
Van Vliet Complex
116 St. & 85 Ave.
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 2

Enhancing quality of life through leisure: Teamwork in long-term care

Hélène Carbonneau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Julie Fortier, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Pierre-Yves Therriault, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Ginette Aubin, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

Conventionally, interventions in health and social services are primarily anchored in the functionalist paradigm, according to which primacy is given to minimizing impairments. Many researchers propose that positive psychology should be the basis for interventions. Thus, strengthening the potential of individuals becomes very important (Anderson & Heyne, 2012; Krumm & Tarquino, 2011). Concerned with the quality of life of elderly people living with cognitive impairment and their caregivers, four organizations from a small town in the province of Québec worked together to elaborate a continuum of services focused on promoting the potential of individuals and the positive aspects of daily life. Leisure represents a major component of this continuum. Notably, in collaboration with a leisure technician, the patient attendants in long-term care setting were trained to incorporate leisure activities into their daily tasks involving people with dementia. A pilot study was conducted on this project, which falls under a positive psychological perspective that focuses on promoting the potential of individuals (Carbonneau, Caron & Desrosiers, 2011) as well as the positive aspects of the caregiver’s role (Carbonneau, Caron & Desrosiers, 2010). This study aims to 1) To measure the impact of the project on people with cognitive impairment and their caregivers, 2) To evaluate the processes underlying the actions in line with the continuum. The continuum has been tested with a limited number of people (loved ones living with memory impairment, caregivers, and practitioners) within four organizations that help people living with cognitive impairment. A mixed method design (quantitative and qualitative data) has been used for this study. Semi-directed interviews have been conducted with caregivers (n=6) and loved ones living with memory impairment (n=2). In addition, practitioners (n=20) have documented their experience with the implementation of the continuum in daily journals. Data reveals that this approach has a positive impact on the quality of life of care receivers and caregivers. It is more adapted and helps create more pleasant moments. Moreover, caregivers report having a more realistic vision of their role, a better understanding of the disease and how to intervene as well as a growing awareness of their capacity to bring pleasure to their loved one’s life. Data from the interviews and daily journals confirmed the relevance of the tools and approaches put in place within the continuum. Integrating leisure into the daily routine of the patient attendant facilitates the caring and brings a more positive view of their work. This study led to the development of a service continuum that offers services to people with dementia and their caregivers in a refreshing perspective focused on the positive aspects and potential value through enhancement of leisure experience in daily life.


Anderson, L. S., & Heyne, L. A. (2012). Therapeutic recreation a Strengths approach. State College PA: Venture.

Carbonneau, H., Caron, C., & Desrosiers, J. (2010). Development of a conceptual framework of positive aspects of caregiving in dementia. Dementia, 9(3), 327-353.

Carbonneau, H., Caron, C., & Desrosiers, J. (2011). Effects of an adapted leisure education program as a means of support for caregivers of people with dementia. Archives in gerontology & geriatrics. 53(1), 31-9.

Krumm, C.-M., et Tarquinio, C. (2011).Traité de psychologie positive, fondements théoriques et implications pratiques. Bruxelles : De Boeck.

Raber, C., & Stone, M. (2015). An Exploration of Volition: Caregiver Perceptions of Persons with Dementia The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy, 3(1).

Saillour-Glénisson, F., Daucourt, V., Terrien, N., Verheyde, I., et le groupe FORAP-HAS Bientraitance. (2015) Mesurer la bientraitance et la maltraitance, Chapitre de livre dans Schmit, M. (2015). Bientraitance et qualité de vie, Tome 2, Outils et retours d'expérience (pp. 23-44) Éditions Elsevier Masson, Paris.

Author contact

Hélène Carbonneau
Département d'études en loisir, culture et tourisme
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351 Boul des Forges
Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 1Y5
819-376-5011, ext. 3202

Return to concurrent session 5

Sense of journey

Kellee Caton, Thompson Rivers University

Popular wisdom says the journey is more important than the destination, but a careful reader of the tourism studies literature could be forgiven for concluding otherwise.  The volume of work on destinations—from economic impacts, to cultural and environmental change, to best practices for planning and management—is staggering.  We have specialized volumes on everything from rural tourism, to heritage neighborhoods, to destinations defined by the notorious “4 S” characteristics of sun, sand, sea, and sex.  Comparatively less has been written about the journey.  Schivelbusch (2014) and Jensen and colleagues (2015) have offered excellent analyses of rail travel.  Solnit (2001) and den Breejen (2007) have explored going on foot, and several authors have considered backpacking and pilgrimage in this regard.  Prideaux and Carson (2011) edited an initial foray into going by car.

The mobilities turn (Sheller and Urry, 2006) has contextualized tourism in new ways, and one gift of this turn is that it directs attention toward tourism’s long-neglected movement component.  The mobilities turn has supported the development of a body of literature that is conscious of issues like mode and pace in travel (“slow tourism” [Fullagar et al., 2012] is an excellent example).  Contemporaneously, the turn towards embodiment in tourism research means that issues of affect, emotion, and sensation are receiving increased attention (Veijola and Jokinen, 1994; Jensen et al., 2015).  The time is ripe for a conceptual exploration of the journey that (while respecting uniquenesses) cuts across different modes of transport to consider lengthy, multi-destination leisure travel undertakings holistically and in greater theoretical depth.

Forty years ago, Yi-Fu Tuan (1974, 1977) introduced academia to the word topophilia and popularized the notion of “sense of place,” to such great effect that the idea is now indispensable, not only to Tuan’s home discipline of geography but to other fields of study far beyond, including psychology, literary studies, urban planning, and ecosystem science.  Rather than focusing primarily on how people perceive place, or on the characteristics of places themselves, Tuan centered his exploration on the two-way relationship between person and place as subjectively experienced by the person, pursuing a syncretic disciplinary approach that some have called geosophy (philosophical geography)—although Tuan himself preferred the term “humanistic geography” (Handley, 1993).  This conceptual paper seeks to explore the notion of journey in a manner parallel to Tuan’s approach to place so many decades ago—journey as subjective engagement in extended motion across place.

Rather than attempting to apprehend some sort of “essence” of journey, I argue here that sense of journey is better approached through philosophical metaphors, which can illuminate its feel.  I offer here the metaphor of flirtation—embodied, mobile, rhythmic, emplaced flirtation—to articulate the sense of journey.  Following psychoanalytic thinker Adam Phillips’ (1994) work on flirtation as productive pleasure in unfixedness, I explore the journey as a geographically grounded engagement with contingency.  In flirting with the road and the self, the journeyer can experience, in a richly embodied way, life as an open-ended not-yet-story.


Den Breejen, L. (2007). The experiences of long distance walking: A case study of the West Highland Way in Scotland. Tourism Management 28(6), 1417–1427.

Fullagar, S., Markwell, K., and Wilson, E. (2012). Slow tourism: Experiences and Mobilities. Bristol, UK: Channel View.

Handley, M. (1993). John K. Wright and human nature in geography. Geographical Review 83(2), 183–193.

Jensen, M., Scarles, C., and Cohen, S. (2015). A multisensory phenomenology of interrail mobilities. Annals of Tourism Research 53, 61–76.

Phillips, A. (1994). On flirtation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Prideaux, B., and Carson, D. (2011). Drive tourism: Trends and emerging markets. London: Routledge.

Schivelbusch, W. (2014). The railway journey: The industrialization of time and space in the nineteenth century. Oakland: University of California Press.

Sheller, M., and Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A 38(2), 207–226.

Solnit, R. (2001). Wanderlust: A history of walking. New York: Penguin.

Tuan, Y. (1974). Topophilia: A study of environmental perception, attitudes, and values. New York: Columbia University Press.

Tuan, Y. (1977). Space and place: The perspective of experience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Veijola, S., and Jokinen, E. (1994). The body in tourism. Theory, Culture, and Society 11(3), 125–151.

Author contact

Kellee Caton
Thompson Rivers University
900 McGill Road
Kamloops BC  V2C 0C8

Return to concurrent session 3

Making change, making meaning: Volunteering during the transition to retirement

Luc Cousineau, University of Waterloo
Dr. Katie Misener, University of Waterloo

The trend toward an aging population in Canada is expected to continue over the next two decades (Employment and Social Development Canada, 2015). In the fall of 2015, Statistics Canada reported the number of Canadians over 65 had surpassed the number of Canadians under 15 (Statistics Canada, 2015). The aging demographic in Canada represents potential opportunities, among them being the potential for a significant increase in the number of older adults who choose to volunteer; a prospective boost for organizations which rely on volunteers to operate in a landscape of increasingly scarce external funding (Kelly & Harding, 2004). At this time, only about 35% of Canadian adults over the age of 55 choose to volunteer (Turcotte, 2015). Despite this low rate, research shows that volunteering in retirement has significant positive health benefits (Komp, van Tilburg, & van Groenou, 2012), and provides older adults with a meaningful way to connect with others, build self-worth, and enhance their sense of community  (Cousineau, Misener, & Berbary, 2016; Iwasaki, Messina, Shank, & Coyle, 2015). Previous works on older adult volunteers have used role, activity, continuity, and life course theories to explain volunteer behaviour (e.g. Chambré, 1984; Morrow-Howell, 2007). While these social psychological theories provide insight into volunteer behaviour, they do not adequately explain how older adults experience meaning through volunteering.

The aim of this study was to explore the meaning of volunteering in the lives of adults over the age of 55 as they transition into retirement. Specifically, this research addressed the following research questions: (i) What role does the volunteer experience play in meaning-making during the transition to retirement among older adults?; and (ii) What organizational practices might be improved in order to facilitate more meaningful volunteer experiences for older adults during their transition to retirement? One-on-one, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 adults over 55 who were engaged in regular volunteering with a small non-profit organization in their community. Participants had retired within the last 5 years, or were in transition to full retirement from career work.

Analysis of the data revealed six primary themes which contributed to the meaning of volunteering for older adults as they transitioned to retirement: (1) role identity through the transition to retirement, which included the need for autonomy and personal challenge; (2) confronting aging, health, and dying; (3) the complexities of time use in retirement; (4) facing fear/anxiety about transitioning to retirement, including the loss of purpose and the loss of personal connections; (5) the influence of finances on volunteer decisions; and (6) making a difference in people’s lives, including deriving personal value from helping others and helping in the community. The presentation will outline each of these concepts as independent and inter-related contributors to meaning-making for older adults as they volunteer in transition to retirement. The presentation will also discuss the findings related to organizational improvements and how these might be used to inform future practice across a variety of non-profit organizational landscapes.


Chambré, S. M. (1984). Is volunteering a substitute for role loss in old age? an empirical test of activity theory. The Gerontologist, 24(3), 292-298.

Cousineau, L., Misener, K., & Berbary, L. A. (2016). Exploring sense of community among older adult volunteers in sport. Orlando, Fl, USA: Paper presented at the North American Society of Sport Management (NASSM) 2015 annual meeting.

Employment and Social Development Canada. (2015). Indicators of well-being in canada: Canadians in context - aging population

Iwasaki, Y., Messina, E., Shank, J., & Coyle, C. (2015). Role of leisure in meaning-making for community-dwelling adults with mental illness: Inspiration for engaged life. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(5), 538.

Kelly, S., & Harding, A. (2004). Funding the retirement of the baby boomers. Agenda, 11(2), 99-112.

Komp, K., van Tilburg, T., & van Groenou, M. (2012). Age, retirement, and health as factors in volunteering in later life. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(2), 280-299. 

Morrow-Howell, N. (2007). A longer worklife: The new road to volunteering. Generations, 31(1), 63-67.

Statistics Canada. (2015). Table 051-0001 - estimates of population, by age group and sex for july 1, canada, provinces and territories annual (unless otherwise noted) CANSIM.

Turcotte, M. (2015). Spotlight on canadians: Results from the general social survey - volunteering and charitable giving in canada. ( No. 89-652-X2015001).Statistics Canada.

Author contact

Luc Cousineau
University of Waterloo
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 2

Capturing the realities of sports programmes: Systematic ‘messiness’?

Dr John Daniels, The Manchester Metropolitan University

Early workings based on traditional methods (Schuman, 1967, as cited in Clarke and Dawson, 1999) have given way to more pragmatic, social paradigms with scientific realism (Pawson and Tilley, 1997) and evaluation utility (Patton, 2002) establishing evaluation research as a specialist area of applied social research. There has been more pressure for those who work in community sport to deliver with evaluation in mind. This can be interpreted as the government demanding greater accountability for its investment, but it is more than that. Community sport needs to modernise. It needs to be able to fully explain not just what works but why it works. Given the current economic and political instabilities, sport needs to work harder than ever to establish itself as a mainstream function of our communities’ needs and development (Coalter, 2007). Evaluation may not be a panacea but it will provide support in terms of evidence based decisions and stronger rationales for community sport’s existence. Evaluation is not an exact science and draws on a number of disciplines. The presentation will demonstrate the application of Scientific Realism through an eclectic repertoire of concepts and methods (Rossi et al., 2004).  Recommendations based on the reflections of evaluating a six-year sport and physical activity strategy in the Northwest of England will be acknowledged. The strategy and the evaluation were developed by the Community Sport Network for this region and involved expertise from the Manchester Metropolitan University, public sector sport development and third sector sports clubs whose projects where supported by Sport England’s Community Investment Fund. The paper will present outcome patterns (Daniels, 2016) for the strategy and explain the methods that helped build them. This will help support learning and growth for strategies to evaluate multiple community sports projects within a community setting.


Clarke, A., & Dawson, R. (1999). Evaluation research: An introduction to principles, methods, and practice. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Coalter, F. (2007). A wider social role for sport: Who's keeping the score? London: Taylor and Francis.

Daniels, J. (2016). Evidence based practice in sport development: a realist evaluation of a sport and physical activity strategy. Ph.D. The Manchester Metropolitan University.

Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation models. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Pawson, R., & Tilley, N. (1997). Realistic evaluation. London: Sage Publications

Rossi, P. H., Lipsey, M. W. & Freeman, H. E. (2004). Evaluation: A systematic approach (7th ed.). London: Sage Publications, Inc.

Author contact

John Daniels
The Manchester Metropolitan University
Crewe Green Road, Crewe, Cheshire CW1 5DU (UK)
+44 161 247 5467

Return to concurrent session 2

Determinants of leisure-time physical activity participation among university students

Oluwakayode (Kay) Dasylva, University of Regina

Physical inactivity has been found to be associated with obesity and persistent diseases in the western world (Haase, Steptoe, Sallis, & Wardle, 2004) therefore; encouraging physical activity has become a target for the government with regards to public health (Arzu, Tuzun, & Eker, 2006). A recent report published that Canadian children and those from more developed countries failed to meet the required standard for physical activity target, fourth time in a succession for Canada (Rose, 2014). This study examines factors influencing leisure-time physical activity (LPTA) among International students and its contribution towards total wellness. The study is focused specifically on African students with the goal of exploring the factors influencing their participation. A total of 100 students (N=100) will be recruited for the study and a web-based survey, Qualtrics, will be used to collect data. The survey will assess the factors influencing students’ level of physical activity participation using these variables: level of income, level of study, age, gender and marital status. The results of the study will provide useful information to help understand students’ attitudes, leisure behaviors and experiences with the aim of improving their participation in LTPA. In a similar vein, it will contribute to the existing knowledge on the factors that influence LTPA participation among students and provide suggestions for further research.


Arzu, D., Tuzun, E. H., & Eker, L. (2006). Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 5(4), 615-620.

Haase, A., Steptoe, A., Sallis, J. F., & Wardle, J. (2004). Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: Associations with health beliefs, risk awareness, and national economic development. Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 182-190.

Rose, L. L. (2014). Physical activity levels of Canadian kids lags behind global pack, report finds. The Canadian Press.

Author contact

Dasylva Oluwakayode (Kay)
University of Regina
3737 Wascana Pkwy SK  S4S 0A2

Return to poster presentations

My favourite thing? A case study of the Nanaimo Musicians’ Association Big Band

Tom Delamere, Vancouver Island University

A community-based Big Band brings together an amalgam of unique individuals, often bound by the desire to play/perform a specific style of music.  Big Band jazz, as a style of music, has had a long if not uneven history in terms of its popularity.  One aspect that has not wavered is the commitment of the musicians who specialize in this distinctive musical form.  Band members wish to perform at a reasonably high standard, in a manner that allows for musical and personal achievement and satisfaction, while engaging in the ritual of rehearsal, and yes, sometimes even public performance (Skidmore 2011).

These relationships and experiences will be explored through presentation of a case study of the Nanaimo Musicians’ Association Big Band (NMA).  This band, one of Canada’s longest continuously-running community-based Big Bands, was established in 1967 under the leadership of Bryan Stovall.  In fact, in its 50 year history, this band has had only three directors:  Bryan Stovall (Moore 2011), Norm Porter, and Steve Jones (Fryer 2011).  Consideration will be given to four different sub-groups in the NMA: 1) The current and former band leaders; 2) Past and current band members who are pursuing careers as professional musicians (or who are pre-professionals); 3) Past and current band members who are part of the population of community-based (amateur or serious amateur) musicians; and 4) Former professionals that have retired to the Nanaimo area and have been or are members of the NMA (post-professionals) (Stebbins 1992; Mandin 1998).  These sub-groups will then be compared with Stebbins construct of Serious Leisure (Serious Leisure Perspective), and further modifications of Stebbins’ model will be posited.  This will all be done through the use of storytelling as a form of narrative inquiry (Connelly and Clandinin 1990) within an interpretive research methodology, and will be framed as a letter from the author to the late trumpeter and bandleader Maynard Ferguson (Moen 2006) along with the concurrent performance of Big Band music that is an essential element of the storyline.

The author’s biases and perspectives must also be taken into consideration and acknowledged in this discussion and analysis, given the myriad lenses he looks through in relation to this topic.  First he is an Academic and Researcher (30 years); second, he was an On-Air Host and Presenter of “Vitamin J” a jazz radio show heard weekly for 11 years on CHLY 101.7 FM, a community-based campus radio station in Nanaimo, BC.; and third, he is also the long-standing (15 years) Baritone Saxophonist in the NMA Big Band (Delamere 2011).


Connelly, F.M. and D.J. Clandinin. 1990.  Stories of Experience and Narrative Inquiry. Educational Researcher. 19(5), 2-14.

Delamere, T. 2011.  “Where’s the jam, man?”  Using Participatory Rapid Appraisal to Complement the Critique of Jazz Performance.  A presentation at the Thirteenth Canadian Congress on Leisure Research.  Brock University, May 2011.

Fryer, M. 2011. Musical Milestone. Nanaimo News Bulletin, May 20, 2011.

Mandin, T.G. 1998. Jazz as Serious Leisure. Masters Thesis.  Winnipeg: University of Manitoba.

Moen, T. 2006.  Reflections on the Narrative Research Approach. International Journal of Qualitative Methods.  5(4), 56-69.

Moore, A. L. 2011.  Bryan Stovall: A Musical Legacy.  Masters Thesis.  Vancouver: University of British Columbia.

Skidmore, B. 2011. High Quality Performances from “Community” Musical Groups: The Sometimes Conflicting Personal and Musical Requirements for a High Level of Performance Combined with Sustainable Personal Satisfaction in a Long Surviving Musical Group. The Case of the London Jazz Orchestra.  A presentation at the Leading Music Education International Conference.  May 2011, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.

Stebbins, R.A. 1992.  Amateurs, Professionals, and Serious Leisure.  Montreal: McGill-Queen’s Press.

Author contact

Tom Delamere
Vancouver Island University
900 Fifth Street
Nanaimo BC  V9R 5S5
250-753-3245, ext. 2488

Return to program overview

Le besoin d’une politique nationale des loisirs: Brève historique et état de la situation

Gervais Deschênes, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi

Le but de cette communication est de présenter quelques éléments d’information pertinents pouvant contribuer au développement favorable d’une politique nationale des loisirs d’après la vision avant-gardiste suggérée par Burton (1977). Cette profonde quête pour un monde meilleur est reprise un peu plus tard par Storey (1990) affirmant qu’il existe un mouvement réel vers la réalisation d’un accord législatif au Canada à propos des loisirs. Depuis lors, plusieurs soubresauts économiques et changements successifs des divers paliers gouvernementaux (i.e.  fédéral / provincial / territorial / municipal) à éroder la volonté politique et du grand public à cette prise de conscience de toute l’importance du phénomène social des loisirs. Il n’en demeure pas moins que le gouvernement fédéral a le devoir moral de réévaluer son rôle, ses buts, ses orientations, sa réglementation et son pouvoir discrétionnaire à une budgétisation plus substantielle des ressources afin de promouvoir, d’améliorer et de renforcer la qualité de la vie de ses citoyen(ne)s en considérant la pratique des loisirs non pas comme un moyen mais ayant sa propre finalité (Pageot, 1977). La  question qui se pose est quel serait le rôle fondamental des intervenant(e)s en loisirs dans la co-construction d’une politique nationale des loisirs et du principe sacré inaliénable de la participation du grand public au développement d’une telle politique dans le contexte processuel du vieillissement inéluctable de la population. Or, la carence d’une définition rassembleuse et inclusive des loisirs provenant des spécialistes et citoyen(ne)s canadien(ne)s eux-mêmes est l’un des premiers symptômes à cette possibilité d’une politique nationale des loisirs. Il s’agit selon certains de convaincre la sphère du politique à la promotion du cadre référentiel en matière des loisirs permettant ainsi la régénérescence du tissu social (ACPL, 2015) tout en favorisant la santé globale et le bien-être spirituel (Deschênes, 2015; Deschênes, Heintzman, & Reimer, 2016). Il s’agit surtout de réfléchir autrement afin d’avoir cette capacité de faire mieux avec moins en vue d’innover sur les plans administratif et en société (Lavigne & Thibault, 2016). De sorte que les citoyen(ne)s sont convoqués à leur manière à l’édification de cette pratique humaine. Il en va même de la reconnaissance sociale et l’identité professionnelle des intervenant(e)s en loisirs. Quelques pistes de solution souhaitable seront énoncées comme paramètres éthiques de type autorégulatoire en vue de la personnalisation des sujets-individuels.


Association canadienne des parcs et loisirs (2015). Sur la voie du bien-être : Cadre stratégique 2015 pour le loisir au Canada. Ottawa : ACPL.

Burton, T. L. (1977). L’idée et la réalité. In T. Goodale & C. Westland (Eds.), Le Développement du Loisir au Canada (pp. iii–xii). Vanier City, ON : Canadian Parks-Recreation Association/Association canadienne des loisirs-parcs.  

Deschênes, G. (2015). Allégories appliquées à l’humain producteur-religieux-joueur — Le loisir comme outils thérapeutique. Counseling et spiritualité/Counselling and Spirituality, 34(1), 59–89.

Deschênes, G., Heintzman, P., & Reimer, J. (2016). Integrating religious and spiritual practices  with therapeutic leisure within the recovery process of persons with mental disorders. Counseling et spiritualité/Counselling and Spirituality, 34(2), 29–59.

Karlis, G. (2016). Leisure and recreation in Canadian Society. Third edition, Thompson Educational Publishing Inc., Toronto. 

Lavigne, M.-A. & Thibault, A. (2016). Enjeux du loisir public québécois : les dimensions administrative et professionnelle. Observatoire québécois du loisir, 13(16), 29–59.

Pageot J.-C., (1977). Réaction à la communication de F. Brégha, « Les aspects sociaux de l’organisation des loisirs au Canada » dans Goodale, T.,  Westland, C., (ed.,) Le développement du loisir au Canada, 28-33. 

Storey, E. H. (1990). The quest for a national policy on recreation: A brief history. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Parks-Recreation Association/Association canadienne des loisirs-parcs.

Author contact

Gervais Deschênes
Université du Québec à Chicoutimi
555, boulevard de l'Université
Chicoutimi QC  G7H 2B1

Return to concurrent session 9

There was more than Hull-House: Initial findings of a historical and comprehensive overview of leisure activities from 407 American settlement houses circa 1911

Rodney B. Dieser, University of Northern Iowa
Christopher L. Kowalski, University of Northern Iowa

Many academics have highlighted the significant contributions of Jane Addams and Hull-House in the development of the recreation, leisure, and parks profession (e.g., Dieser, Harkema, Kowalski, Ijeoma, & Poppen, 2004; Schwab, Stevens, Allan, Sheffield, & Murphy, 2014; Wellman, Dustin, Henderson, & Moore, 2008) and youth work (Edginton, Kowalski, & Randall, 2005). However, scant attention has been focused on other settlement houses in the United States. Drawing on the National Conference of Settlements study from 1911, Woods and Kennedy (1970) published their edited book that provided a ubiquitous listing of settlement house activities in the United States (e.g., civic, streets and refuse, education, labor, recreation).

The first step in this study was to identify and list “leisure activities” from Woods and Kennedy’s historical document, which resulted in a listing of 2,750 activities taken from 407 different American Settlement Houses. Next, clustering was employed in order to create a homogenous listing of recreation areas. Recreation areas are the groupings of similar activities that are common in basic leisure programming, such as athletics, social recreation, and performing arts (see Edginton, Hudson, Dieser, & Edginton, 2004). Clustering compared leisure activities from one settlement house with leisure activities from other settlement houses, resulting in six broad-based leisure-programming areas. Results suggest that the six most popular leisure areas were

  1. Social Recreation/Clubs (1,119 e.g., neighborhood club, coffee house, social dances, propaganda club)
  2. Performing Arts (461 e.g. dance, concerts, orchestra)
  3. Literary (445 e.g., book clubs, lectures/talks, library),
  4. Travel (387 e.g., museums, picnics, beaches)
  5. Recreation (220 e.g., games, camping, hiking)
  6. Sports (118 e.g., baseball, basketball, bowling)


Dieser, R. B., Harkema, R. P., Kowalski, C., Ijeoma, O., & Poppen, L. L. (2004). The portrait of a pioneer: A look back at 115 years of Jane Addams work at Hull-House – her legacy still lives on. Parks and Recreation, 39(9), 128-137.

Edginton, C. R., Kowalski, C. L., & Randall, S. W. Youth work: Emerging perspectives in youth development. Champaign, IL: Sagamore.

Edginton, C. R., Hudson, S. R., Dieser, R. B., & Edginton, S. R. (2004). Leisure programming: A service-centered and benefits approach (4th ed). Boston, MA: WCB McGraw-Hill.

Schwab, K. A., Stevens, C. L., Allan, L. R., Sheffield, E. A., & Murphy, J. F. (Eds). (2014). A     career with meaning: Recreation, parks, sport management, hospitality, and tourism (2nd ed). Urbana, IL: Sagamore.

Wellman, D., Dustin, D., Henderson, K., & Moore, R. (2008). Service living: Building community through public parks and recreation. State College, PA: Venture

Woods, R. A., & Kennedy, A. J. (Eds.). (1970). The rise of urban America: Handbook of settlements. New York: Arno Press & the New York Times.

Author contact

Rodney B. Dieser
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness/Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA 50614-0241

Return to concurrent session 5

Leisure, not therapy, in hospital recreation: A case study of leisure at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester Campus) and a delighted ghost of Paul Haun

Rodney B. Dieser, University of Northern Iowa
Kenneth E. Mobily, University of Iowa
Renee Ziemer, Mayo Clinic (Rochester Campus)

Recently Skalko (2013) argued that leisure has no place, nor foundation, in therapeutic recreation/recreation therapy (TR/RT), especially in health care settings. Austin and Van Puymbroeck (2016) have sent a call to the RT profession to leave recreation and leisure and locate RT programs (including academic) in health care. The committee on accreditation of RT education (CARTE) explicitly argues that RT is not a sub-specialty of the recreation and park profession (Skalko, 2013). The purpose of this paper to provide a counterpoint to recent claims that leisure has no place in RT and health care by providing a case study of how leisure pervades the Mayo Clinic so that patients can experience enjoyment and hope as an activity in-and-of itself.

Over 50 years ago Haun (1965) argued that recreation services provided in hospitals should be “. . . free from clinical preoccupation . . . [in which the recreation specialist] only request is that the patient enjoy himself [or herself]” (p. 55). Almost 60 years prior to Haun’s comments, William Worrall Mayo, Charles Horace Mayo, and William James Mayo – the medical doctors and father and two son trio who started the Mayo Clinic –were actively involved in providing recreation and park services to help patients experience enjoyment and hope at the Mayo Clinic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research 2014; Nelson, 1990). From 1907 to 1910 the Mayo doctors purchased land and donated large sums of money to create Mayo Park, St. Mary’s Park, Mayo Baseball fields and the Mayo Civic Auditorium/Center on or close to the medical campus so that patients could experience leisure enjoyment (Clapesattle, 1969). During this era, it was commonplace for patients to be listening to bands playing in the band shelters in these parks, attending an event at the Mayo Civic Auditorium, or a semi-pro baseball games at the Mayo baseball field. Both Mayo brothers spoke of the importance of leisure in both their medical and public writings (see Peterson, 1934).

Today, the Mayo Clinic is ranked as the best hospital in the United States (Eisenman, 2014). Located on the south façade of the Mayo Building is a large three-part sculpture entitled “Man and Recreation” which represents the importance of rest, play, joyful moments, physical activities, rejuvenation, introspection, and enjoyment of nature (Mayo Clinic, 1984). Today, art and leisure at the Mayo Clinic still inspires hope and contributes to well-being in all people that journey the halls and campus of the Mayo Clinic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2014). A sampling of leisure activities at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, includes art tours, music performances, art, music, and creative writing lessons at the bedside, outdoor recreation, parks, gardens, and atriums, museums, Peregrine Falcon program, and literary, hobbies, crafts and social recreation at the community/patient library on campus – an eclectic mix of activities, arts, and education that would inspire the Renaissance person in anyone. 


Austin, D. R., & Van Puymbroeck, M.  (2016). It is time for recreational therapists to declare themselves to be health care professionals. American Journal of Recreation Therapy, 15(1), 7-8/

Clapesattle, H. (1969). The doctors Mayo (5th ed). Rochester, MN: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research.

Eisenman, R. (2014, July 15). Mayo Clinic Earns No. 1 Rank on U.S. News & World Report'Honor Roll. U.S. News & World Report's. 

Haun, P. (1965). Recreation: A medical viewpoint. New York: Bureau of Publications.

Mayo Clinic. (1984). Sculptors and sculptures: Mayo building exterior [Brochure]. Rochester, MN: Author. Mayo Clinic (MHU# 0675 Folder title “Artwork”). Center for the History of Medicine & Mayo Clinic Historical Suite, Rochester, MN.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2014). Art and healing at Mayo Clinic Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN.

Nelson, C. W. (1990). Mayo roots: Profiling the originals of the Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation: Rochester, MN

Peterson, E. T. (1934, April). Doctor Mayo tells how to live. Better Home & Gardens, 16-17, 64.

Skalko, T. K. (2013). The committee on accreditation of recreational therapy education (CARTE). Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 48(4), 244-258

Author contact

Rodney B. Dieser
University of Northern Iowa
203 Wellness/Recreation Center
Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA 50614-0241

Return to concurrent session 3

Guests’ preferences for dialogue and apology following event failure

David Drewery, University of Waterloo
Ron McCarville, University of Waterloo

Every leisure service provider seeks to organize and deliver successful events within the community. Successful community events contribute to a number of experiential and participatory outcomes (Getz & Page, 2016). However, some encounters between providers and participants will end in “service failure”. The service literature suggests that such failures may be addressed by a variety of service recovery options. These options typically include financial and non-financial (e.g., vouchers) measures that represent a form of “gift” to the unhappy participant (Davidow, 2003). Essentially, unhappy participants are compensated for the failure. While such compensation is often effective in dealing with service failures, it is resource intensive and may prove too much a burden for many leisure providers. 

Instead, organizers might focus on interpersonal aspects of recovery (McCollough, Berry, & Yadav, 2000). Rather than a focus on compensation, providers might design scripts for staff to use in order to improve the recovery experience. The present study examined guests’ preferences for two script elements during recovery: preference for dialogue (an exchange of thoughts and feelings about the cause of and solutions to the problem) and preference for apology (a regretful acknowledgment of failure).

University students (n = 129) read a hypothetical scenario in which a bus was to take them to an off campus event at a local water park. Friends were to be waiting for them there.  Participants were then randomly assigned to a minor failure condition (the bus was late but would be arriving shortly) or critical failure condition (the last bus had left and they had missed the event). Participants also self-selected into one of two blame conditions (self-blame or organizer blame). Participants completed measures including preference for dialogue (five items) and apology (one item), interpersonal avoidance tendencies (six items) and personal characteristics (age and sex). Analyses were conducted using two-way independent ANOVAs with failure type (minor vs. critical) and blame (self vs. provider) as independent variables, and participants’ personal characteristics as covariates.

Preferences for dialogue were highest for those who blamed the provider and who were in the critical failure condition. (M = 3.86, SD = 1.07). Except this group, all other preferences were below a neutral scale-point, suggesting that dialogue is generally less than helpful. Regarding preferences for apology, there was a main effect for blame, F(1, 122) = 9.249, p < .01, but not for failure type. The interaction effect of blame and failure type was also significant, F(1, 122) = 4.443, p <.05, suggesting that preferences for apology increase with failure type for those who blame the provider but decrease with failure type for those who blame themselves. Unlike preferences for dialogue, preferences for apology were generally above the neutral scale-point suggesting that they are preferable.

These results suggest that recovery attempts can be scripted in a way that is consistent with guests’ preferences. Generally, apologies are welcomed. Dialogue, however, is preferable only when organizers are viewed as the cause of a serious problem.


Davidow, M. (2003). Organizational responses to customer complaints: What works and what doesn’t. Journal of Service Research, 5(3), 225-250.

Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Event studies: Theory, research and policy for planned events (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

McCollough, M. A., Berry, L. L., & Yadav, M. S. (2000). An empirical investigation of customer satisfaction after service failure and recovery. Journal of Service Research, 3(2), 121-137.

Author contact

David Drewery
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 37342

Return to concurrent session 6

Trait curiosity, autotelic spectator experiences, and sport participation intention

David Drewery, University of Waterloo
Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo
Laura Wood, University of Waterloo
Ryan Snelgrove, University of Waterloo

Researchers have suggested that watching elite-level sport events can inspire sport participation (Weed et al., 2009). However, psychosocial processes by which spectatorship might translate into participation remain unclear (Potwarka, 2015). In particular, little is known about the roles that personality traits and the nature of spectator experiences play in predicting participatory responses to an event. Drawing from the stimulus-organism-response theoretical framework (Jacoby, 2002), the purpose of the current study was to explore relationships among track cycling spectators’ trait curiosity, autotelic consumer experiences, and intention to participate in track cycling after watching an elite-level track cycling event. Trait curiosity reflects the tendency for people to seek out new knowledge and experiences, as well as a willingness to tolerate novel and uncertain situations (Kashdan et al., 2009). Autotelic spectator experiences reflect the extent to which sport event performance consumption is characterized by ongoing critical evaluation of athletes’ performances, immersive or “flow-like” engagement with the event, and experiences that evoke imagination and fantasy through vicarious interactions with athletes (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Madrigal, 2006). Trait curiosity has been found to influence cognitive attention and interest in novel stimuli (Kashdan, 2009). Thus, we hypothesized that trait curiosity would influence the extent to which spectator experiences are autotelic in nature. Moreover, trait curiosity has corresponding characteristics with intrinsic motivation (Kashdan et al., 2009; Park et al., 2011). As such, we hypothesized that trait curiosity would influence spectators’ intention to participate in track cycling following the event, both directly and through autotelic experiences.

Data were collected from spectators as they exited elite-level track cycling competitions at the 2015 Pan Am Games. Participants in this study (N = 364) had never watched a live track cycling event, nor participated in track cycling prior to the study. Measures used in analyses included the curiosity and exploration inventory-II (Kashdan et al., 2009), autotelic dimensions (i.e., fantasy, evaluation, and flow) of the FANDIM scale (Madrigal, 2006), measures of intentions to try track cycling, and personal characteristics (age, sex, education, income, cycling-related attitudes and behaviours). Data were analyzed in SPSS using a parallel mediation model as described in Hayes (2013). 

After controlling for personal characteristics, curiosity was significantly associated with all three autotelic FANDIM dimensions (B = .27 to .39, p < .001). Curiosity also had a positive association with intention to try track cycling (B = .21, p < .01), as did fantasy (B = .41, p < .001) and evaluation (B = .15, p < .01). Curiosity had significant indirect associations with intention to try track cycling through fantasy and evaluation. Participants with high trait curiosity reported having more ongoing, immersive and vicarious interactions with athlete’s performances, as well as stronger intentions to participate in the sport track cycling. We conclude that trait curiosity may influence the manner in which sport events are experienced and subsequent participatory responses. Individuals with high trait curiosity might be particularly receptive to promotional (i.e., leveraging) efforts tied to elite-level sport events.    


Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Hayes, A. F. (2013). An introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Jacoby, J. (2002). Stimulus-organism-response reconsidered: An evolutionary step in modeling (consumer) behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12(1), 51-57. 

Kashdan, T.B. (2009). Curious? Discover the missing ingredient to a fulfilling life. New York, NY: William Morrow.

Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The curiosity and exploration inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality43(6), 987–998.

Madrigal, R. (2006). Measuring the multidimensional nature of sporting event performance consumption. Journal of Leisure Research38(3), 267-276.

Park, S.H., Mahony, D., & Kim, Y. K. (2011). The role of sport fan curiosity: A new conceptual approach to the understanding of sport fan behaviour. Journal of Sport Management, 25(1), 46-56.

Potwarka, L. R. (2015). Exploring physical activity intention as a response to the Vancouver Olympics: An application and extension of the theory of planned behavior. Event Management, 19(1), 73-92.

Weed, M., Cohen, E., Fiore, J., Mansfield, L., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D., & Dowse, S. (2009). A systematic review of the evidence base for developing a physical activity and health legacy from the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic games. Perspectives in Public Health, 132(2), 75-80.

Author contact

David Drewery
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 37342

Return to concurrent session 2

Thinking with recreation practitioners in the inner city and with Indigenous peoples

Michael Dubnewick, University of Alberta
Tara-Leigh McHugh, University of Alberta

For the last two summers the first author has worked with several inner city social services agencies around a community garden initiative. Positioned as a practitioner-researcher within the community our inquiry intentions were to more fully understand the experiences of recreation practitioners as they facilitated food-based recreation programs with, and for, inner city and Indigenous peoples. The purpose of this presentation is to share how non-Indigenous practitioners negotiated ethical tensions as a relational practice (Bergum & Dossetor, 2005), when facilitating recreation programs alongside Indigenous peoples. This narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) will pull from the experiences of the first author and two recreation practitioners to show how they negotiated tensions of who they are, and who they are becoming, as early career recreation practitioners. For many early career recreation practitioners there are numerous tensions to how they compose their identities when they work in marginalized communities and with Indigenous peoples (Dubnewick, In press; Trussell, 2010). The will-to-serve others and the inherent good of providing recreation opportunities often obscures critical self reflection of the stories we are living and telling by assuming programs are coherent for all involved (Alison & Hibbler, 2004). In many ways a lack of self-reflection to our personal and cultural narratives has often led to little reflection around how problem- or deficit-based approaches to programming position recreation practitioners as expert providers to Indigenous participants who are placed in a position of need. As Parashak and Thompson (2014) argued, strength-based approaches are needed so we do not continue to structure colonial relations between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in recreation and physical activity promoting programming. Ultimately this presentation prompts the audience to wonder and hear how recreation practitioners see with “two eyes” as they travel between their own grand narratives of recreation programming for Indigenous peoples and the worlds of Indigenous participants (Lavallée & Lévesque, 2013).


Allison, M. T., & Hibbler, D. K. (2004). Organizational barriers to inclusion: Perspectives from the recreation professional. Leisure Sciences, 26(3), 261-280.

Bergum, V., & Dossetor, J. B. (2005). Relational ethics: The full meaning of respect. Hagerstown, MD: University Publishing Group.

Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, M. (2000). Narrative inquiry: Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dubnewick, M. (In press). Gardening in tension filled rows: Autobiographical narrative inquiry of gardening and space on the margins. Leisure/Loisir.

Lavallée, L., & Lévesque, L. (2013). Two-eyed seeing: Physical activity, sport, and recreation promotion in Indigenous communities. In J. Forsyth & A. Giles (Ed.) Aboriginal peoples & sport in Canada: Historical foundations and contemporary issues (pp. 206-228). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Paraschak, V., & Thompson, K. (2014). Finding strength(s): Insights on Aboriginal physical cultural practices in Canada. Sport in Society, 17(8), 1046-1060.

Trussell, D. E. (2010). Gazing from the inside out during ethically heightened moments. Leisure Studies, 29(4), 377-395.

Author contact

Michael Dubnewick
University of Alberta
1-107 Van Vliet Centre (University Hall)
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9 
789-937-8261, ext. 33097

Return to concurrent session 4

Liberating the arts from the therapy culture in dementia care

Sherry Dupuis, University of Waterloo

Persons with dementia remain one of the most stigmatized groups largely due to public and academic discourses that frame persons with dementia within a biomedical/behavioural model and their lives as predominantly tragic and disintegrating. Influenced by these discourses, once diagnosed with dementia, the arts come to be valued primarily as therapy, where arts-based interventions are provided as non-pharmacological means to improve the functioning of “patients” and treat unwanted and misunderstood “behaviours”. The purpose of this themed session is to liberate the arts in dementia care from the therapy culture by exploring alternative arts-based approaches in dementia care and demonstrating the power of the arts to address broader relational and social justice issues. As way to both engage with past legacies and envision new possibilities and legacies for the arts in the dementia context, we continue the call made by Arai, Berbary and Dupuis (2015) in the recent Special Issue of Leisure/Loisir:  to open up spaces for “further critical reflections and dialogues about the taken-for-granted ways we relate with others and to our practices” (p. 299).

In this session, we draw on four diverse qualitative arts-based research projects: (1) a study exploring the impacts of a research-based drama ‘Cracked: New Light on Dementia’ in challenging dominant images and understandings of dementia and translating relational theory into practice; (2) research examining dance in the context of everyday life and as a form of social citizenship for people living with dementia; (3) an examination of an innovative visual art program – Gather at the Gallery – that brings people with dementia, family members, and artists together to engage with and make art in community art spaces; and (4) a documentary study exploring how relational caring is experienced within an innovative arts-based learning academy – the Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy (DBWA) – for academy members, their families and care partners as well as artists, staff and volunteers who make up the DBWA community.

Interview, focus group, and video data from these projects demonstrate the potential of the arts for: challenging dominant discourses and problematizing oppressive policies, organizational norms, and practices; igniting personal discovery, growth, and transformation; translating knowledge in innovative ways; and nurturing relational citizenship. Aligned with global dementia friendly community movements, the arts play a significant role in creating transformative spaces for relational flourishing and prompting the social change needed to reduce the harm and suffering experienced by persons living with dementia. In open dialogue, we will explore together new possibilities for liberating the arts in the dementia and other healthcare contexts.


Arai, S., Berbary, L., & Dupuis, S. (2015). Dialogues for re-imagined praxis: Using theory in practice to transform structural, ideological, and discursive “realities’ with/in communities. Leisure/Loisier, 39(2), 299-321).

Author contact

Sherry L. Dupuis, PhD
Professor, Recreation and Leisure Studies
Co-Director, Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 36188

Return to concurrent session 4

Transforming dementia care through research-based drama

Sherry Dupuis, Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Gail Mitchell, Nursing, York University
Julia Gray, Possible Arts
Christine Jonas-Simpson, Nursing, York University, Director, Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy
Pia Kontos, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-University Health Network

People with dementia are among the most stigmatized groups in society, and the stigma, misunderstanding and stereotypes that surround people with dementia have profound consequences on how people with dementia view themselves, their interactions with others, and opportunities made available to them (Mitchell, Dupuis, & Kontos, 2013). Culture change initiatives in dementia care have called for the adoption of a new care paradigm informed by the principles of relationality and embodiment (Dupuis et al., 2016; Jordan, Walker & Hartling, 2004, Kontos, 2012; Nedelsky, 2011). Yet translating these humanizing and life-affirming principles into practice has proven difficult and traditional approaches to knowledge translation have not had sustained impact. The arts may be a more effective means of shifting images, understandings and actions in care settings (Finley, 2011; Gray et al., 2000; Jonas-Simpson et al., 2012; Kontos et al., 2012; Mitchell et al., 2011)

As part of a longitudinal project informed by liberation arts and critical and relational theories (Higgs et al., 2011, Jordan et al., 2004; Nedelsky, 2011). this paper explores the immediate impacts of a new research-based drama called ‘Cracked: New Light on Dementia’, and how it might enhance understandings of relational caring and the adoption of these principles into practice for staff working in long-term care (LTC) homes. Cracked follows persons with dementia and their families on their unique journeys with dementia, from diagnosis through to their new lives in a long-term care home. The families grapple with what the diagnosis means, if and how the diagnosis changes their relationships and how they struggle to be with each other in the present where the persons with dementia call them to be and find meaning in their lives. Cracked is based on research conducted independently and collaboratively by the researchers and was developed collaboratively with playwright and director Julia Gray, a group of performance artists, persons living with dementia and their family members.

Sixty-five staff members were recruited from two LTC homes in two cities in Southern Ontario. Three data collection strategies were employed to examine the immediate impacts of Cracked: pre- and post-performance focus group/interview discussions, evaluation questionnaires, and observations. Immediately after engaging with the drama, participants described an expanded understanding of relationality including seeing family differently, seeing the whole person with dementia in life context, and seeing relational patterns, all which inspired new ways of relating. Participants also described their experience of intensified tensions between the care principles central to the drama and system constraints that make it challenging to practice relational caring, which can cause great suffering.

Our results point to the effectiveness of research-based drama in shifting individual understandings and actions in dementia care. However, without organizational and broader system change, achieving sustained impact of relational caring practices will continue to be challenging to achieve.


Dupuis, S., McAiney, C.A., Fortune, D. , Ploeg, J. , & Witt, L.D. (2016). Theoretical foundations guiding culture change: The work of the Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice, 15(1), 85-105.

Finley, S. (2011). Critical arts-based inquiry: The pedagogy and performance of a radical ethical aesthetic. In N.K. Denzin & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-450). Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Gray, R., Sinding, C., Ivonoffski, V., Fitch, M., Hampson, A., & Greenberg, M. (2000). The use of research-based theatre in a project related to metastatic breast cancer. Health Expectations, 3, 137-144.

Higgs, J., Titchen, A., Horsfall, D., & Bridges, D. (2011). Creative spaces for qualitative researching: Living research. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.

Jonas-Simpson, C., Mitchell, G.J., Carson, J., Whyte, C., Dupuis, S., & Gillies, J. (2012). Phenomenological shifts for healthcare professionals after experiencing a research-based drama on living with dementia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(9), 1944-1955.

Jordan, J., Walker, M., & Hartling, L. (2004). The complexity of connection: Writings from the Stone Center’s Jean Baker Miller Training Institute. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Kontos, P. (2012). Alzheimer expressions or expressions despite Alzheimer's?: Philosophical reflections on selfhood and embodiment. Occasion: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, 4(May 31), 1-12.

Kontos, P., Miller, K.L., Gilbert, J E., Mitchell, G J., Colantonio, A., Keightley, M.L., & Cott, C. (2012). Improving client-centered brain injury rehabilitation through research-based theater. Qualitative Health Research, 22(12), 1612-1632.

Mitchell, G.J., Dupuis, S.L., & Kontos, P. (2013). Dementia discourse: From imposed suffering to knowing other-wise. Journal of Applied Hermeneutics, 1-19. 

Mitchell, G.J., Dupuis, S., Jonas-Simpson, C., Whyte, C., Carson, J., & Gillis, J. (2011). The experience of engaging with research-based drama: Evaluation and explication of synergy and transformation. Qualitative Inquiry, 17(4), 379-392.

Nedelsky, J. (2011). Law’s relations: A relational theory of self, autonomy, and law. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Author contact

Sherry L. Dupuis, PhD
Professor, Recreation and Leisure Studies
Co-Director, Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 36188

Return to concurrent session 4

Private land conservation and the case of functional leisure

James Farmer, Indiana University
Michael Drescher, University of Waterloo
Jacob Brenner, Ithaca College
Stephanie Dickinson, Indiana University
Eric Knackmuhs, Indiana University

Natural areas and open spaces continue to be developed at unprecedented rates, solidifying the significance of private land conservation (PLC) efforts. Many factors have been shown to influence private landowners’ land protection decisions, including land-use activities, demographic characteristics, a slew of value-motives, and environmental intention and behavior. With the hypothesis that individuals already involved in non-permanent PLC programs would be candidates for permanently protecting their property, we modeled the conservation easement decision (perpetual deed restrictions) within a group of participants involved in a non-permanent program. Conservation easements are legally binding agreements that encumber development rights from a property, at minimum, in order to preserve its ecological or cultural integrity in perpetuity. Public access is rarely given on said properties.  

We used a mailed questionnaire to survey 432 landowners (65% response rate) about their interest in conservation easements (Dillman et al., 2009). The overarching research question asked: What variables best explain landowners’ (those already engaged in PLC) interest in a conservation easement? Multiple regression results indicated significant positive relationships with variables representing perception of landscape change, outdoor recreation behavior as an adult, and environmental organization membership. Correlation analysis suggested that adult outdoor recreation activity level was significantly correlated with actions leading to habitat improvement and erosion control activities (a.k.a. eco-restoration).

Previously, scholars have found membership in an environmental organization to be the strongest determinant of interest in conservation easements (Brenner et al. 2013; Farmer et al. 2016), while also linking conservation behavior to environmental awareness (Zorondo-Rodríguez et al. 2014) and environmental values (Ryan et al. 2003). We purport that in this case environmental awareness and values are manifested through membership in environmental organizations. Still more revealing was the role of adult outdoor recreation activity writ large. The comparison of adult outdoor recreation activity level with data on engaging in land management activities was based on the supposition that the activities can be analogous to recreation activity and leisure experience, similar to horticultural activities (Chen et al.’s 2013). Although the literature on recreation’s relationship to conservation behavior has yielded mixed results, our study suggests that engagement in outdoor recreation experiences is positively related to interest in granting a conservation easement on one’s own property.

This study suggests an alternative explanation involving land management activities as a form of recreation and leisure entitled “functional leisure.” Functional leisure would comprise those un-coerced activities that people engage in that result in an end product or tangible accomplishment. Conservation management activities from our survey would not be considered requisites for owning the land; rather, some landowners are internally compelled to engage in these activities. In essence, we propose these landowners are engaging in an amalgamation of functional fitness and serious leisure- functional leisure. Considering internally compelled leisure activities that serve an external purpose is yet another strategy that links contemporary leisure with its historic underpinnings. Additionally, bringing the leisure lens to the study of PLC appears to offer an explanation that to date has received scant attention, but appears critical in fully understanding the behavior.


Brenner, J., S. Lavallato, M. Cherry, and E. Hileman. 2013. Land use determines interest in conservation easement among private landowners. Land Use Policy 34:24–32. 

Chen, H., Tu, H., and Ho, C. 2013. Understanding biophilia leisure as facilitating well-being and the environment: an examination of participants’ attitudes toward horticultural activity. Leisure Sciences 35(4):301-319.

Dillman D. A., J. D. Smyth, and L. M. Christian. 2009. Internet, mail, and mixed-mode surveys: the tailored design method. 3rd edition. Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Farmer, J. R., C. Chancellor, J. Brenner, J. Whitacre, and E. Knackmuhs. 2016. To ease or not to ease: interest in conservation easements among landowners in Brown County, IN. Professional Geographer 68(3):1-11. 

Ryan, R. L., Erickson, D. L., & De Young, R. (2003). Farmers’ motivations for adopting conservation practices along riparian zones in a Midwestern agricultural watershed. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 46(1):19–37. 

Zorondo-Rodríguez F., V. Reyes-García, J.A. Simonetti. 2014. Conservation of biodiversity in private lands: are Chilean landowners willing to keep threatened species in their lands? Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 87:1-8. 

Author contact

James Farmer
Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies
1025 E. 7th St., SPH 133
Bloomington, IN, 47405, United States

Return to concurrent session 9

LGBTQ residential wilderness camp: “It feels like home”

Lara Fenton, University of Manitoba

Previous research has shown that the homophobia LGBTQ youth experience influences higher incidences of depression, suicide, and substance abuse than their heteronormative peers (Russell & Joyner, 2001; Saewyc, 2011). When there are few safe and supportive spaces for queer youth at home, in school, in after school programs, and in community recreation, isolation compounds these issues (Ryan, 2003). For example, leisure scholars have routinely emphasized that LGBTQ people will often conceal or negotiate the expression of their gender identity (i.e., the internal sense of one’s gender), gender expression (i.e., mannerisms, dress, and behavior) or sexual orientation in order to participate in leisure contexts (e.g., Kivel & Kleiber, 2000; Lewis & Johnson, 2011; Oakleaf, 2013).

Henderson, Bialeschki, and James (2007) outlined the need to explore the role that camp experiences play in the ongoing positive identity development of young adults. This emphasis is particularly salient for LGBTQ populations as researchers have articulated the importance of leisure in the process of identity formation for this population (Kivel & Kleiber, 2000). As such, safer spaces, such as a residential wilderness camp for LGBTQ youth, offers a unique opportunity away from home and school for these youth. This paper aims to contribute to the extant camp literature and explore the experiences of LGBTQ youth in the intentionally designed safer space of a segregated residential wilderness camp.

Two focus groups comprised of seven youth each was conducted in the summer of 2015 at an LGBTQ residential wilderness camp that serves youth 13 to 25. Participants were asked to explain why they came to camp, describe their experience of the outdoor camp they attended, and how camp contributed to their wellbeing. Both focus groups’ conversations were transcribed and imported into Nvivo. Deductive content analysis, where the researcher searches the qualitative data influenced by the literature on camping experiences, was undertaken (Patton, 2015). Using open coding, the researcher familiarized themselves with the transcripts by reading them several times, making notes as to possible categories based on the literature, and formulating categories that captured similar patterns in the data.

There are several reasons why youth come to camp, including that camp instils a sense of belonging (particularly for youth that do not have familial support), is a place to try on new identities (through an exploration of gender identity and sexual orientation), and is a place where they can be physically active without being judged.

In reference to the camp literature, there is support for positive identity development through social skills and experiences of social inclusion. However, the results lend support for contesting identity development as a linear trajectory. This exploration can be a lifeline for LGBTQ youth, in particular, for those youth who are disenfranchised from their families. Other support for the extant literature includes positive attitudes towards physical activity, but there was a lack of support for increased spirituality and environmental awareness, possibly because of the marginalization of these youth from religious contexts and not intentionally programming nature based activities.


Henderson, K. A., Bialeschki, M. D., & James, P. A. (2007). Overview of Camp Research. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16(4), 755-767.

Kivel, B., & Kleiber, D. (2000). Leisure in the Identity Formation of Lesbian/Gay Youth: Personal, but Not Social. An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22(4), 215-232.

Lewis, S., & Johnson, C. (2011). “But it's not that easy”: negotiating (trans)gender expressions in leisure spaces. Leisure/Loisir, 35(2), 115-132.

Oakleaf, L. (2013). “Having to think about it all the time”: Factors affecting the identity management strategies of residential summer camp staff who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender. Leisure/Loisir, 37(3), 251-266.

Patton, M. Q. (2015). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (Vol. 5). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Russell, S. T., & Joyner, K. (2001). Adolescent sexual orientation and suicide risk: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 91, 1276-1281.

Ryan, C. (2003). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: Health concerns, services, and care. Clinical Research and Regulatory Affairs, 20(2), 137-158.

Saewyc, E. M. (2011). Research on adolescent sexual orientation: Development, health disparities, stigma, and resilience. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21(1), 256-272.

Author contact

Lara Fenton
University of Manitoba
123 Frank Kennedy Centre
Winnipeg MB  R3T 2N2

Return to concurrent session 5

The impact of recreation programs on university student mental health

Lara Fenton, University of Manitoba
Rob Gilbert, Dalhousie University
Cathy White, Dalhousie University
Barbara Hamilton-Hinch, Dalhousie University

The recent National College Health Assessment reports that many university students are experiencing mental health challenges (e.g., depression or anxiety; Hoban & Leino, 2013). University students do not willingly access mental health programs for a variety of reasons, including the perceived lack of confidentiality that surrounds mental health counselling and programming (Corrigan, 2004). Lifestyle factors, including recreation, play an integral role in maintaining good mental health (e.g., Carek, Laibstain, & Carek, 2011; Dingle, Brander, Ballantyne & Baker 2013). Additionally, recreation activities do not have stigma associated with them, have few side effects, and can be marketed to all students as a prevention strategy (Walsh, 2011). The objective of this integrative review is to consolidate our understanding of the efficacy of university based recreation programs developed with the purpose of supporting students’ positive mental health.

A systematic literature search of seven databases was conducted to examine the effectiveness of recreation programs designed to support student’s positive mental health.  Databases included: PubMed, the Campbell Collaboration, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, and EBSCOhost. The search produced 4492 unique articles. The eligibility of articles was assessed according to the research question of the review: What is the efficacy of post-secondary education-based recreation interventions developed with the purpose of supporting post-secondary students’ positive mental health? The titles and abstracts of each paper was independently reviewed by two researchers for match to the inclusion criteria: 1) studies pertained to interventions developed for students attending North American post-secondary institutions, 2) studies investigating recreation interventions (i.e., arts, culture, sport, physical activity, active living, social events, or spiritual pursuits) designed to prevent the development of mental health issues, support improved mental wellness, or support the development of resilience, and 3) Studies that used a validated tool to assess mental health constructs. Screening of titles and abstracts resulted in the exclusion of 4300 articles.  Full texts of the remaining 192 were then evaluated for eligibility to this study. Once again articles were screened by a minimum of 2 researchers and this process resulted in the exclusion of 173 articles.  Primary reasons for exclusion were: (1) the study did not take place in a North American post-secondary institution, (2) the article was descriptive or theoretical, (3) the research targeted a clinical population of students (e.g., depression), (4) changes to student mental health were not measured, (5) the intervention was course-based with several components included in the initiative in addition to recreation or physical activity, and we were unable to ascertain the impact of the recreation component, (6) the intervention targeted gatekeepers such as resident assistants or staff and not students, or (7) there was no description of the intervention, including how long or how often the intervention was offered.

Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for this review.  Recreation interventions evaluated in the included studies were Mindfulness or Meditation (57.1%), Yoga or Tai Chi (28.6%), Exercise or Pilates (9.5%), and Animal Therapy (4.8%). Results of included papers were coded to highlight intervention overall effectiveness compared to an active control group when possible. The elements of positive mental health that were measured included levels of perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and positive or negative mood, most which showed positive changes due to the recreation intervention (See Appendix A).

We found very little research exploring the impact of recreation programs on university student mental health. The extant research shows evidence that recreation programs provide mental health benefits to university students; however, the studies emphasize recreation as mindfulness and meditation or physically active programming. As such, there is an enormous amount of unexplored terrain, including discovering the impact of recreation on the social networks that impact mental health.


Carek, P. J., Laibstain, S. E., & Carek, S. M. (2011). Exercise for the treatment of depression and anxiety. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 41(1), 15-28.

Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614.

Dingle, G. A., Brander, C., Ballantyne, J., & Baker, F. A. (2013). ‘To be heard’: The social and mental health benefits of choir singing for disadvantaged adults. Psychology of Music, 41(4), 405-421.

Hoban, M., & Leino, V. E. (2013). College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II: Candian Reference Group Executive Summary.

Walsh, R. (2011). Lifestyle and mental health. American Psychologist, 66(7), 579.

Author contact

Lara Fenton
University of Manitoba
123 Frank Kennedy Centre
Winnipeg MB  R3T 2N2

Return to concurrent session 8

Troubling umbrellas: Engaging complexity within individual legacies

Ashley Flanagan, University of Waterloo
Lisbeth A. Berbary, University of Waterloo

Lesbian. Gay. Bisexual. Transgender. Queer. These are the nondominant sexual orientations and gender identities that comprise the commonly used umbrella category LGBTQ. A category often praised for its inclusivity. However, as Halberstam (2005) illuminated, “the inclusivity of its appeal has made it quite unclear as to what the term [LGBTQ] might mean and for whom. …We have hardly begun to recognize the forms of embodiment that fill out the category …[and] we should know what kind of work it does, whom it describes, and whom it validates” (p. 49).

By extension, we must also consider how the categories we commonly use in our research, practice, and daily lives. To do this, we must trouble the often broad, umbrella categorizations that we as leisure researchers may take for granted as they often mask and/or shift – and in many instances, erase – the complexity embedded within the individual life legacies of participants. To trouble, or deconstruct as Butler (1995) stated, “is not to negate or to dismiss, but to call into question and, perhaps most important, to open up a term, like ‘the subject,’ to a reusage or redeployment that previously has not been authorized” (p. 165). This poststructural notion is not intended as “a corrective or a fix” (St. Pierre 2000, p. 613), but rather to, “unsettle, displace, or uncover a terms authority…[or] material effects as we open up the possibilities of wording our worlds differently” (Berbary, in-press, p. 10) and potentially “informing new possibilities for practice” (Arai, Berbary, & Dupuis, 2015, p. 305).

Historically, we as leisure researchers tend to like categories, a strategy that has proven quite useful. However, scientific discourses have also tended to narrow our conceptualizations of gender and sexuality. For some, categories can act to freeze processes of becoming as there are many individuals who cannot, and do not wish to be categorized as “either/or” (Halberstam, 2005). Just as LGBTQ has been introduced as another way of being outside the binary, the possibilities within our umbrella categories are limitless in the creation of individuals, expression, and behaviours that they represent. There is not only one correct way, proper path, or universal experience required to assume or express a transgender or queer identity (Bornstein & Bergman, 2010).  Perhaps we can begin to move beyond debates of rigidity and fluidity towards conceptualizations of “both and more” by shifting towards being open to the multiplicity of non-binary sexualities and gender nonconforming identities (Halberstam, 2005). By calling for a troubling of these umbrella categories, we do not intend to imply that we should completely do away categories of identification. Rather, we are calling for deconstruction, an unsettling and redeployment such that we may “word our worlds differently” in a potentially more useful way (Berbary, in-press, p. 10). How can we trouble the umbrella categories within our research and practice in order to do things differently? To acknowledge the ever evolving complexity of this umbrella category as we share stories that engage and embrace the life legacies of our participants.


Arai, S.M., Berbary, L.A., & Dupuis, S.L. (2015). Dialogues for re-imagined praxis: using theory in practice to transform structural, ideological, and discursive “realities” with/in communities. Leisure/Loisir, 39(2), 299–321.

Berbary, L.A. (In-press). Poststructuralism chapter (pp. 1–21).

Bornstein, K. & Bergman, S.B. (2010). Gender outlaws: The next generation. Berkeley, CA: Seal Press.

Butler, J. (1995). For a careful reading. In S. Benhabib, J. Butler, D. Cornell, & N. Fraser (Eds.), Feminist contentions: A philosophical exchange (p. 127-145). New York: Routledge. 

Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York, NY: Routledge.

Halberstam, J. (2005). In a queer time & place: Transgender bodies, subcultural lives. New York, NY: New York UP.

St. Pierre, E. (2000). Poststructural feminism in education: An overview. Qualitative Studies in Education, 13(5), 477–515.

Author contact

Ashley Flanagan
PhD Candidate (Aging, Health, and Wellbeing Interdisciplinary Program)
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Applied Health Sciences
University of Waterloo
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 5

The legacies we weave: Transgender older adults’ experiences of identity negotiation

Ashley Flanagan, University of Waterloo
Lisbeth A. Berbary, University of Waterloo
Sherry Dupuis, University of Waterloo

Think about the later years of your life. What do you see? What are your hopes? Your fears? What kind of legacy do you hope to create? For many transgender older adults, visions of later life often hold images of isolation, invisibility, harassment, and depression (Butler, 2004). The discrimination transgender individuals have faced does not end at the age of 65, rather experiences of heterosexism and cisgenderism persist into later life (Cronin & King, 2010). Experiences which may now also be compounded with ageism and age-related issues. Stemming from fears of rejection, discrimination, and harassment, many transgender older adults have become adept in negotiating their identity presentation as they navigate relationships with family, friends, healthcare providers, and the population at large (Butler, 2004; Finlon, 2002). As a result, aging as a transgender individual appears to be a complex juxtaposition of embracing one’s self, and mediating one’s interactions and relationships with others. A negotiation process that may cause a shift in one’s legacy in response to feeling, and at times being, unable to live the life you want live.

The larger critical phenomenological study—in which this presentation is rooted—included nine semi-structured interviews with older adults who self-identified as lesbian, gay, or transgender that focused on stories of aging perceptions and experiences. The intention of this larger inquiry was to call attention to the aging experiences of LGBTQ older adults, as well as to contribute to and celebrate the growing understanding of leisure and diversity in aging and later life. Rooted within the aforementioned study, this presentation aims to disrupt homogenized views of aging by highlighting the complexities of identity negotiation as a transgender older adult. Through the use of screenplay as creative analytic practice, this presentation highlights the aging experiences of three women – Rita, Dar, and Donna. The voices of these three women are heavily embedded throughout the presentation – via excerpts from the original screenplay. Together, as we explore Rita, Dar, and Donna’s stories of seeking acceptance, identity management, and claiming identity, we catch a glimpse of the legacies these women are weaving as they navigate the later years of their lives.


Butler, S. S. (2004). Gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT) elders: The challenges and resilience of this marginalized group. Journal of human behavior in the social environment, 9(4), 25-44.

Cronin, A., & King, A. (2010). Power, inequality and identification: Exploring diversity and intersectionality amongst older LGB adults. Sociology, 44(5), 876-892.

Finlon, C. (2002). Health care for all lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Social Services, 14(3), 109-116.

Author contact

Ashley Flanagan
PhD Candidate (Aging, Health, and Wellbeing Interdisciplinary Program)
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Applied Health Sciences
University of Waterloo
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 1

Museums as welcoming spaces of belonging

Darla Fortune, Concordia University
Raphael Mendoza, Concordia University

To belong means to feel attached, feel valued, and have a sense of being in close proximity to others in terms of activities, networks, and spaces (Hall, 2010). Community spaces can have a tremendous impact on an individual’s sense of belonging when doors are open and accessible services offer equitable opportunities that support personal growth (Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse, 2006). In line with its values of inclusiveness and social commitment, The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (MMFA) provides programming aimed at increasing access to educational opportunities for community organizations that work with individuals most at risk of exclusion, such as persons with disabilities, immigrants, at-risk youth, older adults with low incomes, and families and adults from disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Sharing the Museum is one such educational program that offers members of these community organizations access to free guided tours of the museum and art workshops intended to increase their familiarity with both the museum and the art world.  The purpose of this paper is to share findings of a study that explored ways Sharing the Museum is contributing to belonging and inclusion among its participants. For this exploratory study, we conducted focus groups with members of three organizations that regularly participate in Sharing the Museum. A total of 26 participants took part in three focus groups lasting approximately 90 minutes each. Participants consisted of persons with dementia and their care partners, adults accessing mental health support, and youth receiving psychosocial services. This paper illustrates how being welcomed into the museum and engaging in art workshops contributed to participants’ feeling valued and as though they experienced something unique and special. As one participant conveyed, “The fact that the museum is going and seeking out groups that would never in their wildest dreams think of going to the museum is like saying, “You are important enough. This is your institution”.” Being in close proximity to the diversity of people who visit the museum also enabled participants to experience broader social connections: “There’s people of all ages and all interests but with one common interest.” In this paper, we discuss how Sharing the Museum is opening up possibilities for new leisure experiences in the community. Comments such as: “It was totally unknown to me” and “It expands our world context” exemplify participants’ appreciation for discovering experiences that were previously unfamiliar and from which they had often been excluded. These findings have implications for the ways in which community spaces contribute to inclusion and belonging. We will discuss these implications in relation to social justice and highlight the social responsibility that community spaces have to open their doors to all citizens, particularly individuals who may be most at risk for exclusion. While museums have received attention for their potential to be agents of social change by providing inclusive spaces (Munro, 2013), we argue that it is particularly incumbent upon such community spaces to challenge exclusion through programs and activities that welcome individuals who may not otherwise have access and/or opportunity (Camic & Chatterjee, 2013).


Camic, P. M., & Chatterjee, H. J. (2013). Museums and art galleries as partners for public health interventions. Perspectives in Public Health, 133(1), 66-71.

Hall, E. (2010). Spaces of social inclusion and belonging for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 54(1), 48-57.

Munro, E. (2013). “People just need to feel important, like someone is listening”: Recognising museums’ community engagement programmes as spaces of care. Geoforum, 48, 54-62.

Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse (2006). Inclusion: Societies that foster belonging improve health. Author.

Author contact

Darla Fortune
Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke Street West VE 331. 04
Montreal QC  H4B 1R6

Return to concurrent session 7

Culturally safe falls prevention programs for Inuvialuit Elders

Julia S. Frigault, University of Ottawa
Audrey R. Giles, University of Ottawa

With the growing global rate of fall-related injuries and fatalities among senior populations (Hill et al., 2014; Naraynsingh et al., 2015; Semonin-Holleran, 2015; Stewart-Williams et al., 2015), it is clear that falls prevention programs need to be integrated into leisure programming. Research has shown that these programs are beneficial to the elderly; however, scholars have failed to account for the influence of the Inuit social determinants of health have on the likelihood Inuit Elders experiencing fall-related injuries. The ways in which leisure time falls prevention programs can be made culturally safe [i.e., reflective of participants’ experiences and of the contextual, cultural, and historical perspectives that may influence their day-to-day lives (Giles, Hognestad, & Brooks, 2015; Ramsden, 2002)] has also escaped academic attention. By using an exploratory case study methodology, I sought to understand which Inuit social determinants of health stakeholders in Inuvik, NWT believed most affected the likelihood of Inuvialuit (i.e., the group of Inuit who live in the area) Elders’ falls. I also sought to co-determine (with the research participants) the elements that would make leisure-based falls prevention programs culturally safe for this population. Through the application of a community-based research approach, a postcolonial lens, and the use of participant observation and semi-structured interviews, 14 participants [i.e., 8 Inuvialuit Elders (4 males, 4 females; ranging in age from 64 to 79) and 6 local falls prevention programmers (1 male, 5 females)] were able to provide insightful information that challenged and critiqued dominant Western discourses and conceptions of health-related programs and care. The Inuvialuit Elders I worked with were also provided the opportunity to reaffirm their power and voices with regard to their personal leisure-time activities, which have a direct impact on their health and well-being. Finally, discussions with the participants revealed that they supported the idea of cultural safety; however, they also felt that their community provided strong programming.


Giles, A. R., Hognestad, S., & Brooks, L. A. (2015). The need for cultural safety in injury prevention. Public Health Nursing, 32(5), 543-549.

Hill, A. D., Pinto, R., Nathens, A. B., & Fowler, R. A. (2014). Age-related trends in severe injury hospitalization in Canada. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 77(4), 608-613.

Naraynsingh, R., Sammy, I., Paul, J. F., & Nunes, P. (2015). Trauma in the elderly in Trinidad and Tobago: A cross-sectional study. European Journal of Emergency Medicine, 22(3), 219-221.

Ramsden, I. M. (2002). Cultural safety and nursing education in Aotearoa and Te Waipounamu (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Wellington, New Zealand. 

Semonin-Holleran, R. (2015). Elderly trauma. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 38(3), 298-311.

Stewart-Williams, J., Kowal, P., Hestekin, H., O’Driscoll, T., Peltzer, K., Yawson, A., … & SAGE collaborators. (2015). Prevalence, risk factors, and disability associated with fall-related injury in older adults in low- and middle-income countries: Results from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). BMC Medicine, 13(1), 1-12.

Author contact

Julia Frigault
1827 Stonehenge Crescent
Gloucester ON  K1B 4V4

Return to concurrent session 3

LGBTQ youth & safe leisure spaces

Julia Froese, Vancouver Island University

LGBTQ youth often receive unprecedented amounts of homophobia and transphobia in the forms of verbal, physical, and sexual abuse (Alvarez-Garcia, Garcia, & Nunez, 2015; Barber & Krane, 2007; White, Oswalt, Wyatt & Peterson, 2010). This undoubtedly impacts the level of safety that they perceive and experience in public leisure spaces. As leisure plays an important role in the lives of youth (Mahoney, Larson, & Eccles, 2005; Theriault & Witt, 2014), it is important to address the gap in the literature on LGBTQ youth leisure (Horn, Kosciw, & Russell, 2009), and to explore LGBTQ youth’s experiences and meanings associated with safe public leisure spaces. In tandem with this years conference theme of Engaging Legacies, the proposed presentation addresses my thesis research question: “what makes public leisure spaces safe for LGBTQ youth?” Relying on the interview data from thirteen LGBTQ youth, the proposed presentation discusses the main findings that emerged from the study. First, how specific leisure programs and services can meet the needs of LGBTQ youth by delivering activities that foster the freedom for them to authentically engage in leisure; second, the impact of leisure facility infrastructure, such as safe space signage and gender-neutral bathrooms and change rooms, and how they contribute to safe public leisure spaces; and, third, the influence of interpersonal behaviours and interactions of leisure staff that help to create safety within public leisure spaces. The review has practical relevance to the field of leisure because it encourages critical thinking into how we design, develop, and implement leisure for youth who are a part of the LGBTQ community, while also addressing the dearth of literature that exists on LGBTQ youth leisure spaces and safety. In addition, the knowledge mobilized through this presentation may help recreation and leisure professionals gain a deeper understanding on how to make leisure activities, infrastructure, and staff interactions more inclusive and safe for


Álvarez-García, D., García, T., & Núñez, J. C. (2015). Predictors of school bullying perpetration in adolescence: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, (ahead of print), 1-11.

Barber, H., & Krane, V. (2007). Creating a positive climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youths. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance78(7), 6-52.

Horn, S. S., Kosciw, J. G., Russell, S. T. (2009). Special issue introduction: New research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: Studying lives in context. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(8), 863–866.

Mahoney, J. L., Larson, R. W., & Eccles, J. (Eds.). (2005). Organized activities as contexts of development: Extracurricular activities, after-school, and community programs. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Theriault, D., & Witt, P. A. (2014). Features of positive developmental leisure settings for LGBTQ youth. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32(2), 83-97.

White, C. S., Oswalt, S. B., Wyatt, T. J., & Peterson, F. L. (2010). Out on the playing field: Providing quality physical education and recreational opportunities for lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Physical Educator67(1), 46-56.

Author contact

Julia Froese
Vancouver Island University
322 Bruce Avenue
Nanaimo BC  V9R 3Y1

Return to concurrent session 8

Exploring the influence of customer behaviour on frontline employee engagement

Ying Fu, University of Waterloo
Ron McCarville, University of Waterloo   

Employee engagement is positively associated with service quality and positive outcomes for both the provider and the client (Harter, Schmidt, & Heyes, 2002).  Empirical research has been carried out on the antecedents of employee engagement (Saks, 2006); however, less is known about the dynamic mechanism whereby customer behaviour shapes employees’ emotions, and in turn, their engagement.  This study attempted to seek out clues of customer-facing employee experience relevant to their engagement levels in the hospitality workplace.  The main purpose of the study was to investigate relationships between perceived customer behaviours (i.e., customer participation, citizenship behaviour, complaint behaviour, and misbehaviour) and frontline employee engagement (FEE).  The secondary purpose was to examine the roles that employee emotional assessment (EEA) of such behaviours and workplace social support (WSS) play in these relationships.  A paper survey was completed by 603 front-line employees working in a variety of customer-service jobs, from restaurants, hotels, and parks in China.  Findings revealed that the participants working in this hospitality sector had a much lower proportion of engaged workers (4.1%) than Chinese and worldwide averages.  Those who had been in hospitality or their current jobs less than one year were least engaged.  Restaurant employees reported the highest FEE level and park staff members the lowest.  The positive effects of customer participation and citizenship behaviour on FEE were largely accounted for by WSS and partially explained by the EEA of such behaviours.  The EEA of customer complaint behaviour largely helped explain the negative effect of such behaviour on FEE.  Customer misbehaviour had no significant effect on FEE.  Higher levels of WSS from supervisors were linked to higher levels of FEE.  Rewards and recognition from supervisors as well as managers’ sharing meals with staff members enhanced the positive effect of customer participation behaviour on FEE and buffered the negative impact of customer complaint behaviour on FEE. This study has extended our knowledge of critical customer behaviours experienced by frontline staff members and the potential impacts of such behaviours on their engagement levels.  Findings provided insights into how customer behaviour intervention and supervisor development can support service staff members within the hospitality community.  Such activities can help staff members cope with the job stress arising from high emotional demands.  Rather than focus on the engagement score, managers should take FEE as a management tool, measure the key affecting factors, and build an effective workplace culture.


Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Keyes, C. L. (2002). Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies. In C. L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Eds.), Flourishing: The positive person and the good life (pp. 205– 224). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of managerial psychology, 21(7), 600-619.

Author contact

FU Ying
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1  CAN

Return to concurrent session 6

Examining the realities and meanings of tourism from a local perspective in Muskoka

Ashley Gallant, University of Waterloo
Karla Boluk, University of Waterloo

The complexities of host-guest relationships have been a topic of interest in tourism studies in a variety of landscapes, as tourism often supports transient and fleeting experiences on behalf of visitors (Doxey, 1975; Butler, 1980; Su & Wall, 2010). However, this concept is challenged when guests become more permanent; invested in the destinations and communities they are visiting by purchasing second homes or cottages. This paper, explores rural Muskoka, Ontario, two hours north of Toronto to try and understand how “local people” or long-term residents view the primary industry of tourism in their hometown, and their relationships and perceptions of “the cottager”.

Muskoka, Ontario has been recognized as an attractive environment for cottaging and tourism due to its many lakes and forested areas. The five area municipalities which make up the destination are characterized by first class resorts, artisanal shops, and visitor attractions which greatly benefit from a substantial seasonal population which enables the area to offer amenities that are “normally associated with larger cities, while maintaining the lifestyle of a small community” (The District Municipality of Muskoka, 2014). Specifically, the seasonal population is estimated to be 83,620 people, while the permanent population accounts for 60,410 people. As of 2011, almost half of the work force was employed in the tourism, construction, and the service industry (District of Muskoka, 2014). Due to the seasonality of the destination, the unemployment rate is at a high 8.3%, compared to the Ontario average of 6.4% (District of Muskoka, 2014). Seasonal work has left a large number of local people jobless during the off-season, or struggling to make a living through minimum wage jobs. However, rather than a resentment towards the tourism industry and “cottagers”, it appears that there is a sense of gratitude for the industry, and an interest in promoting tourism, as evidenced in the data by statements such as, “without the cottagers, we would be nothing”.

The purpose of this working paper is to examine the realities of Muskoka from local perspectives to explore more than the Muskoka brand, commonly alluded to as the rural playground for the rich and the famous. 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out with local community members in Bracebridge, Huntsville, Gravenhurst, Muskoka Lakes, and Lake of Bays, making up four of the five area municipalities. Interviews ranged from 45 minutes-2 hours in length and were transcribed by the first author. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data, which was approached with three stages of grounded theory coding (initial coding, focused coding, theoretical coding), as influenced by Charmaz (2006). Through a critical lens, the dichotomy of the “us-they” (Jaakson,1986), the representation of place and place attachment (MacCannell, 1973; Buckley, 2005; Harrison, 2014), rural social activism (Mair, 2002; Trussell & Mair, 2011, Peng, 2016), community engagement (Glendinning et al, 2003; Möller, 2016), and the hyper-development of amenity rich places (Hall and Muller, 2004; Marcouiller et al, 2011) are discussed.


Buckley, R. (2005). Social Trends and Ecotourism: Adventure Recreation and Amenity Migration.

Butler, R. (1980). The Concept Of A Tourist Area Cycle Of Evolution: Implications For Management Of Resources. Canadian Geographer The Canadian Geographer/LeGéographe Canadien, 24(1), 5-12. 

Charmaz, K. Constructing grounded theory. A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Sage Thousands Oaks. 2006.

Doxey, V. (1975). A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants. Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings of Travel and Tourism Research Association.195198.

District Municipality of Muskoka, Planning & Economic Development Department (2013). Muskoka Fast Facts

Hall, C. M., & Müller, D. K. (2004). Introduction: Second homes, curse or blessing, revisited. In C. M. Hall, & D. K. Muller (Eds.), Tourism, mobility and second homes: Between    elite landscape and common ground (pp. 3–14). Clevedon, England: Channel View.

Harrison, J. (2014). Timeless place: The Ontario cottage. University of British Columbia Press

Jaakson, R. (1986). Second-home domestic tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 13(3), 367-391. 

MacCannell, D. (1973). Staged authenticity: Arrangements of social space in tourist settings. American Journal of Sociology, 79(3), 589–603.           

Mair, H. (2002). Civil leisure? Exploring the relationship between leisure, activism and social change. Leisure/Loisir, 27(3-4), 213-237. 

Marcouiller, D. W., Lapping, M. B., & Furuseth, O. J. (2011). Rural housing, exurbanization, and amenity-driven development: Contrasting the "haves" and the "have nots" Farnham: Ashgate.

Möller, P. (2016). Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community. Fennia – International Journal of Geography Fennia

Peng, K., & Lin, P. M. (2016). Social entrepreneurs: Innovating rural tourism through the activism of service science. Int J Contemp Hospitality Mngt International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(6), 1225-1244. 

Su, M. & Wall, G. (2010). Implications of host-guest interactions for tourists’ travel behaviour and experiences. Tourism: An International Interdisciplinary Journal, 58 (1), 37-50.

Trussell, D. E., & Mair, H. (2010). Seeking judgment free spaces: Poverty, leisure, and social inclusion. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(4), 513-533. 

Author contact

Ashley Gallant
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 9

Identifying the characteristics of welcoming and inclusive recreation settings and programs from a “first voice” perspective

Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University
Robyn Burns, Dalhousie University
Lara Fenton, University of Manitoba
Susan Hutchinson, Dalhousie University
Rob Gilbert, Dalhousie University
Barbara Hamilton-Hinch, Dalhousie University
Heidi Lauckner, Dalhousie University
Catherine White, Dalhousie University

Recreation that takes place outside the home in community settings such as parks, community centres, not-for-profit clubs and organizations, and commercial spaces offers opportunities for social interactions that cultivate a sense of belonging (Iwasaki, Coyle, & Shank, 2010). These opportunities to engage in community life through recreation foster social inclusion, defined as access to opportunities to participate in the social life of one’s community, one of the social determinants of health most strongly associated with good mental health (Walker, Verins, Moodie, & Webster, 2005). Given that 20% of Canadians will experience mental health challenges in any given year (Mental Health Commission of Canada [MHCC], 2012) as well as the tendency (both within and outside of the Canadian context) to avoid seeking formal health care for mental health issues (Henderson, Evans-Lacko, & Thornicroft, 2013), supporting mental health through community-based strategies is a key aspect of ensuring the wellbeing of Canadians. Ideally, such community-based strategies should be rooted in recovery principles, which focus on regaining control, meaning, and purpose in life. Thus, personally meaningful community-based recreation participation can be an essential resource for people living with mental health challenges. At the same time, people living with mental health challenges continue to experience barriers to participation in community recreation (Lemaire & Mallik, 2005). The purpose of this project was to identify, from the point of view of people living with mental health challenges, the characteristics that make community-based recreation programs welcoming and inclusive. Using an appreciative inquiry approach, which highlights what is working well (Reed, 2007), along with community-based research methods (Minkler & Wallerstein, 2003), data were gathered through four focus groups and six go-along interviews where the researcher participated with the research participant in a recreation setting or program that they had experienced as welcoming. The data were represented by the following themes: (1) Barriers: ‘It’s not that easy’, (2) Benefits, (3) Roles of peer support, (4) Naturally social activity, (5) Inclusive leadership, and (6) Helping people feel prepared. Following preliminary data analyses, the researchers held an integrated knowledge translation workshop where people who had participated in earlier stages of data collection were invited to collaborate with researchers to synthesize the data, culminating in the creation of draft guidelines for cultivating inclusive and welcoming recreation settings and programs. These guidelines, intended as a resource for program directors, staff, volunteers and front-line recreation workers, highlight: the need for more collaboration among the mental health, recreation, and related sectors; providing support to “get to the door” for recreation programming; building flexibility into program opportunities; helping people to be prepared to enter new settings, such as by providing a detailed description of what to expect; providing formal and informal opportunities for peer support; and emphasizing relationship-building by providing embedded social opportunities within a recreation program. With the aim of fostering social inclusion in recreation settings and programs, this research demonstrates the value of engaging “first voice” research participants at multiple stages throughout the research process.


Henderson, C., Evans-Lacko, S., & Thornicroft, G. (2013). Mental illness stigma, help seeking, and public health programs. American Journal of Public Health, 103(5), 777-780. 

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C. P., & Shank, J. W. (2010). Leisure as a context for active living, recovery, health and life quality for persons with mental illness in a global context. Health Promotion International, 25(4), 483-494. 

Lemaire, G.S., & Mallik, K. (2005). Barriers to community integration for participants in community-based psychiatric rehabilitation. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 19(3), 125-132. 

MHCC. (2012). Changing directions, changing lives: The mental health strategy for Canada. Calgary, AB.

Minkler, M., & Wallerstein, N. (2003). Introduction to community based participatory research. In M. Minkler & N. Wallerstein (Eds.), Community-based participatory research for health (pp. 3-26). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Reed, J. (2007). Appreciative inquiry: Research for change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Walker, L., Verins, I., Moodie, R., & Webster, K. (2005). Responding to the social and economic determinants of mental health: A conceptual framework. In H. Herrman, S. Saxena, & R. Moodie (Eds.), Promoting mental health: A report of the World Health Organization: Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and the University of Melbourne (pp. 89-106). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Author contact

Karen Gallant
Dalhousie University
Stairs House, 6230 South St., PO Box 15000
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 7

Exploring the influence of a family holiday on Chinese adolescents’ subjective wellbeing

Mingjie Gao, University of Waterloo

As documented, family holidays can be beneficial to family members’ health and quality of life (Durko & Petrick, 2013; Dolnicar, Yanamandram, & Cliff, 2012). However, very few studies have discussed the beneficial role of the family holiday from adolescents’ perspectives (Lee, Graefe, & Burns, 2008). Thus it is necessary to examine the validity and applicability of existing research findings of family holidays and understand whether family holidays influence adolescents’ quality of life. Therefore, this study described Chinese adolescents’ family holidays and examined the influence of family holidays on Chinese adolescents’ subjective wellbeing (SWB).

To achieve the objectives of this study, an empirical study was conducted based on a post-positivist orientation. To be specific, this study surveyed middle school students (grade 7 to 9) in the urban area of a big-size city located in the East part of Mainland China. This study applied a longitudinal research design. Data collection consisted of three phases, which were before the Labor Holiday, right after the Labor Holiday and one month after the Labor Holiday. Participants’ SWB was measured at three phases, additionally respondents’ travel information was asked in the second phase.

There are four main findings of this study. 1) Two-thirds adolescents of Chinese families did not travel during the Labor Holiday. Rather than go on vacations, they either attended additional tutorials at private institutions or went over materials by themselves at home. 2) In general, for both adolescents who traveled and who did not travel, their SWB was significantly higher after the Labor Holiday than before holiday. However, the increase of SWB of adolescents who traveled was significantly higher than those who did not travel. 3) The beneficial effect of the family holiday on adolescents’ SWB faded out gradually. It was found that Chinese adolescents’ SWB was decreased to pre-holiday levels one month after the Labor Holiday. 4) For those adolescents who traveled during the holiday, the beneficial role of vacations was exerted the most when they traveled with both parents and stayed away from home overnight.

With the results mentioned above, it can be concluded that family holidays can increase Chinese adolescents’ SWB no matter whether they travel or not. However, traveling during family holidays can lift adolescents’ SWB to a higher level as it does for adult groups (Gilbert & Abdullah, 2004; Nawijn & Veenhoven, 2011). In addition, this study finds that most Chinese adolescents do not travel during holidays. This finding echoes to previous research in which argues that vacations have been involved in modern family life in China in recent decades and it is different from the western society that having family vacations as a tradition (Letho, Fu, Li & Zhou, 2013). This study fills in research gaps with demonstrations of the beneficial role of family holidays on adolescents’ SWB, which adds values to understand the beneficial role of holidays from a more inclusive perspective. This study also provides insights for policy makers, school administrators, parents, and guardians who care about adolescents’ SWB.


Dolnicar, S., Yanamandram, V., & Cliff, K. (2012). The contribution of vacations to quality of life. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 59-83.

Durko, A. M., & Petrick, J. F. (2013). Family and relationship benefits of travel experiences: a literature review. Journal of Travel Research, 52(6), 720-730.

Gilbert, D., & Abdullah, J. (2004). Holiday-taking and the sense of well-being. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(1), 103-121.

Nawijn, J., & Veenhoven, R. (2011). The effect of leisure activities on life satisfaction: The importance of holiday trips. In Brdar, I. (eds.), The Human Pursuit of Well-Being (pp. 39-53). Netherlands: Springer publishing.

Lee, B., Graefe, A., & Burns, R. (2008). Family recreation: a study of visitors who travel with children. World Leisure Journal, 50(4), 259-267.

Lehto, X. Y., Fu, X., Li, H., & Zhou, L. (2013). Vacation benefits and activities: Understanding Chinese family travelers. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, December 23. 

Author contact

Mingjie Gao
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 3

Interlocal leisure cooperation agreements: Roles and perceptions of local actors in rural areas

Jocelyn Garneau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Marc-André Lavigne, Directeur de Maîtrise, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

During the last decades, many central governments entrusted more and more responsibilities to their local counterparts. However, some of these local administrations saw their funding decrease due to population exodus and reductions of provincial transfers, especially in rural areas. Consequently, many of the smallest towns and villages reduced the amount of services provided by their public administration, which is typical of rural areas in post-industrialized countries (Woods, 2005; Jean, Dionne & Desrosiers, 2014). Many services also disappeared, institutions such as banks and post offices, for instance. For the same reasons, public leisure professionals have to achieve more and to do better with fewer resources (Thibault & Lavigne, 2016). Therefore, alternative ways to increase the quality and diversity of public leisure services offered to rural populations are considered. This ongoing research focuses on the impacts of one possible alternative way to offer public leisure services: interlocal cooperation. Interlocal cooperation has been used in several developed countries, including Canada, to enhance the overall quality and diversity of public services available to citizens living in various rural settings (Warner, 2006; Hulst & Van Montfort, 2007; Spicer, 2015). For the past two decades, scientific literature on interlocal cooperation focused on the legal context surrounding the phenomenon in different developed countries and the characteristics of the resulting interlocal agreements between cities (Hulst & Van Montfort, 2007; Lesage, McMillan & Hepburn (2008); Morton, Chen & Morse (2008); Spicer (2015); Rakar, Tičar & Klun (2015)). While these two latter topics are relatively well documented, there is little scientific work focusing on the actors engaged in interlocal cooperation when the nature of the collaboration is related to leisure services, might they be professionals, local representatives or volunteers from local leisure associations. Consequently, this presentation will aim at answering the following question: what roles are played by the different actors that intervene in an interlocal leisure cooperation agreement?

This presentation will be based on a series of twelve to fifteen interviews to be conducted between February 2017 and March 2017. Themes discussed in the interviews to determine who plays what role and will include topics related to their responsibilities, their interaction with other actors as well as their positive and negative attitudes towards interlocal cooperation. Participants will also be questioned on how their rural setting affects the quality of their public leisure services. The interviews will help to better understand the impacts that local actors have on the success or the failure to provide quality public leisure services in a rural setting participating in an interlocal leisure cooperation agreement.


Hulst, R., & Van Montfort, A. (2007). Chapitre 1: Inter-municipal cooperation: a widespread phenomenon. Dans Hulst, R., & Van Montfort (Eds.) Inter-Municipal Cooperation in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.

Jean, B., Dionne, S. & Desrosiers, L. (2014). Comprendre le Québec rural. Chaire de recherché du Canada en développement rural. Université du Québec à Rimouski. 79 pages.

Lesage, E.C.J., McMillan, M.L. & Hepburn, N. (2008). Municipal Shared Service Collaboration in the Alberta Capital Region: The Case of Recreation. Canadian Public Administration, 51(3). 455-473.

Morton, L.W., Chen, Y.-C. & Morse, R.S. (2008). Small town civic structure and interlocal collaboration for public services. City and Community, 7(1). 45-60.

Rakar, I., Tičar, B. & Klun, M. (2015). Inter-municipal Cooperation: Challenges in Europe and in Slovenia. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 45. 185-200.

Spicer, Z. (2015). Regionalism, Municipal Organisation, and Interlocal Cooperation in Canada. Canadian Public Policy, 41(2). 137-150.

Thibault, A. (2008). Le loisir public et civil au Québec: Dynamique, démocratique, passionnel et fragile. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.

Thibault, A. & Lavigne, M.-A. (2016). Les enjeux du loisir public québécois: la dimension politique. Bulletin de l’Observatoire québécois du loisir, 13(13).

Warner, M.E. (2006). Inter-municipal Cooperation in the U.S.: A Regional Governance Solution?. Urban Public Economics Review, 6. 221-239.

Woods, M. (2005). Rural Geography. London: SAGE

Author contact

Jocelyn Garneau
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351 boul. Des Forges C.P. 500
Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 5H7
819-376-5011, ext. 3287

Return to concurrent session 6

The relevance of innovation theory of successful aging for baby boomers transitioning to retirement

Rebecca Genoe, University of Regina
Toni Liechty, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Hannah Marston, The Open University

Several theories of aging (e.g., activity theory, continuity theory) have guided leisure and aging research over the past several decades. Most of these theories originated in the fields of psychology or sociology and have been applied by leisure scholars.  Recently, Innovation Theory of Successful Aging was postulated to specifically explore leisure in retirement (Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007).  Unlike previous theories which suggest that older adults either maintain similar leisure patterns or cease participation, innovation theory indicates that older adults seek out new leisure opportunities in later life in order to reinvent or preserve a sense of self (Nimrod, 2008). Similarly, it suggests that adopting new leisure activities in retirement can promote personal growth in later life.  However, Nimrod and Kleiber suggest that because the theory is at “a formative stage,” (p. 18) additional research is necessary to refine it. Therefore, in this presentation, we will explore the relevance of Innovation Theory for Canadian baby boomers transitioning to retirement. We utilized a multi-author blog to understand baby boomers’ experiences of leisure as they transitioned to retirement.  Participants included twenty-five adults who were planning to retire within five years or who had recently retired.  Participants blogged about leisure and retirement for three two-week sessions over several months, followed by in-person focus groups, which were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim.  While participants were invited to write about topics of their choosing, guiding questions were provided as a starting point for discussion.  Questions included: What did you do with your free time today? Were any of these activities new?  What do these activities mean to you?  Data were analyzed following Charmaz’s (2014) initial, focused, and selective coding.  Participants valued leisure throughout the retirement transition as it helped them embrace the challenges and joys of this new life phase.  Pre-retirement participants viewed leisure as an escape from work related stress and looked forward to increased free time to pursue both new and long-held interests.  Retirees had more time to invest in pursuit of lifelong activities and discovering new activities that upheld lifelong values (e.g., a participant who valued physical activity took up crossfit). Along with pursuing new and former leisure, participants described both developing new social relationships and rekindling old ones.  A minority of participants struggled to identify meaningful opportunities to replace feelings of accomplishment found in the workplace.  The findings indicate that innovation theory may be relevant in explaining leisure engagement amongst baby boomers transitioning to retirement. Participants pursued activities that were meaningful and contributed to a sense of well-being in retirement such as personal growth, health and well-being, and time with loved ones. Thus, their leisure choices contributed to both self-reinvention innovation and self-preservation innovation (Nimrod & Hutchinson, 2010; Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007). Research suggests that baby boomers are markedly different from previous generations and may have more inclination to adopt new leisure activities in later life (Pruchno, 2012). Additional research is needed to explore leisure innovation beyond the initial transition as baby boomers begin to settle into retirement.   


Charmaz, K. (2014).  Constructing Grounded Theory (2nd Ed.).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nimrod, G. (2008). In support of innovation theory: Innovation in activity patterns and life satisfaction among recently retired individuals. Aging & Society, 28, 831-846.

Nimrod, G., & Hutchinson, S. (2010). Innovation among older adults with chronic health conditions. Journal of Leisure Research, 42, 1-23.

Nimrod, G., & Kleiber, D. (2007).  Reconsidering change and continuity in later life: Towards an innovation theory of successful aging.  International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65(1), 1-22.

Pruchno, R. (2012). Not your mother’s old age: Baby boomers at 65.  The Gerontologist, 52(2), 149-152.

Author contact

M. Rebecca Genoe
Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies
University of Regina
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina SK  S4S 0A2

Return to concurrent session 2

An emotional experience: Urban parks in Amsterdam

Victoria H. Gerschbacher, NHTV Breda University of Applies Sciences and Wageningen University
Claudia Espejo Valle-Inclan, NHTV Breda University of Applies Sciences and Wageningen University
Ondrej Mitas, NHTV Breda University of Applies Sciences

Amsterdam counts over 12,5 million overnight stays annually (OIS Department for Research, Information and Statistics, 2016), leading to pedestrian congestion in the city center and subsequent experience degradation known as crowding (Vaske & Shelby, 2008). In the past few years the issue has made local headlines and dominated political discussions. Local destination managers have committed to spreading tourist flows to surrounding neighborhoods. A challenge is making visits to these neighborhoods as enjoyable as visits to the center, which has been documented to spark substantial positive emotions in visitors (Gillet, Schmitz, & Mitas, 2016; Konijn, Sluimer, & Mitas, 2016). A possible solution lies in Amsterdam’s substantial urban parks. Previous research has shown that environments perceived as “nature-made,” such as parks, spur positive emotions (Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991; Chiesura, 2004).This effect has not been tested in the context of urban tourist experience. Our study assessed the effect of perceived nature on tourists' positive emotions, a valued aspect of tourist experience. We also examined differences between first-time and repeat visitors.

Our research was based on 750 purposively sampled visitors to Amsterdam. Over three consecutive days, we collected questionnaires at busy intersections and squares in the city center as well as four adjacent, heavily-marketed neighborhoods with varying park spaces. Perceptions of the landscape as nature-made were measured using a semantic differential item adapted from Kirillova, Fu, Lehto, & Cai (2014). Positive emotions were measured using a modification of the Differential Emotion Scale by Izard (1977), used in tourism research by Gillet et al., (2016) and Konijn et al. (2016). Item scales comprised 5 points, with a value of 3 as the midpoint.

Participants saw Amsterdam as more human-made than nature-made (m=3.73, s=1.16). A linear moderation model showed that past experience does not alter the effect of perceived nature on positive emotions (b=-0.0035, t=-0.4738, p=0.6358). The main effect was significant, however, so the more a participant perceived surroundings as nature-made, the more positive emotions (s)he enjoyed (b=-0.067, t=-2.86, p=0.004).

Thus, perceiving the urban environment of Amsterdam as relatively more nature-made was associated with positive emotions, for first time as well as for repeat visitors. These findings extend existing knowledge that areas perceived as natural reduce stress (Tyrväinen et al, 2003; Adevi & Mårtensson, 2013) and anxiety (Weng & Chiang, 2014), as well as prompting positive emotions (Hartig, Mang, & Evans, 1991; Irvine et al., 2013) to tourists in urban settings. The findings are promising for addressing congestion in Amsterdam. Destination marketers may consider emphasizing parks in the neighborhood marketing campaign. If applied in other cities facing similar problems, a change in promotion could ultimately alter city tourism by making it a more balanced experience. Nature-made environments would invite the tourist to enjoy a contrast with the built environment. Future research could examine which specific emotions are affected by urban green spaces, and the role that crowding perception plays in these effects.


Adevi, A. A., & Mårtensson, F. (2013). Stress rehabilitation through garden therapy: The garden as a place in the recovery from stress. Urban forestry & urban greening, 12(2), 230-237.

Chiesura, A. (2004). The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landscape and urban planning, 68(1), 129-138.

Gillet, S., Schmitz, P., & Mitas, O. (2016). The snap-happy tourist: The effects of photographing behavior on Tourists’ Happiness. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 40(1), 37-57.

Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). Restorative effects of natural environment experiences. Environment and behavior, 23(1), 3-26.

Irvine, K. N., Warber, S. L., Devine-Wright, P., & Gaston, K. J. (2013). Understanding urban green space as a health resource: A qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK. International journal of environmental research and public health, 10(1), 417-442.

Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum.

Kirillova, K., Fu, X., Lehto, X., & Cai, L. (2014). What makes a destination beautiful? Dimensions of tourist aesthetic judgment. Tourism Management, 42, 282-293.

 Konijn, E., Sluimer, N., & Mitas, O. (2016). Click to Share: Patterns in Tourist Photography and Sharing. International Journal of Tourism Research.

OIS Department for Research, Information and Statistics, (February, 2016). Tourism in the Amsterdam Metropolitan Area: Nights, Accommodations and Jobs in the Tourism Sector 2014- 2015. (Retrieved November 29, 2016)

Tyrväinen, L., Ojala, A., Korpela, K., Lanki, T., Tsunetsugu, Y., & Kagawa, T. (2014). The influence of urban green environments on stress relief measures: A field experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 38, 1-9.

Vaske, J. J., & Shelby, L. B. (2008). Crowding as a descriptive indicator and an evaluative standard: Results from 30 years of research. Leisure Sciences, 30(2), 111-126.

Weng, P. Y., & Chiang, Y. C. (2014). Psychological restoration through indoor and outdoor leisure activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 203.

Author contact

Victoria H. Gerschbacher
NHTV University of Applied Sciences and Wageningen University
Mgr Hopmansstraat 1
Breda 4817 JT  NL

Return to concurrent session 7

Rocking the boat: Power, politics, and the pleasure craft operator card in the Northwest Territories

Audrey R. Giles, University of Ottawa 

Many Canadians spend their leisure time boating on rivers, lakes, and oceans. Since April 1, 1999, those operating a motor boat for recreational purposes have required proof of competency: the Pleasure Craft Operator Card (PCOC). The certification can be obtained by taking a course in person, online, or by challenging the exam in person. There are several exceptions the requirement of having a PCOC: i) the PCOC is not required for boat operators in the Northwest Territories or Nunavut; ii) it is not required for those operating a boat for daily living or subsistence activities. Notably, between 1991-2010, the average rate of boating fatality in the NWT was 9.6 per 100,000, a figure that was the highest in the country and sixteen times the Canadian average rate of 0.6 per 100,000 (Canadian Red Cross Society, 2014). Such high rates of boating-related fatalities raise important questions about why many northerners, particularly Aboriginal peoples, continue to be staunchly opposed to the PCOC. In this paper, we draw on data from interviews (Schostak, 2006) and focus groups (Kamberelis & Dimitraidis, 2005) we conducted as part of a community-based participatory research project (Leung, Yen, & Minkler, 2004) with three NWT communities (Inuvik, Deline, and Fort Simpson) to examine men’s attitudes and behaviours towards boating safety. Using the data, we illustrate the ways in which the PCOC is viewed by some as yet another colonial imposition into Aboriginal peoples’ lives. Nevertheless, other community members viewed the leisure safety education provided through the courses that prepare individuals to write the PCOC exam as being an important part of reducing boating-related injuries and fatalities. They argued, however, that the education must be relevant for northerners, and pointed to the ways in which current PCOC courses and Transport Canada (2014) requirements are firmly rooted in Eurocentric, southern practices and knowledge that fail to account for northern geography and Aboriginal traditional knowledge. For example, though participants identified a rifle and ammunition as being vitally important boating safety equipment, these items are missing from Transport Canada’s  (2014) list for required boating safety equipment. To ensure that northerners’ perspectives and ways of life are considered in boating education, participants identified and co-created boating safety resources for their communities, including posters, a boat launch sign, and an “app,” which we will present as evidence of the ways in which northerners are best positioned to create their own leisure safety resources.


Canadian Red Cross Society. (2013). Analytical report on Aboriginal open water fatalities: Promising practices for prevention. Ottawa, Canada: Author.

Kamberelis, G. & Dimitraidis, G. (2005). Focus groups: Strategic articulations of pedagogy, politics, and inquiry.  In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 887-907).  Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Leung, M. W., Yen, I. H., & Minkler, M. (2004). Community based participatory research: A promising approach for increasing epidemiology's relevance in the 21st century.  International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(3), 499‐506.

Schostak, J. (2006).  The interview in the project context.  In Interviewing and representation in qualitative research (pp. 9-25).  New York, NY: Open University Press.

Transport Canada. (2014). Safe boating guide: Safety tips and requirements for pleasure craft

Author contact

Audrey R. Giles
613-562-5800, ext. 2988

Return to concurrent session 4

Social capital in leisure studies: Exploring its past, present and future as a theme in leisure research

Troy Glover, University of Waterloo

In the spirit of the conference theme, the proposed presentation will explore the past, present, and future of social capital in leisure studies. Inspired by Putnam (1995, 2000) and introduced to leisure studies by Hemingway (1999), social capital—“the consequence of investment in and cultivation of social relationships allowing an individual access to resources that would otherwise be unavailable to him or her” (Glover, Shinew & Parry, 2005, p. 87)—has seemingly captured the collective imagination of our field as evidenced by its impressive proliferation in our literature over the past 17 years. Described as a “growth industry” by Baker and Faulkner (2009) and “routinized” in both everyday conversation and policy circles (Woolcock, 2010), social capital has not surprisingly matured into one of the central themes in leisure scholarship (see Glover, 2016). Accordingly, it represents an important topic that warrants a comprehensive review to guide future research. In this sense, the proposed presentation will review the social capital and leisure literature, synthesize its results, and identify potential research gaps and research needs. The review will map key concepts underpinning the research area, identify the main sources and types of evidence available, and evaluate where research on the topic has or has not been completed. The latter of the three aims will necessarily rely on the extant literature from other fields and disciplines to identify areas of potential inquiry for future leisure research. In so doing, the proposed presentation will speak to the legacy of social capital and guide research on the subject in leisure studies.


Baker, W., & Faulkner, R. R. (2009). Social capital, double embeddedness, and mechanisms of stability and change. American Behavioral Scientist, 52(11), 1531-1555.

Glover, T. D. (2016). Leveraging leisure-based community networks to access social capital. In G. Walker, D. Scott, and M. Stoldoska (eds.), Leisure matters: The state and future of leisure studies (pp. 277-286). State College, PA: Venture publishing.

Glover, T. D., Shinew, K. J., & Parry, D. C. (2005). Association, sociability, and civic culture: The democratic effect of community gardening. Leisure Sciences, 27(1), 75-92.

Hemingway, J. L. (1999). Leisure, social capital, and democratic citizenship. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(2), 150.

Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America's declining social capital. Journal of democracy, 6(1), 65-78.

Putnam, R. D. (2001). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. Simon and Schuster.

Woolcock, M. (2010). The rise and routinization of social capital, 1988-2008. Annual review of political science, 13, 469-487.

Author contact

Troy Glover
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 33097

Return to concurrent session 1

Shea: A women's livelihood to achieve poverty reduction

Angelica Granja, Vancouver Island University

Extreme poverty is still one of the most critical issues in our time. Even though Governments and International Agencies have been working to reduce poverty in the Global South, there are still regions that are lagging on this matter (UN, 2015). Rural sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as one of the most vulnerable regions for living in poverty (IFAD, 2016). Within this region, it has been proved that women, and households that depend on women, are more susceptible to experience poverty (Batana, 2013; McFerson, 2010). Despite their apparent disadvantaged position within the society, existing literature on Gender and Development has revealed that rural women make a positive contribution to community development and economy (Moyo, 2014; Sam, 2008). Furthermore, women within the Global South are increasingly being considered as potential agents in addressing poverty at the household and local levels (Harriet, Opoku-Asare, & Anin 2014).

This study analyses the Shea Butter production in the rural community of Wechiau, located in the Upper West region of northern Ghana, to better understand the role that this industry plays in women's lives and their families. Shea Butter has traditionally been produced by rural  women and is particularly useful as a livelihood due to the prevalence of Shea trees in the north of the country. Thus, the harvesting of Shea nuts and production of Shea Butter has been identified as: a) a source of income for women, b) a tool to reduce poverty at the household level, and c) a culturally relevant sustainable livelihood (Bello-Bravo, Lovett, & Pittendrigh, 2015; Elias & Carney, 2007; Greig, 2006; Hatskevich, Jenicek, & Darkwah, 2011; Naughton, 2016). In the case of the Wechiau community, the creation of the Organic Shea Cooperative for women has impacted the process of collecting, preparing, and selling nuts with the purpose of creating resilience among the community and empower local women.

This exploratory case study is framed within the triple bottom line model of sustainability with a gender focus; under the premise that rural development cannot be sustainable if the female force is neglected (Baker, 2015). Considering the three areas of intervention: society, environment and economy; this study seeks to address the overall impact of Shea Butter production on local women in Wechiau. Using a phenomenological approach, life history interviews were conducted with 11 women of the Organic Shea Cooperative the summer of 2016 in the community of Wechiau. Deductive analysis of the rich qualitative data will lead to a better understanding of the rural women's contribution to poverty reduction and development of their community; as well as the economic and social impacts of this particular livelihood on lives of local women and their families.


Baker, S. (2015). Sustainable Development (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Batana, Y. M. (2013). Multidimensional Measurement of Poverty Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Social Indicators Research, 112(2), 337-362. 

Bello-Bravo, J., Lovett, P. N., & Pittendrigh, B. R. (2015). The Evolution of Shea Butter's "Paradox of Paradoxa" and the Potential Opportunity for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Improve Quality, Market access and Women's Livelihoods Across Rural Africa. Sustainability, 7(5), 5752-5772. 

Elias, M., & Carney, J. (2007). African Shea Butter: A Feminized Subsidy from Nature. Africa, 77(1), 37-62. 

Greig, D. (2006). Shea Butter: Connecting Rural Burkinabè Women to International Markets Through Fair Trade. Development in Practice, 16(5), 465-475. 

Harriet, T., Opoku-Asare, N. A., & Anin, E. K. (2014). The Role of Women in Reducing Household Poverty in the Bongo District of the Upper East Region, Ghana. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 3(4), 99-110.

Hatskevich, A., Jenicek, V., & Darkwah, S. A. (2011). Shea Industry–A Means of Poverty Reduction in Northern Ghana. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica, 44(4), 223-228.

International Fund for Agricultural Development (2016). Rural Development Report 2016.

McFerson, H. M. (2010). Poverty Among Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Selected Issues. Journal of International Women's Studies, 11(4), 50.

Moyo, C. S. (2014). Active Participation of Rural Women in Developmental Issues : Poverty Alleviation Lessons for South Africa. Gender and Behaviour, 12(1), 5994-6001.

Naughton, C. C. (2016). Modeling Food Security, Energy, and Climate and Cultural Impacts of a Process: The Case Study of Shea Butter in Sub-Saharan Africa. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.

Sam, N. A. K. (2008). The Feminization of Sustainable Development: Addressing the Participation   of Women in Achieving Food Security in Ghana—a Study of Rural Greater Accra. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing).

United Nations (2015). The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015. New York: United Nations. 

United Nations Development Programme (2016). 2015 Ghana Millennium Development Goals

Author contact

Angelica Granja
​Vancouver Island University
Nanaimo BC

Return to concurrent session 1

The use of video as a data collection tool in narrative inquiry

Tom Griffin, Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University

This presentation considers video as a data collection method, drawing from a constructionist narrative inquiry (Burr, 1995; Pernecky, 2012).  Narratives form meaning in everyday life (Chase, 2005, Ong, 1982), and are an inter-subjective construction of values and identity (Glover, 2003; Kyle & Chick, 2004; Ollerenshaw & Creswell, 2002).  Narrative inquiry as a methodology attempts to construct a storied depiction of a phenomenon, and aims to “offer readers a place to imagine their own uses and applications” of the ideas present (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000, p. 42). 

The study focussed on immigrants’ experiences of hosting friends and relatives.  Leisure participation has broadly positive influences on newcomer settlement (e.g. Horolets, 2012; Stodolska & Livengood, 2006), and hosting is a particularly rich leisure context that encourages links between old and new worlds (Griffin, 2016; Humbracht, 2015).  I met with nine participants and discussed their experiences in unstructured but directed conversations that were video recorded and then edited into 12-18 minute clips by myself, guided by principles of narrative construction (McCabe & Foster, 2006). I attempted to reposition small stories of specific instances into a structure that communicated a bigger story (Gregg, 2011); from arrival, to settlement, and the future, and how hosting played a role in affecting interaction with self, place, and others (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000).  Clips were shared with participants electronically.  Between 6-9 months later, I met with most participants for a second time and together we watched the clip.  Both viewers were able to pause the video for clarification, expansion, or conclusion of a story.  Participants could also challenge meanings presented and offer alternative context.  Further, many participants watched other participants’ clips producing further elicitation and reflection.  The second meetings were also video recorded, and excerpts integrated into the original clips to provide a more comprehensive representation of the experiences, interpretations, and meanings that participants had provided.  Once the final clips were completed they were shared electronically with participants for final comments and ultimately used for analysis. 

The use of video as a data collection tool offers an engaging medium in terms of narrative construction, analysis, and dissemination.  Video helped participants’ voices remain central (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000) and is more transparent in analysis (Feldman, 2007; Squire, 2013; Taylor, 2006) as non-verbal communication cues are recorded (Heath, Hindmarsh & Luff, 2010).  Video allows for a more engaging and accessible medium for participants to review and reshape their personal narratives, enhancing the trustworthiness and credibility of findings (Decrop, 2004; Larson, 1997).  The chance to reflect on and react to the video clips helped participants consider the impact and importance of hosting in their lives, an appreciation of the often overlooked leisure experiences that help give meaning to relationships with people and places.  Excerpts of the final clips, and their transcripts, have been used in presentations to academics and practitioners to convey the experiences in an engaging manner (Rahn, 2007), enhancing knowledge dissemination and mobilisation.


Burr, V. (1995). An introduction to social constructionism. New York, NY: Routledge.

Chase, S. E. (2005). Narrative inquiry: Multiple lenses, approaches, voices. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), The sage handbook of qualitative research (Third edition), (pp. 651-679). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Clandinin, D. J., & Connelly, F. M. (2000). Experience and story in qualitative research. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Decrop, A. (2004). Trustworthiness in qualitative tourism research. In J. Phillimore & L. Goodson (Eds.), Qualitative Research in Tourism: Ontologies, Epistemologies and Methodologies (pp. 156-69).  London, UK: Routledge.

Feldman, A. (2007). Validity and quality in action research. Educational Action Research, 15(1), 21-32.

Glover, T. D. (2003). Taking the narrative turn: The value of stories in leisure research. Loisir Et Société,26(1), 145-167.

Gregg, G. S. (2011). Identity in life narratives. Narrative Inquiry, 21(2), 319-328.

Griffin, T. (2016). Immigrant hosts and intra-regional travel. Tourism Geographies,19(1), 44-62.

Heath, C., Hindmarsh, J., & Luff, P. (2010). Video in qualitative research: Analysing social interaction in everyday life. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Horolets, A. (2012).  Migrants’ leisure and integration. Instytut Spraw Publicznych. 

Humbracht, M. (2015). Reimagining transnational relations: The embodied politics of visiting friends and relatives mobilities. Population, Space and Place, 21(7), 640-653.

Kyle, G., & Chick, G. (2004). Enduring leisure involvement: The importance of personal relationships. Leisure Studies, 23(3), 243-266.

Larson, C. L. (1997). Re-presenting the subject: Problems in personal narrative inquiry. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 10(4), 455-470.

McCabe, S., & Foster, C. (2006). The role and function of narrative in tourist interaction. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 4(3), 194-215.

Ollerenshaw, J. A., & Creswell, J. W. (2002). Narrative research: A comparison of two restorying data analysis approaches. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(3), 329-347.

Ong, W. J. (1982). Oral remembering and narrative structures. In D. Tannen (Ed.), Analyzing discourse: Text and talk (pp. 12-24). Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.

Pernecky, T. (2012). Constructionism: Critical pointers for tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2), 1116-1137.

Rahn, J. (2007). Digital content: Video as research. In J. G. Knowles, & A. L. Cole (Eds.), Handbook of the arts in qualitative research, (pp. 299-312). Los Angeles: Sage Publications Ltd.

Squire, C. (2013). From experience-centred to socioculturally-oriented approaches to narrative. In M. Andrews, C. Squire, & M. Tamboukou (Eds.), Doing narrative research. (2nd ed., pp. 47-71). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd.

Stodolska, M., & Livengood, J. S. (2006). The influence of religion on the leisure behavior of immigrant Muslims in the United States. Journal of Leisure Research,38(3), 293-320.

Taylor, S. (2006). Narrative as construction and discursive resource. Narrative inquiry16(1), 94-102.

Author contact

Tom Griffin
Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism management
Ryerson University
350 Victoria St
Toronto ON  M5B 2K3

Return to concurrent session 6

The gendered natures of polar bear tourism

Bryan S. R. Grimwood, University of Waterloo
Olga Yudina, University of Waterloo
Lisbeth A. Berbary, University of Waterloo
Heather Mair, University of Waterloo

This paper offers a critique of nature-based Arctic tourism through a gender-aware analysis of representations associated with polar bear tourism in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The guiding purpose of our study was to analyze how ‘nature’ is gendered in its construction and presentation through tourism, and to what effect. Our study focused on revealing dominant gendered expectations and understandings (re)produced in the Churchill polar bear tourism promotional landscape. Drawing on a critical discourse analysis of qualitative and visual promotional texts, we show how various representations of polar bear tourism impose hegemonic gender roles onto polar bear bodies, which are emplaced within a conventionally gendered landscape. As the ‘Polar Bear Capital of the World’, Churchill’s wildlife viewing industry relies on the (re)creation, dissemination, and maintenance of particular meanings and natures attributed to polar bears, as well as human – polar bear relationships, for economic benefit. This gives rise to questions about how power circulates with respect to Churchill’s tourism production practices, gender being one of many axes of identity through which power operates and is interpolated. Ultimately, the paper advances literature on gender-aware analyses of tourism/leisure and environment, and argues the promotion of gendered natures must be consistently questioned to create and maintain space within the leisure field for more equitable practices and inclusive legacies.

Author contact

Bryan S. R. Grimwood, PhD
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue W.
Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 32612

Return to concurrent session 3

Hong Kong Chinese workers’ ideal affect and actual affect during leisure, and their correspondence: A follow-up to Mannell et al. (2014)

Jingjing Gui, University of Alberta
Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta
Eiji Ito, Wakayama University

Leisure is an important life domain in which preferred positive emotions are heightened and undesirable negative emotions are lessened (Hull, 1990; Kleiber, Walker, & Mannell, 2011). Leisure participation, therefore, appears to be able to bridge the discrepancy between what people ideally want to feel (i.e., ideal affect) and what people actually feel (i.e., actual affect) (Tsai, 2007). Ideal affect is largely influenced by cultural factors. For example, high-arousal positive affect (i.e., HAP) is valued by North Americans more than East Asians, whereas low-arousal positive affect (i.e., LAP) is preferred by East Asians more than North Americans (Tsai, Knutson, & Fung, 2006). The purpose of this study is to examine affect correspondence between ideal affect generally and actual affect during leisure among Hong Kong Chinese workers, and to compare these results with those reported by British Canadian workers in Mannell et al.’s (2014) study.

Data were obtained from Hong Kong Chinese who worked at least twenty hours per week. Participants reported: (a) during leisure, how frequently they felt HAP (two items: excited, enthusiastic), LAP (two items: calm, relaxed), low-arousal negative affect (LAN; two items: dull, sluggish), and high-arousal negative affect (HAN; two items: nervous, fearful); and (b) ideally, how much they would like to feel HAP, LAP, LAN, and HAN using the same items. (All items measured from 1=Never to 5=Always). The questionnaire was professionally translated and administered in Cantonese, using telephone interviewing. Participants (N = 575) were near equal male and female (49.9%/50.1%), 35 to 64 years old (67.7%), and worked on average 47.2 hours per week. Four dependent t-tests were conducted.

In terms of positive affect, Hong Kong Chinese workers reported actual LAP during leisure more frequently than its ideal level (see Table 1). There was no significant difference in frequency between ideal HAP and actual HAP during leisure. In terms of negative affect, participants experienced actual HAN during leisure less frequently than ideal HAN. The frequency they experienced actual LAN during leisure was higher than its ideal level.

After comparing our results with Mannell et al.’s (2014), the leisure domain permitted Hong Kong Chinese workers to feel more LAP and less HAN than the respective ideal levels, and helped British Canadian workers feel LAP and HAN at their ideal levels. Our finding that LAP during leisure exceeded ideal LAP suggests that leisure is being used as a “detachment-relaxation mechanism” (Newman, Tay, & Diener, 2014) to overcome Hong Kong's extremely stressful work environment (Wolford, 2008). Although British Canadians experienced less HAP during leisure than was ideal (Mannell et al., 2014), their frequency of actual HAP during leisure was not different from the level of ideal HAP for Hong Kong Chinese. Both cultural groups reported more LAN during leisure than they ideally wanted to feel. In general, Hong Kong Chinese experienced more preferred affective state levels during leisure than British Canadians.


Hull, R. B. (1990). Mood as a product of leisure: Causes and consequences. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(2), 99-111.

Kleiber, D. A., Walker, G. J., & Mannell, R. C. (2011). A social psychology of leisure (2nd ed.). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Mannell, B., Walker, G. J., & Ito, E. (2014). Ideal Affect, Actual Affect, and Affect Discrepancy During Leisure and Paid Work. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(1), 13-37.

Newman, D. B., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 555-578.

Tsai, J. L. (2007). Ideal affect: Cultural causes and behavioral consequences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2(3), 242-259.

Tsai, J. L., Knutson, B., & Fung, H. H. (2006). Cultural variation in affect valuation. Journal of personality and social psychology, 90(2), 288.

Wolford, R. (2008). Work life balance in Hong Kong: Survey results. Retrieved from CSR Asia.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Jingjing Gui
University of Alberta
3-156 University Hall, University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9  CAN
(780) 233-9746

Return to concurrent session 6

Children’s engagement in risky play during the school day

Alicia Gurr, University of Regina
Rebecca Genoe, University of Regina

Childhood risk-taking has been shown to have a positive impact on physical, psychological and developmental health. Children who take risks develop abilities such as risk management, decision making, problem solving and injury avoidance (Brussoni et al., 2015; Little, Wyver, & Gibson, 2011). However, engagement in activities that offer these benefits has decreased compared to past generations, partially due to restrictions that adults are creating based primarily on risk and safety concerns (Clements, 2004; Little et al., 2011). Little et al. define risky play as “play that provides opportunities for challenge, testing limits, exploring boundaries and learning about injury-risk” (p. 115); it involves activities that present the possibility of injury or harm (Little et al., 2011; Stephenson, 2003). Risky play might include climbing trees and play structures, riding a bicycle at high speed, using tree branches during play, and playing near lakes or campfires. As children spend a large portion of their time at school, engagement in risky play at school should be explored as a means to provide adequate risky play opportunities (Clements, 2004; Sandseter, 2007). There is currently limited literature regarding children’s engagement in risky play patterns in North American elementary schools; this proposed study will expand on the literature and provide groundwork for future inquiries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore opportunities for and barriers to children’s engagement in risky play during the school day.

This qualitative study will include 10-15 children and 10-15 educational staff from local elementary schools. It will involve an assessment of the physical environment at local elementary schools to explore the affordance for risky play. I will then observe the children during free-play at school to gather data about engagement. Educational staff will monitor play as they typically would. Following observation, I will complete semi-structured interviews with the children and educational staff to explore their perspectives of opportunities and barriers related to risky play. Interview questions will be original to this study and tested in pilot interviews.

I will review current structure, policies, rules and regulations that exist in the education system to identify items that might facilitate or impede children’s engagement in risky play. For example, media attention directed at Canadian schools over the last few years shows schools are becoming strict about body-contact by banning games such as tag. This ban was implemented because children were returning to class with scrapes and bruises (Strobel, 2015). I will seek to obtain information about restrictive policies and their rationale, which will help to identify potential barriers to engagement in risky play. 

The information gathered may help inform future research regarding the affordance of risky play for children during the school day. Ideally, the results will serve as an initial guide to creating policies that allow children to experience the vast developmental benefits associated with risky play. The results may also provide a basis for intervention to educate adults about creating opportunities and allowing for children’s exploration of risky play.


Brussoni, M., Olsen, L., Pike, I., & Sleet, D. A. (2012). Risky play and children’s safety: Balancing priorities for optimal child development. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 9, 3134-4148. 

Clements, R. (2004). An investigation of the status of outdoor play. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 5(1), 68-80. 

Little, H., Wyver, S., & Gibson, F. (2011). The influence of play context and adult attitudes on young children’s physical risk taking during outdoor play. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 19(1), 113-131. 

Sandseter, E. B. H. (2007). Categorising risky play – how can we identify risk taking in children’s play? European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 15(3), 237-252. 

Stephenson, A. (2003). Physical risk-taking: Dangerous or endangered? Early Years, 23(1), 35-43. 

Strobel, M. (2015, December 9). Toronto school’s tag ban a bummer. The Toronto Sun. 

Author contact

Alicia Gurr
University of Regina
P.O Box 19
Tyvan SK  S0G 4X0

Return to concurrent session 7

Inspiring co-creation by managing common purpose and core values

Evan Gwartz, Brock University
Kirsty Spence, Brock University

Organizational leaders may be able to enhance their capacity to co-create engaging legacies through strategic management practices that foster community integration and a common purpose. In their analysis of modern organizations, Sisodia, Sheth, and Wolfe (2014) claim that the most successful and accomplished organizations in the 21st Century can unite their stakeholders (e.g., employees, communities, customers) with a common purpose and facilitate a co-created, mutually beneficial value. To integrate a common purpose within organizational management, Dolan and Garcia (2002) put forth a strategic management approach, entitled Management by Values, that utilizes core values to create "a rallying point" (Lencioni, 2002, p. 114) for stakeholders, around which all may become aligned, engaged and coordinated.

Both academia and management practice would benefit from further insight towards how leaders may strategically utilize core values and a common purpose to facilitate a co-creation of value that better serves all stakeholders. First, such insight would expand scholarly understanding of organizational management, thereby growing the scope of an organizational leader’s work to include the integration and strategic alignment of all stakeholders through organizational elements such as core values and common purpose. Practitioners may also benefit from insight towards managerial strategies that further engage and align stakeholders such that an organization’s capacity to provide value to its community is increased.

To gain this understanding, the first author used a qualitative, case study research design to investigate the value that a sport organization believes they are providing to their stakeholders and to explore how organizational leaders could facilitate the creation of that value through the management of core values. To reach this understanding, the first author addressed the following questions: (1) what common purpose defines the value an organization believes they provide to their stakeholders, if at all?; and (2) what practices are used to manage and strategically utilize this common purpose?

Data collection strategies in the current study included observation, interviewing, and document analysis, where the first author sought to observe, perceive, and describe two elements of the organization’s behaviour, including: a) various expressions of values within the organization, which might define the value the organization aims to co-create with/for their stakeholders; and b) management practices by organizational leaders which might provide insight into how core values and a common purpose are strategically managed within the organization. Data were analyzed to create a case description to explain: a) sources of value that can unite and engage all of the organization’s stakeholders; and b) management strategies leaders use to manage and leverage core values for organizational success.

This case study serves as a reflection on how an organization can strategically align and engage their stakeholders by creating and managing core values and a common purpose. By further understanding how organizations can create these ‘rallying points’ for stakeholders, both academics and practitioners may be presented with a further opportunity to align an organization’s stakeholders and create an organizational context where the co-creation of engaging legacies can occur.


Dolan, S. L., & Garcia, S. (2002). Managing by values: Cultural redesign for strategic organizational change at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Journal of Management Development, 21(2), 101–117.

Lencioni, P. (2002). Make your values mean something. Harvard Business Review, 80(7), 5-9.

Sisodia, R., Sheth, J. N., & Wolfe, D. B. (2014). Firms of endearment: how world-class companies profit from passion and purpose. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Author contact

Evan Gwartz
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 6

Exploring recreation use and stewardship of the North Saskatchewan River Valley, Edmonton Alberta

Elizabeth A. Halpenny, University of Alberta

Described here is an examination of Edmonton, Alberta residents’ (n=1501) relationship with the North Saskatchewan River Valley (NSRV), a ‘ribbon of green’ that winds through the heart of the city. Acknowledging the planet’s rapidly increasing environmental decline, this study was designed to advance residents’ stewardship of the River Valley and similar natural environments. Edmontonians’ behaviours that affect the river valley’s environmental health as well as the quality and consumption of river water were examined. Additionally attitudes towards the NSRV and intensions to engage in pro-environmental behaviours that support the ecological health of the valley and its river were measured. To understand why residents engage (or not) in environmental stewardship, several factors that may affect river valley attitudes and behaviours were documented: residential proximity, engagement in recreation within the River Valley, attitudes towards environmental regulations, and intensity of attachment expressed towards the River Valley.

METHOD: A random-digit-dial telephone survey of residents was conducted in January 2014 to collect this data. Postal codes were used to obtained a stratified random sample of people living adjacent (n=201), nearby (≤15 min. walk) (n=650) and distant (>15 min. walk) (n=650). Responses to scale questions (e.g., place attachment, 9 items; environmental regulations, 6 items; public environmental intentions, 6 items; and private environmental intentions , 6 items, were assess for internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and unidimensional factor structure (EFA, CFA). ANOVAs were used to compare groups of respondents.

FINDINGS: Respondents were characterized by a mean age of 55 years, 50% male, and 95% had previously visited the River Valley. Sixty percent had completed a college or university degree, and household incomes of more than $150,000/year was the most common income level (22.5%). Congruent with previous proximity studies (Cohen et al., 2007; Tapsuwan et al., 2012; Williams et al., 2009), residents living adjacent and nearby the River Valley were more likely to engage in frequent River Valley recreation activities, this was especially true in the winter. Higher levels of River Valley recreation were more strongly associated with pro-environmental attitudes and intentions towards the River Valley, aligning well with previous recreation-pro-environmental research (Devine-Wright, 2009; Kyle et al., 2003). Intensity of attachment towards the River Valley was also higher for those who live closer to the Valley. Attachment to place has been observed as an important predictor of pro-environmental behaviour and attitudes (Halpenny, 2010; Scannel & Gifford, 2010). This study documented a similar relationship between attachment and respondents’ stewardship attitudes and behaviours. Finally, adjacent and nearby River Valley residents appeared to be more supportive of environmental regulations relating to the Valley, and distant residents appeared to be less supportive or at least ambivalent; this is in contrast to some of the observations made by Larsen and Santelmann (2007) and Doss and Taff (1996). These observations will be used in subsequent analysis that models the relationship between these variables to make recommendations for practitioners.


Cohen, D. A., McKenzie, T. L., Sehgal, A., Williamson, S., Golinelli, D., & Lurie, N. (2007). Contribution of public parks to physical activity. American Journal of Public Health97(3), 509-514.

Devine‐Wright, P. (2009). Rethinking NIMBYism: The role of place attachment and place identity in explaining place‐protective action. Journal of community & applied social psychology19(6), 426-441.

Doss, C. R., & Taff, S. J. (1996). The influence of wetland type and wetland proximity on residential property values. Journal of agricultural and resource economics, 120-129.

Halpenny, E. A. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology30(4), 409-421.

Kyle, G. T., Absher, J. D., & Graefe, A. R. (2003). The moderating role of place attachment on the relationship between attitudes toward fees and spending preferences. Leisure sciences25(1), 33-50.

Scannell, L., & Gifford, R. (2010). The relations between natural and civic place attachment and pro-environmental behavior. Journal of environmental psychology30(3), 289-297.

Tapsuwan, S., MacDonald, D. H., King, D., & Poudyal, N. (2012). A combined site proximity and recreation index approach to value natural amenities: An example from a natural resource management region of Murray-Darling Basin. Journal of environmental management94(1), 69-77.

Williams, D. R., Patterson, M. E., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1992). Beyond the commodity metaphor: Examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place. Leisure sciences14(1), 29-46.

Author contact

Elizabeth Halpenny, PhD
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, 
2-130G University Hall, Van Vliet Complex, University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 7

Motivations for festival patronage expressed by mobile ICT users and non-users: a comparison of Canadian cultural festival participants.

Elizabeth A. Halpenny
Christine van Winkle
Kelly MacKay
Nancy Yan

This presentation reports preliminary exploration of data collected at a Canadian cultural festival. The study purpose was to increase understanding of festival patrons’ use of mobile information communication technology (ICT) during a leisure experience. Research questions included: (1) How did festival patrons engage (or not) in mobile ICT while at the festival; (2) What were festival patrons’ motivation for festival participation; and (3) How did festival patrons’ motivations for participating in the festival vary based on use/non-use of mobile digital technology. Findings relating to these questions can assist festival administrators in formulating ICT service strategies and festival experience planning.  While studies have examined motivations for festival participation (Li & Petrick, 2006) and ICT use (Kim et al., 2013), to date no study has examined relations between ICT engagement and festival participation motives.

METHODOLOGY: A tablet-based, self-completion survey questionnaire was administered at a Canadian Fringe festival. The survey instrument was designed to document ICT use/non-use, frequency of use at the festival and everyday life, motivations for attending a cultural festival (Woosnam et al., 2009), and variables designed to explain ICT use (Venkatesh et al. 2003; 2012 - Unified Theory of Information Technology Acceptance and Use v. 2; Kim et al. 2013 - Mobile User Engagement scale). Temporally and geographically strategic sampling was engaged in. Fluid Survey served as the online survey platform and SPSS v.24 was used for analysis. Descriptive statistics and Independent Samples T-tests were employed for analysis.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A sample of 322 festival patrons was generated. A household income of $80,000-$99,000 (19.9%) and a completed undergraduate degree (32%) were the most common income and education level responses. The sample had a higher proportion of female respondents (62.7%) and a young mean age (35.6 years). At the time of their interception, 221 respondents has already used their mobile devices, 5 could not use their devices because they were broken or had a dead battery, 29 (8.9%) chose not to use their device because it would interfere with their experience, and 6 (1.8%) chose not to use their device because they did not feel they needed to. The latter two groups were aggregated into a “conscious non-use group” for further analysis.  Festival visitation motives (strongly disagree=1 to strongly agree=5) relating to enjoying cultural performances (M=4.29, SD=.770) and experiencing arts and culture (M=4.31, SD=31) were most strongly agreed with, while family related motives ranked lowest (e.g., “Because I thought the entire family would enjoy it” M=3.09, SD=.688). A comparison of mobile ICT users to conscious non-users revealed only one difference in responses to the 10 festival visitation motivations: “To increase my cultural knowledge” (non-users M=4.41, SD=.733; ICT users M=4.0, SD=.919; t(288) = 2.291, p = 0.023. A large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.493) suggests the importance non-users placed on cultural knowledge is quite distinct from ICT users. While cautious interpretation should be engaged in with this small sample of conscious non-ICT users, the result suggests Festivals may want to not invest in cultural education approaches that employ ICT.


Kim, Y. H., Kim, D. J., & Wachter, K. (2013). A study of mobile user engagement (MoEN): Engagement motivations, perceived value, satisfaction, and continued engagement intention. Decision Support Systems56, 361-370.

Li, X., & Petrick, J. F. (2006). A review of festival and event motivation studies. Event Management9(4), 239-245.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., Davis, G. B., & Davis, F. D. (2003). User acceptance of information technology: Toward a unified view. MIS quarterly, 425-478.

Venkatesh, V., Thong, J. Y., & Xu, X. (2012). Consumer acceptance and use of information technology: extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. MIS quarterly36(1), 157-178.

Woosnam, K. M., McElroy, K. E., & Van Winkle, C. M. (2009). The role of personal values in determining tourist motivations: An application to the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, a cultural special event. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management18(5), 500-511.

Author contact

Elizabeth Halpenny, PhD
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, 
2-130G University Hall, Van Vliet Complex, University of Alberta
Edmonton AB T6G  2H9

Return to concurrent session 2

Justice denied: Overcoming barriers to leisure, recreation and volunteering

Barbara Hamilton-Hinch, Dalhousie University
Catherine White, Dalhousie University  
Lara Fenton, University of Manitoba
Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University

On any given day in 2014-2015 there were approximately 39,000 adults in custody in Canada, and over 100,000 more under community-based supervision, most of whom will garner a criminal recordThousands of these individuals will be released annually to the community, where they will join over 3 million others in Canada with criminal records, many of whom struggle to build or rebuild a life that does not involve a return to the criminal justice system. People with a mental illness (and a criminal record) are even further challenged, as, in addition to symptoms of their illness, they often face marginalization in the form of stigma, social exclusion and discrimination (Clifton, Repper, Banks, & Remnant, 2013).

While having a criminal record is a well-known barrier to employment (Demakos, 2013), some participants in our recent study identified that it is also a limiting factor as they consider participation in other meaningful community-based activities such as volunteering (White & Hamilton-Hinch, 2015). They highlighted the fact that although they had completed their sentences, and “paid their debt to society,” they are forever marked with a criminal record that creates a barrier to full community participation.

Engaging in leisure and volunteer activity has many confirmed benefits, including improved mental health, physical functioning, finding meaning, and overall enhanced quality of life (Iwasaki et al., 2014) but people with a mental illness (and even more so, people with the added barrier of a criminal record) often face personal, social and environmental barriers to accessing such activities. Inspired by our earlier study that piqued our interest in the how a criminal record presents an additional barrier to recreation for people with mental health challenges the purpose of the current study was to explore: What are the challenges and opportunities for people with mental health challenges who have a criminal record to accessing meaningful social/leisure/recreational/volunteering activities within their community?

New directions in mental health care in Canada support recovery-oriented practice, which goes beyond symptom management to support active community participation and social inclusion. The Guidelines for Recovery-Oriented Practice (MHCC, 2015) highlight the importance of inclusive communities as the “space for recovery and active citizenship, where people find meaning” (p. 50). Participation in meaningful community leisure activities and environments is an important contributor to recovery that has largely been neglected or undervalued by mental health practitioners, recreation workers, and individuals with mental illness themselves (Iwasaki, et al., 2014; Iwasaki, Coyle, & Shank, 2010).

This study uses qualitative in-depth interviews with individuals who have mental health challenges and criminal records, and their service providers. The findings provide context- specific knowledge to build on and develop evidence-based practices that focus on overcoming barriers and enhancing leisure participation. Relevant to the conference theme, Engaging Legacies, this presentation challenges the audience to consider how people with criminal records and mental illness might rediscover dignity and worth, and become co-creators of inclusive communities that offer “second chances” in welcoming leisure environments.


Clifton, A., Repper, J., Banks, D., & Remnant, J. (2013). Co-producing social inclusion: the structure/agency conundrum. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 20(6), 514-524. 

Demakos, A. (2013). Canadian criminal records and how to start fresh. Markham, ON: Fitzhenry & Whiteside.

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C., Shank, J., Messina, E., Porter, H., Salzer, M., . . . Koons, G. (2014). Role of leisure in recovery from mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation,17(2), 147-165. 

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C. P., & Shank, J. W. (2010). Leisure as a context for active living, recovery, health and life quality for persons with mental illness in a global context. Health Promotion International, 25(4), 483-494. 

MHCC. (2015). Guidelines for Recovery-Oriented Practice. Calgary, AB: Author.

White, C., & Hamilton-Hinch, B. (May 29, 2015). “Time” lasts forever: Criminal record limits community participation. Poster. Winnipeg, MB: Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists National Conference.

Author contact

Barb Hamilton-Hinch
Dalhousie University
6230 South St. P.O. Box 15000
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 6

Gonzo autoethnography: The story of Monkey

Justin Harmon, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Rudy Dunlap, Middle Tennessee State University

In this paper, we use a creative analytic practice (CAP; Parry & Johnson, 2007; Richardson, 2000) called ‘Gonzo autoethnography’ to explore the ephemeral moments of fans attending a festival for the rock bank, Jerry Joseph & the Jackmormons. As a creative extension of autoethnography (Ellis & Bochner, 2006), “Gonzo autoethnography” draws on Hunter S. Thompson’s (1971) Gonzo journalism and sheds any claim to objectivity in order to blend social critique, humor, factual liberties, and satire to tell the story of the phenomenon of interest (Hirst, 2004). This distinct epistemology requires foregoing the structural aspects of popular contemporary forms of understanding and representing data to tell a story outside the lines of traditional, positivistic representations of research (Lincoln & Guba, 2005).

In this instance, we have endeavored to capture the ways in which music fans attempt to claim ownership over a music festival with a history of grassroots organizing. Crucial to this exploration is participants’ fraught relationship with the artist Jerry Joseph and the fan community that has developed around his live performances. Though fan communities are largely shaped by the dynamics of corporate marketing and promotion, often rendering fans as passive consumers, fans of Jerry Joseph & the Jackmormons exert a unique degree of control over the planning and execution of several annual festivals involving the band. As such, this particular case offers leisure scholars an opportunity to explore the exercise of fans’ agency in the context of an activity that normally permits only the shallowest of decision-making abilities.

Using Gonzo autoethnography, we explore fans’ experiences at the Dixie Mattress Festival using the character of Monkey. As an inanimate stuffed animal, Monkey has accompanied a particular fan to Jerry Joseph’s performances for more than a decade. To those in the community, he represents fans’ dedication to Jerry Joseph’s music as well as their dedication to one another. Personified as a member of the community, Monkey is able to speak to express the community’s complex relationship with Jerry Joseph and its struggle to exercise some control of the Dixie Mattress Festival in light of its increasing corporatization.

Monkey’s story serves as a critique of what goes on in the music scene and he plays a pivotal role in helping fans express their true feelings of participation, even when it is not always what it was hoped to be. Because the activities and relationships that are most important to people are often represented as more utopian than is always the case, applying an alternative method of storytelling helps to showcase the existing struggles in a phenomenon of interest through a conduit who represents the overriding sentiment. By allowing the storyteller creative liberty, the existent social critique simultaneously overlaps with an emphasis on the important aspects of participants’ involvement which ultimately holds the community together.


Ellis, C.S., & Bochner, A.P. (2006). Analyzing analytic autoethnography: An autopsy. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(4), 429-449.

Hirst, M. (2004). What is Gonzo? The etymology of an urban legend

Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (2005). Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 191-216). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Parry, D.C., & Johnson, C.W. (2007). Contextualizing leisure research to encompass complexity in lived leisure experience: The need for creative analytic practice. Leisure Sciences, 29, 119-130.

Richardson, L. (2000). Evaluating ethnography. Qualitative Inquiry, 6, 253-255. 

Thompson, H. S. (1971). Fear and loathing in Las Vegas. New York: Random House.

Author contact

Justin Harmon
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
524 Highland Ave.
Greensboro, NC, USA

Return to concurrent session 2

Le loisir en cycle de fin de vie: Un besoin ou un luxe

Natalie Harrison, University of Ottawa
François Gravelle, Université d’Ottawa
George Karlis, Université d’Ottawa

Lorsque la personne se retrouve en cycle de fin de vie, elle se retrouve avec beaucoup de temps résiduel, soit le temps qui reste après que tous les soins de base et médicaux soient comblés, le temps de se nourrir et de se laver, de s’habiller, de dormir et de recevoir les soins personnels (Stockdale, Wells & Rall, 1996; Kraus, 2001; Parker, 1996). C’est pendant ce temps résiduel que la personne peut s’adonner à des expériences de loisirs significatifs lui procurant une sensation de bien-être subjectif.  Le bien-être subjectif se définit comme étant un état général, chez un individu, de bien-être perçu et est habituellement mesuré à partir de deux perspective soit affective et cognitive (Diener, 1984 ; Eid and Larsen, 2008 dans Kuykendall et al., 2015). Pour être significative, une expérience de loisir doit avoir un sens pour la personne, être importante et contribuer à son identité en tant qu’humain autant sur le plan individuel que social (Fenech & Baker, 2008). Le loisir a un impact sur la santé physique, psychologique, cognitive et sur la qualité de vie (Lloyd & Auld, 2002).  Selon Deschênes (2015) le loisir dans une perspective thérapeutique présente des qualités ayant un impact positif sur la santé spirituelle notamment au sein des populations vulnérables.  Le loisir permet  l’inclusion sociale salvifique du participant (Deschênes, 2011).   De plus, selon Harrison et Gravelle (2008), les expériences de loisir sont perçues comme étant importantes en cycle de fin de vie autant par les patients que pour les proches aidants.  Malgré tous ces écrits, Peu d’attention est portée sur la dimension des expériences de loisirs et de leurs significations aux yeux des participants en cycle de fin de vie, vivant soit à domicile ou dans un hospice.  L’objet de cette recherche est en premier lieu d’explorer comment les patients en cycle de fin de vie bénéficiaires des programmes de loisirs offerts dans un hospice comblent leur temps résiduel et en second lieu d’examiner comment ces derniers perçoivent leur expérience de loisir.  À partir d’une approche qualitative inductive, une entrevue, portant sur l’interprétation de leur expérience de loisir, a été administrée auprès de quatorze participants, dont trois résidents de l’hospice et onze participants au programme de jour (Rubin & Rubin, 1995).   Tous les participants comblent leur temps résiduel avec des expériences de loisirs qu’ils identifient comme étant significatives pour eux et procurent plusieurs bienfaits.  L’étude fait de nombreuses recommandations pour recherches futures entre autre, consulter des proches aidants, développer des programmes d’activités physiques, cognitives et sociales adaptés pour une clientèle en cycle de fin de vie afin de maximiser le maintien du bien-être subjectif et réduire au minimum la souffrance. 


Deschênes G. (2011). L'anthropologie spirituelle du loisir : l'homo faber-religiosus-ludens. Counseling et Spiritualité / Counselling and spirituality, 30, (02), 57-85.

Deschênes G. (2015).  Allégorie Appliqué à L’human Producteur-Religieux-Joueur-Le Loisir Comme Outils Thérapeutique.  Counseling et spiritualité, 34(1), 59-89.

Diener, E. (1984). Subjective well-being. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 542-575.

Eid, M., Larsen, R. J. (Eds.). (2008). The science of subjective wellbeing. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Fenech, A., Baker, M., (2008).  Casual leisure and the sensory diet: A concept for improving quality of life in neuropalliative conditions.  NeuroRehabilitation 23, 369-376.

Harrison, N., Gravelle, F. (2008).  The importance of leisure when living with a life threatening disease: From on a serious leisure perspective.  International Journal of Sport Management, Recreation, Tourism, 2, 38-46.

Kraus, R. (2001).  Recreation and Leisure in Modern Society.  Jones and Barrlett Publishers, Mississauga.  ISBN: 0-7637-1687-2

Kuykendall L., Tay L., Vincent Ng V., (2015).  Leisure Engagement and Subjective Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis.  Psychological Bulletin American Psychological Association, 141(2), 364- 403. 

Lloyd, K., Auld, C. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement.  Social Indicators Research, 57, 43-71.

Parker, M. (1996). The relationship between time spent by older adults in leisure activities and life satisfaction. Physical, Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics, 14, 61-71.

Rubin, H.J., et Rubin, I.S, (1995). Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data.   Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publication Inc.

Stockdale J.E., Wells A.J., Rall M. (1996). Participation in Free-Time Activities: A Comparison of London and New YorkLeisure Studies,15, 1-16. 

Author contact

Natalie Harrison, M.A.
37 chemin Asaret
Luskville QC  J0X 2G0

Return to poster presentations

Should I be committed? Reaching [way] beyond brand loyalty in leisure studies

Mark E. Havitz, University of Waterloo

Acknowledging complexity from the outset (Backman & Crompton, 1991; Buchanan, 1985; Howard et al., 1988), commitment and loyalty research has matured through three decades’ examination in leisure studies. Interest in these constructs has been driven by organizational bottom lines, and because mental, physical and social well-being have been linked to repeat behavior (Gladden & Funk, 2002; Potwarka et al., 2014). Research has historically drawn distinctions between product and brand loyalty. Product loyalty speaks to the quality of being faithful to someone or something; a strong feeling of support or allegiance and generally refers to broad categories of technology or other manufactured goods (e.g., bicycles as opposed to motorcycles or skateboards), whereas brand loyalty – a tendency of some consumers to continue buying the same brand over competing brands – usually refers to manufacturers (e.g., Cannondale, CCM, Giant, Raleigh, Schwinn, Trek). Some attributes such as model type (e.g., commuting, off-roading, racing, touring) share characteristics with both. Within leisure and recreation contexts, activities are often considered synonymous to products (in this case, cycling), whereas brands can be considered in terms of those already described or in terms of places where activities occur. For example, research has suggested one might develop commitment and loyalty to micro-scale venues (sticking with a cycling context - parks, trails, velodromes) or macro-scale locations (communities, regions, countries). Along those lines, the concept of place attachment (Kyle et al., 2004; Williams et al., 1992) represents a line of leisure research that has influenced the broader literature on commitment and loyalty. Pritchard et al. (1992) argued that consumer and leisure researchers employed too narrow a range of manifest loyalty measures in extant research; generally measuring only frequency (e.g., days per week) or duration (e.g., in years or months) of participation/ purchase. That criticism still generally applies, although more recent research has employed a wider range of measures (Iwasaki & Havitz, 2004; Potwarka et al., 2014). As well, leisure researchers have, with few exceptions (Chick & Hood, 1996; Dimanche & Havitz, 1992; McFarlane, 2004), rarely studied commitment and loyalty with recreation equipment; leaving that context to mainline consumer researchers. Brand loyalty has been studied so extensively that a Google Scholar search with those two key words generates over 630,000 hits and brand loyalty is often tied to identity (Kavaratzis & Hatch, 2013; Morgan et al. 2011). Most people know someone whose product loyalty extends beyond a particular brand to a specific unit (e.g., a car, a boat, a cottage, a set of golf clubs); yet that study of that phenomenon has been limited, if not absent, outside of place attachment in leisure studies. This paper employs an autoethnographic approach (e.g., Havitz, 2007; McCarville 2007) to examining the author’s loyalty to a specific bicycle. Framed under the irony that both the manufacturer (bankruptcy) and retailer (retirement) are no longer in business, this performance piece - using the bike in question - explores nuances of family, friendship, identity, music, place, social justice, and work that have bonded that bike to that person over four-plus decades. The concluding argument is that leisure research should, by its very nature, put more thought into manifest loyalty constellations than do consumer researchers because ego involvements, commitments and behaviours associated with participation are more germane than product purchase.


Backman, S. J., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Differentiating between high, spurious, latent, and low loyalty participants in two leisure services. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 9(2), 1-17.

Buchanan, T. (1985). Commitment and leisure behavior: A theoretical perspective. Leisure Sciences, 7, 401-420.

Chick, G., & Hood, R. D. (1996). Working and recreating with machines: Outdoor recreation choices among machine‐tool workers in western Pennsylvania. Leisure Sciences, 18(4), 333-354.

Dimanche, F., & Havitz, M. E. (1994). Consumer behavior and tourism: Review and extension of four study areas. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 3(3), 37-57.

Gladden, J. M., & Funk, D. C. (2002). Developing an understanding of brand associations in team sport: Evidence from consumers of professional sport. Journal of Sport Management, 16, 54-81.

Havitz, M. E. (2007). A host, a guest, and our lifetime relationship: Another hour with grandma Havitz. Leisure Sciences, 29(2), 131-141.

Howard, D. R., Edginton, C. R., & Selin, S. W. (1988). Determinants of program loyalty. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 6(4), 41-51.

Iwasaki, Y., & Havitz, M. E. (2004). Examining relationships between leisure involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty to a recreation agency. Journal of Leisure Research, 36, 45-72.

Kavaratzis, M., & Hatch, M. J. (2013). The dynamics of place brands an identity-based approach to place branding theory. Marketing theory, 13(1), 69-86.

Kyle, G. T., Mowen, A. J., & Tarrant, M.  (2004). Linking place preferences with place meaning: An examination of the relationship between place motivation and place attachment.  Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24, 213-225.

McFarlane, B. L. (2004). Recreation specialization and site choice among vehicle-based campers. Leisure Sciences, 26, 309-322.

McCarville, R. (2007). From a fall in the mall to a run in the sun: One journey to Ironman triathlon. Leisure Sciences, 29(2), 159-173.

Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., & Pride, R. (2011). Destination brands: Managing place reputation. Routledge.

Potwarka, L. R., Havitz, M. E., Wilson, A. W., & Mock, S. E. (2014, May). The Influence of Ego Involvement with Running on Varsity Athletes’ Post-Collegiate Running Loyalty and Health. Presented at the North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) 2014 Conference, Pittsburgh, PA.

Pritchard, M. P., Howard, D. R., & Havitz, M. E. (1992). Loyalty measurement:  A critical examination and theoretical extension. Leisure Sciences, 14, 155‑164.

Williams, D. R., Patterson, M. E., Roggenbuck, J. W., & Watson, A. E. (1992). Beyond the commodity metaphor: Examining emotional and symbolic attachment to place. Leisure sciences, 14(1), 29-46.

Author contact

Mark E. Havitz
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 33013

Return to concurrent session 4

Late career reflections on the [lack of] relationship between leisure, recreation programming, and unemployment

Mark E. Havitz, University of Waterloo

Leisure scholars, over the past several decades, have made progress in identifying, understanding, and including people traditionally ignored and/or marginalized from leisure access and recreation participation. Demographic markers such as age, ethnicity, gender, income, race, religion, and sexual orientation have received substantial attention, some from the outset and others more recently. Although progress often seems incremental at best, few in contemporary western society would deny leisure rights or program access to people based on traditional markers. Indeed, certain demographic-based programmatic structures (e.g., seniors’ discounts) have long been in place and so mainstream that critique is rarely welcomed (Crompton, 2016). Leisure scholars have sporadically addressed curious intersections of leisure and unemployment over the past three decades. Much of that scholarship has explored the fundamental tension between structural constraint (e.g., Jahoda, 1982; Jahoda, Lazarsfeld & Zeisel, 1971) and individual agency (e.g., Fryer & Payne, 1984); the former representing a dominant perspective. Unemployment remains relatively unique, though perhaps not alone when compared with other socio-demographic variables, in the sense that people who are unemployed commonly experience societal and self-imposed lack of entitlement to leisure. Despite pervasive understanding of a dominant classical definition of leisure as free time away from obligation, especially paid work, unemployment is rarely experienced as such (Havitz, Morden & Samdahl, 2004; Lobo, 1996). And North American public leisure service providers have virtually no history of overt consideration, much less inclusion, of people who are unemployed as viable clients, much less citizens (Havitz & Spigner, 1992; Spigner & Havitz, 1993; Ullah, Banks & Warr, 1985). Relationships between work and leisure have been portrayed as contentious (Glyptis, 1994; Reid & Mannell, 1994) and there is little evidence of change over time. People who are unemployed are generally lumped into the broader “low income” category by service providers, and programmatic considerations for that nebulous configuration have evolved little over the years (e.g., Gillies, 2008; Johnson Tew, Havitz & McCarville, 1999). Emerging research suggests, not surprisingly, that experiences and circumstance of people who are unemployed vary widely. For example, Havitz, Morden and Samdahl (2004) identified four distinct groups, each including multiple sub-groups in their study of unemployed adults. People who participated in that research were largely short-term unemployed. Pesavento Raymond and Kelly’s (1991) and Lobo’s (1999) work with chronically unemployed people suggests that this experiences of this group may be largely distinct from people who are short-term unemployed. Further complicating issues, Hilbrecht, Mock and Smale (2016) have identified underemployment as an increasingly pervasive early 21st Century condition. This paper will be grounded in 25 years’ experience studying leisure and unemployment. This topic serves as a late-career microcosm of the complexities inherent in matching leisure scholarship with professional practice and recreation service delivery. It is not a pretty picture; we collectively know little about relationships between leisure and unemployment in its various forms, and little published leisure research has been overtly and ubiquitously applied to practice.


Crompton, J. L. (2016). The Equitability of Full-Price Policies for Senior Citizens: A Reprise. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 34(2),

Fryer, D. & Payne, R. (1984). Proactive behaviour in unemployment findings and implications. Leisure Studies, 3, 273-295.

Gillies, A. (2008). Website communication and public leisure services. Unpublished MA thesis, Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo.

Glyptis, S. (1989). Leisure and Unemployment. Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Havitz, M. E., Morden, P. A., & Samdahl, D. M. (2004). The Diverse Worlds of Unemployed Adults: Consequences for Leisure, Lifestyle, and Well-Being. Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.

Havitz, M. E., & Spigner, C. (1992). Access to leisure services for the unemployed: A preliminary analysis. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 63(4), 41‑44.

Hilbrecht, M., Mock, S., & Smale, B. (2016). Underemployment and wellbeing among late career workers: What’s leisure got to do with it? Abstracts of the 3rd ISA Forum of Sociology. Vienna: International Sociological Association.

Jahoda, M. (1982). Employment and unemployment: A social psychological analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jahoda, M., Lazarsfeld, P. F., & Zeisel, H. (1971). Marienthal: The sociography of an unemployed community (T. Elsaesser, M. Jahoda, P. F. Lazarsfeld, J. Reginall, & H. Zeisel, Trans.). Chicago: Aldine/Atherton. (Original work published 1933).

Johnson Tew, C. P., & Havitz, M. E. (2002). Improving our communication: A comparison of four promotion techniques. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 20(1), 76-96.

Lobo, F. (1996). The effects of late career unemployment on lifestyle. Loisir et societe/Society and Leisure, 19, 169-199.

Lobo, F. (1999). Young people and unemployment: Does job loss diminish involvement in leisure? Loisir et societe/Society and Leisure, 22, 145-170.

Pesavento Raymond, L. & Kelly, J. R. (1991). Leisure activity patterns of young unemployed inner-city women. World Leisure and Recreation, 33, 23-26.

Mannell, R. C., & Reid, D. (1999). Work and leisure. In E. L. Jackson & T. L. Burton (Eds.), Leisure Studies: Prospects for the Twenty-first Century (pp. 151-165). State College, PA: Venture.

Spigner, C., & Havitz, M. E. (1993). Social marketing or social justice: A dialogue on access to recreation for the unemployed. Parks and Recreation, 28(11), 51-57.

Ullah, P., Banks, M. H., & Warr, P. B. (1985). Social support, social pressures and psychological distress during unemployment. Psychological Medicine, 15, 283-295.

Author contact

Mark E. Havitz
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 33013

Return to concurrent session 1

A cross-cultural comparison of Korean and Chinese university students’ leisure conceptualizations and leisure attitudes

Jing He, Zhejiang University
Huimei Liu, Zhejiang University

This study examined the similarities and differences in leisure conceptualizations and leisure attitudes between Chinese university students and Korean students in an eastern Chinese university. An essay writing, which modified from the Leisure Ten Statement Test, as well as the Korean and Chinese versions of Leisure Attitude Scale were developed to address the purpose, and responses from Korean and Chinese participants were divided into 24 categories for further discussion. Descriptive information and reliability analysis of questionnaire for leisure attitudes were calculated and the independent T test was conducted by using SPSS 22.0. Results indicated that: (a) differences of leisure conceptualizations between Chinese and Korean participants have been found not only in the five categories including Time, Activity, Setting, Psychological Experience, and Other categories, but also in the specific sub-categories especially in the Active Sports, Arousal, Freedom of Choice, and Sense of Competence sub-categories. Specifically, the Korean leisure-like term has higher proportions in terms of Time, Activity and Other categories while Chinese leisure-like term休闲 (xiuxian) stands higher percentages in terms of Setting and Psychological Experience categories. When it comes to sub-categories, the term has significantly higher proportions than 休闲 (xiuxian) in terms of Time, Activity (i.e., Passive Leisure, Active Sports, Active Leisure), Psychological Experience (i.e., Opportunity for Self-Realization, Sense of Competence), and Other (i.e., Health, Descriptions), whereas the term休闲 (xiuxian) occupies higher proportions in terms of Activity (i.e., Socializing, Watching Television), Setting, Psychological Experience (i.e., Emotions, Arousal, Cognitions, Freedom of Choice, Sense of Separation), and Other (i.e., Money). (b) significant differences have been found in three dimensions of leisure attitudes, including: (i) in terms of cognitive dimension, the findings showed that Chinese participants had more active attitudes to support that leisure can improve the development of society, while Korean participants didn’t value the relationship between leisure and society too much; (ii) in terms of affective dimension, Chinese participants held more positive attitudes towards leisure than Korean participants in this part and the findings also suggested that Chinese people more appreciate the time spent in leisure and regard it as meaningful to life. On the contrary, Korean participants valued leisure as the opportunity to achieve individual willingness like expressing self and improving competitive skills; and (iii) in terms of behavioral dimension, the findings revealed the most significant differences between the two group in this dimension. Besides, the results of paired T test of three dimensions of leisure attitudes also supported the similar findings. It can be found that compared with Chinese participants, Korean participants held much more positive attitudes in this dimension than Chinese participants, suggesting that Korean people were more willing to take professional classes and education to improve leisure skills and also they were more likely to take practice actions in leisure than Chinese participants. This study suggests that, in the effort to encourage Korean and Chinese to more participate in leisure, school and government should consider to provide more suitable seminars and professional facilities for people.


Chick, G. (1998). Leisure and culture: Issues for an anthropology of leisure. Leisure Sciences, 20, 111-133.

Chick, G. (2000). Editorial: Opportunities for cross-cultural comparative research on leisure. Leisure Sciences, 22, 79-91.

Chick, G. (2009). Culture as a variable in the study of leisure. Leisure Sciences, 31, 305-310.

Deng, J., Walker, G. J., & Swinnerton, G. (2005). Leisure attitudes: A comparison between Chinese in Canada and Anglo-Canadians. Leisure/Loisir, 29:2, 239-273.

Hawkins, B., Foose, A., & Brinkley, A. (2004). Contribution of leisure to the life satisfaction of older adults in Australia and the United States. World Leisure Journal, 2, 4-12.

Hemingway, J. L. (1998). Culture, the basis of leisure? Commentary on Chick Leisure and Culture. Leisure Sciences, 20, 153-156.

Henderson, K. A. (2008). Expanding the meanings of leisure in a both/and world. Society and Leisure, 31, 15-30.

Ito, E. & Walker, G. J. (2014). Similarities and differences in leisure conceptualizations between Japan and Canada and between two Japanese leisure-like terms. Leisure/Loisir, 38:1, 1-19.

Leung, K., Wu, E., Lue, B., & Tang, L. (2004). The use of focus groups in evaluating quality of life components among elderly Chinese people. Quality of Life Research, 13, 179-190.

Liu, H., Yeh, C. K., Chick, G. E., & Zinn, H. C. (2008). An exploration of meanings of leisure: A Chinese perspective. Leisure Sciences, 30, 482-488.

Ragheb, M. G. & Beard, J. G. (1982). Measuring leisure attitude. Journal of Leisure Research, 14:2, 155-167.

Spiers, A., & Walker, G. J. (2008). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness, and quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 31:1, 84-99.

Walker, G. J., & Wang, X. (2008). A cross-cultural comparison of Canadian and Mainland Chinese university students’ leisure motivations. Leisure Sciences, 30, 179-197.

Walker, G. J., & Wang, X. (2009). The meaning of leisure for Chinese/Canadians. Leisure Sciences, 31, 1-18.

Author contact

Jing He
Zhejiang University
Baisha 3-108, Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University
Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China 310058
+86 15267070279

Return to poster presentations

Making memories: The power of artifacts in narrating the transition to motherhood

Shannon Hebblethwaite, Concordia University
Meredith Evans, Concordia University
Stephanie Paterson, Concordia University
Dawn Trussell, Brock University
Trisha M.K. Xing, Brock University

The objective of this research is to interrogate the experience of well-being at the nexus of leisure and public policy for mothers as they experience the transition to motherhood. Specifically, we explore the use of artifacts (e.g., photographs, mementos) in narrative inquiry to facilitate the negotiation of control and the construction of family identity for first time mothers. Although scholars have explored the implications of motherhood for gendering citizens (see Parry, Glover & Mulcahy, 2013; Trussell & Shaw, 2007), the transition to motherhood is poorly understood. This transition is a life-changing period, resulting in shifting relationships between women and their families, employers, communities and the state. We suggest that Canadian social policy is premised on a narrow construction of well-being, in which well-being is an economic construct, resulting in the market becoming the key site of well-being and identity production for reproductive citizens (Turner, 2001). We argue that such an approach exacerbates inequalities while neglecting and delegitimizing leisure as an important sphere of well-being and identity formation (Paterson, Trussell, Hebblethwaite, Evans & Xing, 2016). Leisure is implicated as a site of resistance for women by challenging power relations that oppress individuals based on categorical definitions like race, class and gender (Du, 2008, Parry, 2005; Shaw, 2001, 2006). Leisure, therefore, has the potential to facilitate the transition of social systems and policies to enhance equity and inclusion of marginalized and vulnerable citizens (Mair, Arai & Reid, 2010), including first-time mothers. This paper explores the use of artifacts in narrative inquiry for nine first-time mothers in two Canadian cities as they experienced the transition to motherhood. Our findings draw from individual interviews with the mothers in which they used artifacts that were meaningful to them to guide their stories of the transition to motherhood. Attention was paid to the content of the stories (e.g., the policies with which the women engaged) (Riessman, 2008) and also to the process of the transition and the telling of the stories (e.g., the meaning that was attached to leisure experiences in the transition) (Gubrium & Holstein, 2009). These narratives indicate that leisure and public policy intersect in important ways in the transition to motherhood. Artifacts (e.g., stuffed animals, running strollers, baby blankets, photographs of hospital bracelets and incubators) were used by the mothers to challenge and resist the lack of control that they experienced with respect to certain policies, including: birth policies within hospitals and the medical system; breastfeeding policies; care work; employment policies; and the provision of recreation services. These narrative accounts will be discussed with attention to how the mothers used these artifacts and their associated stories to negotiate control in their transition to motherhood and to construct meanings of ‘family’. We critically explore the ways in which mothers engaged with artifacts in ways that both resisted and reinforced contemporary understandings of motherhood through the construction of personal narratives. We suggest that mothers purposively engaged in these processes in order to facilitate the ‘doing of family’ through the process of memory-making.


Du, J. (2008). Women’s leisure as reproduction and resistance. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work, 23(2), 179-189.

Gubrium, J. F., & Holstein, J. A. (2009). Analyzing narrative reality. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Mair, H., Arai, S., Reid, G. (2010). Decentring work: Critical perspectives on leisure, social policy, and human development. Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Press.

Parry, D. C. (2005). Women’s leisure as resistance to pronatalist ideology. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(2), 122-151.

Parry, D. C., Glover, T. D., & Mulcahy, C. M. (2013). From “stroller-stalker” to “momancer”: Courting friends through a social networking site for mothers. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(1), 23-46.

Paterson, S., Trussell, D., Hebblethwaite, S., Evans, M., & Xing, T. (2016). Playing with motherhood: The politics of leisure and the transition to motherhood in Montreal and Toronto. Canadian Review of Social Policy, 74, 109-144.

Riessman, C. K. (2008). Narrative methods for the human sciences. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Shaw, S. M. (2001) Conceptualizing resistance: Women’s leisure as political practice. Journal of Leisure Research, 22(2) 186-201.

Shaw, S. M. (2006). Resistance. In C. Rojek, S. Shaw, & A.J. Veal (Eds.), A handbook of leisure studies, (pp. 533-545). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Trussell, D.E., & Shaw, S. M. (2007). “Daddy’s gone and he’ll be back in October”: Farm women’s experiences of family leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 39(2), 366-387.

Turner, B. (2001). The erosion of citizenship. British Journal of Sociology, 52(1), 189-209.

Author contact

Shannon Hebblethwaite
Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke St. West
Montreal QC  H4B 1R6  
514-848-2424, ext. 2259

Return to concurrent session 4

Leisure sciences and the humanities

Paul Heintzman, University of Ottawa

2017 marks the 40th anniversary of the journal Leisure Sciences and also the 40th anniversary of the beginning of my undergraduate education in leisure studies. The Statement of Editorial Policy in the first issue of Leisure Sciences stated: “Leisure Sciences is conceived as an interdisciplinary social and administrative sciences journal devoted to publishing scholarly and substantive articles in the fields of leisure, recreation, natural resources, and the related environments. The central criteria for publication are that the material be germane to the above topics, be theoretically and/or empirically based, and be substantive in the sense of proposing, discovering, or replicating something” (p. 1). The Information for Authors in the first issue stated “Leisure Sciences provides a forum for the interdisciplinary presentation of leisure studies…” The phrases “theoretically and/or empirically based” and “interdisciplinary presentation” suggests that the journal was not limited to social scientific empirical studies but was open to other disciplinary approaches including those from the humanities. This approach was consistent with my first-year introductory leisure studies course in the fall of 1977 in which I was required to read large sections of Kerlinger’s (1973) Foundations of Behavioral Research as well as all of Bronowski’s (1956) Science and Human Values and a small section of Newman’s (1852/1959) The Idea of a University. A major theme of this undergraduate course was that both the social sciences and the humanities are necessary for a satisfactory understanding of leisure and related phenomena. Currently the Aims and Scope of Leisure Sciences as stated on Taylor and Francis’ webpage for the journal include the following: “Leisure Sciences presents scientific inquiries into the study of leisure, recreation, parks, travel, and tourism from a social science perspective. Published articles theoretically and/or methodologically advance the understanding of leisure behavior.” These initial sentences of the Aims and Scope seem to suggest that Leisure Sciences emphasizes social scientific research approaches. However, the Aims and Scope subsequently states thatThe journal also features…philosophical and policy treatises…” and that there is “an interdisciplinary diversity of topics.” These phrases seem to suggest that the journal continues to be open to papers arising from the humanities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role that the humanities have had in leisure research generally, and in Leisure Sciences more specifically, over the last 40 years. During this period has the role and significance of the humanities increased or decreased? To answer this question, an analysis was conducted of the papers published in Leisure Sciences to determine if they were quantitative social scientific, qualitative social scientific, conceptual, a literature review, historical, ethical, philosophical, or other. The results indicate that just over three percent of the 788 papers published focus on the humanities. These are primarily historical or philosophical studies with a few ethical papers. The frequency of humanities papers was much greater during the two middle decades of the journal’s history compared to the first and last decades. Detailed statistics and analysis are provided and implications for future leisure research are suggested.    


Bronowski, J. (1965). Science and human values Rev. ed. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Kerlinger, F.N. (1973). Foundations of behavioral research 2nd ed. Montreal, QC: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Newman, J. H. (1852/1959). The idea of a university. Garden City, NY: Image  Books.

Author contact

Paul Heintzman
Leisure Studies
University of Ottawa
125 University
Ottawa ON  K1N 6N5
613-562-5800 ext. 4251

Return to concurrent session 2

A war between stories: Colonized and colonizing narratives of sport, recreation and leisure in the Six Nations of the Grand River community

Daniel A. Henhawk, University of Waterloo

In 1980, the elected band council of the Six Nations of the Grand River (Six Nations) passed a motion to create the community's first department of recreation. It was a momentous decision for the community because it formalized the council's political and financial commitment to the provision and development of recreation, sport, and leisure that, in the previous decade, had been mostly organized by a community recreation committee and a contingent of volunteers. Arguably, this decision would serve Six Nations well as much needed administrative capacity was created that would set the stage for development of new facilities and the expansion of services and programs.

The institutionalization of recreation, sport and leisure services on an "Indian reserve" in Canada was rare, if not unprecedented, and full of risk given the political and economic realities inherent to the reserve system. Thus, a myriad of cultural, philosophical, political and economic tensions immediately positioned the department within the community's complex struggles with imperialism and colonialism.

Imperialism, Smith (2012) states, “frames the Indigenous experience. It is part of our story, our version of modernity” (p.20). Its omnipresence is the subtext of our lives, simultaneously defining our present in relation to the past and situating our positionality for the future. As we have struggled to reclaim, assert and enact our understandings of our Indigeneity imperialism confronts us with colonized and colonizing narratives that dominate, contradict and deny the validity of our stories and in essence, our very existence. In so doing, the narrative character of our struggles and the narrative space in which these struggles are contested is revealed. In many respects we are engaged in what Delgado (Delgado, 1989) argues is “a war between stories (p.2418), a conflict of narratives, conflated by internal clashes of stories and counter-stories that “contend for, tug at, our minds” (p.2418). In effect, our very consciousness has been affected and we are thus challenged to find the right words, and the right stories, to reconcile the past and resist ongoing imperial domination.

Benham (2007) argue that in order for Indigenous narratives to move forward, the Indigenous scholar “must employ both culturally traditional discourses and 21st-century discourses that engage critical key issues” (p.529) and “become more skilled at both pivoting between and building bridges across native and nonnative discourse systems” (p.529). This presentation will thus present the findings of a current doctoral research project that critically analyzed narratives that surround the provision of sport, recreation and leisure services in Six Nations community. It invites participants to engage the contemporary issues of imperialism and colonialism through a presentation of narratives that will reveal and challenge the legacies of recreation, sport and leisure in the Indigenous context. To this end, it is the hope of this research to create a critical dialogue around the relationship between narrative, the provision of sport, recreation, and leisure services within the Indigenous context in the face of ongoing imperialism and colonialism.


Benham, M. K. P. (2007). Mo'olelo: On culturally relevant story making from an Indigenous perspective. In D. J. Clandinin (Ed.), Handbook of Narrative Inquiry: Mapping a methodology (pp. 512–533). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Delgado, R. (1989). Storytelling for oppositionists and others: A plea for narrative. Michigan Law Review, 2411–2441.

Smith, L. T. (2012). Decolonizing methodologies : Research and Indigenous peoples (2nd ed.). London: Zed Books Ltd.

Author contact

Daniel A.Henhawk
561 Grey St.
Brantford ON  N3S 0C3

Return to concurrent session 4

Engaged learners: Beyond remembering

Steven Henle, Concordia University

Providing opportunities for students to feel motivated, engaged, & connected to course content can be challenging for a university professor. Seldom is the university professor trained in the "performance" aspects of teaching (Lahey, 2016), which might be a blessing. Biggs (1999) tells us that "what the student does" is more important than what the professor does. There is a contradiction because the professor is still regarded as the catalyst for student engagement, " and we are also told that ...a most potent way to encourage enthusiasm and interest in students is to demonstrate your own enthusiasm and interest in the subject" (Lublin, 2003, p. 6).  The lowest level of learning is “remembering” according to Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy (Vanderbilt University, 2016). To engage students we must move our teaching towards understanding, application, analysis and creation. Within the realm of leisure, experiential education is a worthy pedagogy. What expectations do our student's have? Is the university student hoping for "edutainment" (entertainment designed to teach something) in her university lecture? Should the university professor try to compete with, embrace or ignore the performance aspects of teaching? What are the best conduits to teach subject matter while expressing what it means to be a leisure-professional? Are we obliged to blur the differences between performance and education or embrace them? Under the guise of deep, surface and strategic approaches to learning (Learning & Teaching, 2004) we will examine Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy as it forms a conceptual framework we can borrow to better apply experiential education and its many guises while encouraging active learning.


Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.

Edutainment. (n.d.). In Merriam Webster online. 

Learning & Teaching. (2004). Approaches to study "deep" and "surface"

Lahey, J. (2016, January 21). Teaching: just like performing magic. The Atlantic. 

Lublin, J. (2003). Deep, surface and strategic approaches to learning

Vanderbilt University (2016). Bloom’s Taxonomy

Author contact

Steven Henle
Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke St. West
Suite VE 203
Montreal QC
514-828-1449, ext. 5607

Return to concurrent session 2

Physical activity and well-being: Examining access to sport and recreation services for homeless youth in Toronto

Teresa Hill, University of Toronto

There is growing concern over the heightened number of homeless youth in Canada, with estimates stating that one third of Canada’s overall homeless population are young people (Saddichha, Linden, & Reinhardt Krausz, 2014). Many of these youths exist in extremely stressful conditions, which increases risks for their health and well-being (Karabanow & Kidd, 2014; Garcia, Minkler, Cardenas, Grills, & Porter, 2014; Kulic, Gaetz, Crowe, & Ford-Jones, 2011). Moreover, homeless youth are at an increased risk with respect to their physical, psychological and social well-being, and are further disenfranchised through social institutions, which make it difficult for them to access community available resources and services. This proposed presentation will explore how sport and recreation spaces might support homeless youth’s well-being, where “well-being” is regarded as a sense of fulfillment, and feeling positive, safe, and secure. When discussing sport and homelessness, “health” is often discussed at length. To date, however, no research has explored homeless youths’ use of sport and recreation facilities and resources, or how and where they might access and participate in these types of programs. Moreover, there is little research that examines if the exclusionary social and spatial practices that exist in and on sport and recreation landscapes affect the participation of homeless youth (Fusco, 2007; Fusco, 2005; Vertinsky & Bale, 2004; Lefebvre, 1991; Nast & Pile, 1998). Within this presentation, I intend to address the following questions i) what kinds of recreation resources and programs do homeless youth in the Toronto area have access to? What resources might be most beneficial? iii) How do front line workers and policy makers understand the needs and desires of homeless youth with respect to sport and recreation? And iiii) What kinds of policy and actions are feasible to address youth needs, and current policy gaps at municipal, provincial and federal levels? Similar to the CCLR15 lens of social justice based research targeted at (re)producing and (co)creating inclusive communities, the aims of this presentation are to observe exclusionary practices of homeless youth within community sport and recreation, and critically examine how policy trickles down into the everyday lived experiences of disenfranchised young people.


Fusco, C. (2005). Cultural landscapes of purification: Sports spaces and discourses of whiteness. Sociology of Sport Journal, 22, 283-310.

Fusco, C. (2007). ‘Healthification’ and the promises of urban space. International Review for the Sociology of Sport. 42(1), 43-63.

Garcia, A., P., Minkler, M., Cardenas, Z., Grills, C., & Porter, C. (2014). Engaging homeless youth in community-based participatory research: A case study from skid row, Los Angeles. Health Promotion Practice, 15(1), 18-27. 

Karabanow, J., & Kidd, S. (2014). Being young and homeless: Addressing youth homelessness from drop-in to drafting policy. In M. Guirguis-Younger, R. McNeil, & S.W Hwang (Eds.), Homelessness & health in Canada. Ottawa (pp.13-34). University of Ottawa Press.

Kulik D.M., Gaetz S., Crowe C., & Ford-Jones E.L. (2011). Homeless youth’s overwhelming health burden: A review of the literature. Paediatric Child Health, 16(6), 43-47.

Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford: Blackwell.

Nast, H., & Pile, S. (Eds.). (1998). Places through the body. London: Routledge.

Saddichha, S., Linden, I., & Reinhardt Krausz, M. (2014). Physical and mental health issues among homeless youth in British Columbia, Canada: Are they different from older homeless adults? Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 23(3), 200-206.

Vertinsky, P. & Bale, J. (Eds.) (2004). Sites of sport: Space, place, experience. London: Routledge.

Author contact

Teresa Hill
Department of Exercise Sciences
University of Toronto
Goldring Centre for High Performance Sport
100 Devonshire Pl.
Toronto ON  M5S 2C9

Return to concurrent session 8

Developing interdisciplinary collaborative research in sport and leisure

Larena Hoeber, University of Regina
Orland Hoeber, University of Regina

Funding agencies promote the value of interdisciplinary research teams (Doherty, 2013; Vertinsky, 2009), as they bring together unique perspectives, skills, and knowledge to tackle large scale and complex issues, such as physical inactivity, social exclusion, and information sharing to name a few. Yet, the opportunities to initiate them, particularly in Canada, are constrained by geographic distance, lack of peer support, and ‘silo’ thinking (Doherty, 2013; Mahony, 2008). Although social media and the Internet facilitate communication with colleagues once these teams are established, the initial process of bringing people together and identifying common or complementary interests is best done in person, in part because it allows individuals a chance to determine if they enjoy the social interactions that is a necessary part of collaborative research (van Rijnsoever & Hessels, 2011).

Following calls from Doherty (2013) and Hoeber, Hoeber, Baker, Baker, and Cunningham (2016) to encourage more interdisciplinary work in the sport field, the purpose of this session is to identify potential “big picture” problems in sport and leisure, and initiate interdisciplinary working groups to address them. CCLR is an excellent venue for this activity, as it attracts delegates from a wide range of disciplines including recreation and leisure studies, therapeutic recreation, tourism, sociology of sport, health studies, and sport management.

For this session, we are proposing a formal opportunity for CCLR delegates who are interested in interdisciplinary collaboration to identify big picture issues and to initiate potential working groups. For the first 10 minutes, the lead authors will make one pitch, and invite delegates who are interested in advocating for other “big picture” problems to make additional pitches. For the next 15 minutes, delegates will introduce themselves, briefly identify their skills and knowledge, and identify their interests. We will schedule 25 minutes for individuals who share common interests to meet, share contact information, and begin discussion on how they will collaborate. During the final 10 minutes, we will share some tools and tips for moving forward, such as using cloud-based systems for file sharing, task management, collaborative writing, and communication.

Our pitch will address the problem of measuring and monitoring capacity and participation in community sport organizations. There are thousands of local sport clubs in Canada, many of whom run independent databases of participants. Aggregating information across these disparate sources is difficult, making it challenging to assess how many people are participating in sport across the country. We propose a technological solution to this problem that would allow CSO’s to share their participation data into a centralized database, allowing the comparison between clubs and the analysis by sport, region, and time. From a research perspective, we will undertake a qualitative study of information needs, develop technological solutions, and study the process of innovation adoption.

One of the practical implications from this session is that it will facilitate interaction of delegates across disciplines and from different geographic reasons. Following this, we are hoping to apply for grants, such as from SSHRC, to support these interdisciplinary research teams.


Doherty, A. (2013). ‘It takes a village:’ Interdisciplinary research for sport management. Journal of Sport Management, 27, 1-10.

Hoeber, L., Hoeber, O., Baker, R., Baker, P., & Cunningham, G. (2016). The value and challenges of interdisciplinary research in sport management. North American Society for Sport Management conference, Orlando, FL.

Mahony, D.F. (2008). No one can whistle a symphony: Working together for sport management’s future. Journal of Sport Management, 22, 1-10.

Van Rijnsoever, F.J., & Hessels, L. K. (2011). Factors associated with disciplinary and interdisciplinary research collaboration. Research Policy, 40, 463-472.

Vertinsky, P. (2009). Mind the gap (or mending it). Qualitative research and interdisciplinary in kinesiology. Quest, 61(1), 39-51.

Author contact

Larena Hoeber
University of Regina
Faculty of Kinesiology & Health Studies
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina, SK  S4S 0A2

Return to concurrent session 9

Engagement of “at-risk” youth through meaningful leisure

Tristan Hopper, University of Alberta
Yoshitaka Iwasaki, University of Alberta
Tara-Leigh McHugh, University of Alberta

Young people today face a myriad of challenges associated with experiences of marginalization and exclusion.1-3 Such youth are often socially excluded from accessing opportunities and resources, and are at high risk and vulnerable to poverty, homelessness, abusive/addictive behaviours, mental health challenges, and/or compromised developmental outcomes.2,4,5

The purpose of our presentation is to explore how youth-led leisure opportunities can help young people caught in the dynamics of exclusion and marginalization, which often magnify inequities and hinder positive developmental outcomes.  Through both a critical review of the literature and a reflection on the gaps identified within the examined literature, a conceptual model of mechanisms involving leisure and youth engagement is presented for potential use in future research and practice (see attached).  Described as circular relationships in the model, youth-led meaningful engagement through leisure is proposed to promote positive relationship-building, co-learning, power-sharing, and empowerment.  In turn, positive interpersonal relationships are proposed to support meaningful leisure within a safe, open, and non-judgmental space to co-learn.  Furthermore, meaningful leisure is proposed to provide an avenue to reinforce positive relationships and learn/discover about self, others, and the world.  The reviewed literature did point to positive developmental outcomes as a result of top-down leisure programming.  However, there are certainly repercussions of conducting programs that are prescriptive in nature by focusing on fixing youth’s deficits (from a perspective of what leisure does to youth).  Instead, it is important to more respectfully and proactively engage youth by listening to what the youth’s lived experiences are, and by emphasizing what role youth’s voices play both in sharing these experiences with peer youth and adults, and in mobilizing youth into actions for changes.

Importantly, what youth do with leisure, rather than what leisure does to youth, should be emphasized to promote constructive youth-led engagement through meaningful leisure.  The former concept (i.e., what youth do with leisure) is more youth-driven than the latter concept (i.e., what leisure does to youth), which is more prescriptive in nature.  Overall, this paper suggests that simply because we develop leisure programs for “at-risk/high-risk” young people, the use of a top-down, prescriptive approach can be detrimental to them.  Rather than adults always leading engagement activities, it would be more desirable to share with and be guided by youth concerning the leadership and mentoring of engagement activities including both leisure and non-leisure pursuits in youth’s lives.  Because of leisure’s unique characteristic of being intrinsically chosen and defined, leisure is a very important tool in a bottom-up, youth-led/guided approach to meaningful engagement of “at-risk/high-risk” youth.  Through sharing experiences with youth and learning alongside of them, leisure can provide an avenue for youth to connect positively with their peers and communities, and to promote constructive meaning-making in their lives.  These insights have important implications for reframing leisure programs within social services, and improving leisure policy and practice to make these more youth-oriented.  Through enacting these youth-oriented changes, programs can better support and inspire youth’s passions for the pursuit of meaningful, fulfilling lives.


1Barrett, M.S. & Bond, N. (2015). Connecting through music: The contribution of a music programme to fostering positive youth development. Research Studies in Music Education, 37(1), 37-54.

2Blanchet-Cohen, N., & Salazar, J. (2009). Empowering practices for working with marginalized youth. Relational Child & Youth Care Practice, 22, 5-15.

3Kelly Pryor, B.N. & Outley, C.W. (2014). Just spaces: Urban recreation centers as sites for social justice youth development. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(3), 272-290.

4Cammarota, J. (2011). From hopelessness to hope: Social justice pedagogy in urban education and youth development. Urban Education, 1-17.

5Iwasaki, Y., Springett, J., Dashora, P., McLaughlin, A-M., McHugh, T-L. & Youth 4 YEG Team. (2014). Youth-guided youth engagement: Participatory action research (PAR) with high-risk, marginalized youth. Child & Youth Services, 35, 316-342.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for the appendices.

Author contact

Tristan Hopper
University of Alberta
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
University Hall, Van Vliet Complex
Edmonton AB

Return to concurrent session 5

“When you see nature, nature give you something inside”: The impact of nature-based leisure on refugee integration in Canada

Jane Hurly, University of Alberta

There are over 65 million forcibly displaced people in the world today. Nearly 22 million of those are refugees.  As they flee, countries accepting refugees for resettlement often struggle to help them integrate. I contend that those countries can harness the power of nature, combined with leisure, to help them do that.  This interpretivist study investigated the impacts of nature-based leisure on the integration of refugees in Canada.  I used semi-structured interviews (Brinkmann & Kvale, 2015) and photovoice, a participatory visual method by which participants take photos of their experiences (Wang, 1999) to explore four refugees’ experiences of a two-day winter camping experience in northern Alberta, and how it might foster their integration (Berry, 1997). I chose photovoice because it complements interviews as a way of gathering data and to elicit deeper understandings of refugees’ leisure experiences beyond the spoken word (Harper, 2002). In addition, I hoped it might prompt participants’ revelations of their unexplored desires and dreams about their lives. I conducted semi-structured interviews with participants before and after the winter camping experience. Participants’ ages ranged from 20 to 36 years. I supplied a disposable camera to each participant along with instructions to take photos of leisure activities meaningful to them while at the camp.  Participants selected their favourite five pictures for post-camping discussion. Using these combined methods enhanced the findings by revealing unique, deeply personal perspectives of the experience that would not have been possible with interviews alone. Data were analyzed using Brinkmann and Kvale’s (2015) phenomenologically-inspired interview analysis technique. I sought references in the data to the broad categories of a) reactions to nature, b) nature-based leisure, and c) indicators or evidence of integration. I then probed the data to surface further, emergent, underlying themes.  Nature’s ameliorative and restorative impacts (Kaplan, 1995), and nature-based leisure’s positive impacts (Knopf, 1987) were evident in refugees’ responses to their experience.  Participants appreciated the opportunity to be away from the city (Kaplan, 1995) and to share the experience of group leisure with family and friends (Knopf, 1987).  Refugees reported feeling safe and protected because of the presence of parks and social services staff members.  Their experiences underscored the importance of creating a welcoming environment and social acceptance for newcomers in society generally to encourage integration (Berry, 1997).   In addition, helping refugees overcome constraints to leisure and mental health problems (Fazel et al., 2005) are important in preventing their separation or marginalization (Berry, 1997).  Finally, nature-based leisure was found to strengthen individuals’ desires and efforts to integrate. Further research might examine the role of nature-based leisure in the integration of other specific ethnocultural refugees in Canada, such as Syrians or Somalis, or in the integration of “separated children seeking asylum” (Bryan & Denov, 2011, p. 243), a group of grave concern for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR, 2015).


Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46(1), 5-34. 

Brinkmann, S. & Kvale, S. (2015). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Bryan, C., & Denov, M. (2011). Separated refugee children in Canada: The construction of risk identity. Journal of Immigrant and Refugee Studies, 9((3), 242-266. 

Fazel, M., Wheeler, J., & Danesh, J. (2005) Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: A systematic review. The Lancet, 365(9467), 9–15, 1309–1314.

Harper, D. (2002). Talking about pictures: A case for photo elicitation. Visual Studies, 17(1), 13-26.

Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15, 169-182.

Knopf, R. (1987). Human behavior, cognition, and affect in the natural environment. In D. Stokols and I. Altman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psychology (pp. 783-825). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

UNHCR. (2013). UNHCR Mid-year trends.

Wang, C. C. (1999). Photovoice: A participatory action research strategy applied to women's health. Journal of Women's Health, 8(2), 185-192.

Wolsko, C., & Lindberg, K. (2013). Experiencing connection with nature: The matrix of psychological well-being, mindfulness, and outdoor recreation. Ecopsychology, 5(2), 80-91.

Author contact

Jane Hurly
University of Alberta
243 Byrne Place SW
Edmonton AB  T6W 1E3

Return to concurrent session 7

What’s essential to steps to connect?: Learning from the consolidated framework for implementation

Susan Hutchinson, Dalhousie University
Grace Warner, Dalhousie University
Heidi Lauckner, Dalhousie University
Brad Meisner, Dalhousie University
Katie Isenor, Dalhousie University

It is important to identify low-cost and accessible ways to improve the health of adults living in rural communities (Winters, Cudney, Sullivan, & Thuesen, 2006). Recreation has been proposed as an opportunity for people living with chronic health conditions to not only manage their condition but also experience the various health and wellbeing benefits that come from participation (Jones, Payne, & Son, 2012).  Many risk factors for poor physical or mental health are the same factors that serve as barriers to people participating in recreation in their communities (e.g., low SES, living in rural areas, limited social supports; Frisby & Hoeber, 2002; Son, Kim, & Harvey, 2011). Leisure education can help overcome such barriers by enhancing knowledge, awareness, skills and confidence that lead to self-determined leisure and recreation participation (Dattilo, 2015).

The purpose of this presentation is to share learnings from applying an implementation science framework—the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR; Damschroder et al., 2009)—to determine the feasibility of a leisure education intervention, named Steps to Connect, designed for delivery in rural communities with adults living with chronic health conditions.

Guided by an advisory committee that included representatives from health and recreation sectors, as well as someone living with a chronic condition, data collection included: key informant interviews (n = 11; decision makers responsible for self-management or healthy living programs), focus groups (n = 3; participants of pilot modules of the program, recreation professionals in the region, and lay leaders of a community-based self-management program), and debriefing conversations and focus group with trained facilitators (n = 8), who provided feedback immediately after implementing sessions and then participated in a focus group. A final stakeholders meeting was held to obtain their perspectives on moving forward with Steps to Connect and ensuring its sustainability.  

The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR; Damschroder et al., 2009) provided a lens to understand and apply key information from these community consultation processes to strengthen the relevance and feasibility of the program.  The CFIR provides a structure to guide decision making for implementation research by outlining five major domains that impact the effectiveness of program implementation. These  include: intervention characteristics (e.g., evidence strength), outer setting (e.g., participant needs and resources), inner setting (e.g., leader engagement and culture), characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. The presentation will describe the development and implementation of the Steps to Connect program, using the CFIR model to deepen our understanding of what is impacting the program’s feasibility and effectiveness.  We will demonstrate how using the CFIR to frame a program’s development can increase the potential for subsequent implementation and uptake within the context in which it is being developed and tested. The CFIR is a useful tool to guide the work of leisure scholars and practitioners who are interested in translating evidence of the benefits of recreation to the design of relevant, evidence-informed community interventions. The use of implementation science frameworks is essential to the effective translation of leisure evidence into practice.


Damschroder, L. J., Aron, D. L. Keith, R. E., Kirsh, S. R., Alexander, J. A., & Lowery, J. C. (2009). Fostering implementation of health sciences research findings into practice: A consolidated framework for advancing implementing science. Implementation Science, 4:50.

Dattilo, J. (2015). Leisure education program planning (4th edition). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Frisby, W., & Hoeber, L. (2002). Factors affecting the uptake of community recreation for health promotion for women on low incomes. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 93(2), 129-133.

Janke, M. C., Jones, J., Payne, L. L., & Son, J. S. (2012). Living with arthritis: Using self-management of valued activities to promote health. Qualitative Health Research, 22(3), 360-372.

Son, J. S., Kim, J., Harvey, I. S. (2011). Community readiness for leisure-based health promotion: Findings from an underserved and racially diverse rural community. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 29(2), 90-107.

Winters, C., Cudney, S., Sullivan, T., & Thuesen, A. (2006).  The rural context and women’s self-management of chronic conditions. Chronic Illness, 2, 273-289.

Author contact

Susan Hutchinson
Dalhousie University
School of Health and Human Performance
6230 South St
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 9

Discrepancies between Japanese undergraduate students’ ideal affect and actual affect in leisure/non-leisure and social contexts

Eiji Ito, Wakayama University
Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta
Bradley Mannell, English Testing Canada

Although affect is a well-studied concept in leisure studies (Hull, 1990), there is little known about discrepancies between ideal affect (how people want to feel) and actual affect (how people actually feel). Additionally, of the few published exceptions that do exist (Mannell et al., 2014; Tsai, 2007) none have taken social contexts (being alone vs. with others) into account. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate discrepancies between ideal and actual affect in leisure/non-leisure and social contexts.

Japanese undergraduate students (N = 41) first completed an orientation questionnaire that contained items to measure their ideal high-arousal positive (HAP; e.g., excited) and low-arousal positive (LAP; e.g., calm) affect (Tsai, 2007; Tsai et al., 2006). Participants then, in the experience sampling method (ESM) part of our study, responded to the following questions when an alarm rang: (a) what time did it ring?; (b) what time did they begin their report?; (c) what was the main activity they were doing when it rang?; (d) who were they with?; (e) what was their actual level of HAP and LAP?; and (f) how intrinsically motivated were they? After collecting our data, two dummy-coded variables were developed: Leisure (leisure vs. non-leisure) based on the type of activities students participated in and how intrinsically motivated they were; and Social (social vs. alone). By using these two variables, we created four different contexts: (a) non-leisure/alone, (b) non-leisure/social, (c) leisure/alone, and (d) leisure/social. For the dependent variables, we calculated discrepancies between each type of ideal affective state and the corresponding type of actual affective state. For our hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analyses, we used the four contexts as level-1 explanatory variables: Y = b0 + b1*Non-Leisure/Social + b2*Leisure/Alone + b3*Leisure/Social + R. Non-leisure/alone was specified as the reference context (i.e., b0) in both HLM analyses. At level-2, we employed gender as an explanatory variable.

Of 1,968 possible ESM questionnaires, 666 (33.8%) were unusable because they were either missing responses or were completed 30 or more minutes after the alarm had rung (Scollon et al., 2003). Thus, complete data for 548 non-leisure/alone, 245 non-leisure/social, 218 leisure/alone, and 206 leisure/social contexts remained (85 uncompleted questionnaires were removed). As shown in Table 1, our HLM results indicated that, compared to non-leisure/alone contexts: (a) HAP discrepancies were significantly decreased in non-leisure/social (coef. = -0.959, p < .001), leisure/alone (coef. = -1.497, p < .001), and leisure/social (coef. = -2.786, p < .001) contexts; and (b) a LAP discrepancy was significantly decreased only in the leisure/alone context (coef. = -0.502, p = .005). Gender was not significant at p < .01 in both HLM analyses. Our results are largely consistent with De Grazia (1964) and Tsai’s (2007) views that people participate in leisure to get closer to their ideal affective states. In conclusion, considering social contexts is important when examining discrepancies between ideal and actual affect, however leisure is a powerful factor in decreasing discrepancies in HAP and LAP.


De Grazia, S. (1964). Of time, work, and leisure. New York, NY: Doubleday Anchor.

Hull, R. B. (1990). Mood as a product of leisure: Causes and consequences. Journal of Leisure Research, 22, 99-111.

Mannell, B., Walker, G. J., & Ito, E. (2014). Ideal affect, actual affect, and affect discrepancy during leisure and paid work. Journal of Leisure Research, 46, 13–37.

Scollon, C. N., Kim-Prieto, C., & Diener, E. (2003). Experience sampling: Promises and pitfalls, strengths and weaknesses. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 5–34.

Tsai, J. L. (2007). Ideal affect: Cultural causes and behavioral consequences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 242–259.

Tsai, J. L., Knutson, B., & Fung, H. H. (2006). Cultural variation in affect valuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 288–307.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Eiji Ito
Wakayama University
Faculty of Tourism
930 Sakaedani
Wakayama 640-8510 JP

Return to poster presentations

Role of leisure in meaning-making and engagement with life

Yoshitaka Iwasaki, University of Alberta
Tristan D. Hopper, University of Alberta
Emily S. Messina, Eastern Washington University

Meaning-making and engagement represent two of the key concepts in positive psychology, potentially leading to flourishing.1,2  Yet, according to Ryff (2014), meaningful engagement with life represents a neglected aspect of positive functioning.3  Meaning-making refers to the process by which a person derives meaning(s) from an activity,4 whereas engagement refers to being actively involved in something that is important, valued, and passionate.5,6  Indeed, leisure is considered a key domain of life, in which people are engaged to gain valued meanings of life.6-8  The purpose of this conceptual paper is to identify the role of leisure in a meaningful engagement with life, informed by leisure and positive psychology literature on these topics.  Specifically, our presentation will describe the key elements/factors of a leisure-induced meaningful engagement with life, i.e., the roles of leisure in promoting: (a) a joyful life, (b) a connected life, (c) a discovered life, (d) a composed life, and (e) a hopeful and empowered life.  First, a meaningful engagement with life involves maintaining a joyful life, illustrated by such concepts as mindfulness and savoring.  Garland et al.’s (2015) mindfulness-to-meaning theory describes mindful emotion regulation to facilitate reappraisal of adversity and savoring of positive experience.1,9  According to Carruthers and Hood (2011), mindfulness and savoring are intimately connected with leisure to maintain a joyful life.10  The role of leisure in maintaining a connected life is considered another key theme for leisure meaning-making.11,12  Not only is building social relationships essential to this theme, but connectedness also has spiritual and cultural elements including one’s connections to nature, religion, and culture.7,8  Leisure’s contribution to maintaining a discovered life is another key theme where identity is a main concept.13  Discovering who the person is both individually and collectively is vital for the pursuit of a meaningful life, and such discovery can be facilitated by meaningful leisure.14,15  Another key theme involves the role of leisure in making one’s life more composed, collected, and/or in control, and maintaining harmony/balance in life.5,6  Compared to the other domains of life (e.g., work/employment), leisure provides less restrictive and more flexible and liberating opportunities to change/adjust the pace and tone of life so that the person can experience a more balanced and composed life.16,17  Finally, the role of leisure in maintaining a hopeful and empowered life represents another key theme.  For example, meaning-making through leisure has been found key stress-coping and healing functions18 to facilitate growth and transformation, 7,16,19,20 illustrated by such notions as resilience, post-traumatic growth, and empowerment through leisure.11,12,21,22  Not only do these elements represent distinct factors of meaningful engagement with life through leisure, but multiple meanings can be gained from a single leisure engagement experience, and these meaning themes can be interconnected.5,6,7,17  Considering the unique characteristics of leisure as a freely chosen, intrinsically motivated engagement, research on meaning-making and engagement can benefit greatly from examining various leisure phenomena in its meaning-making functions.  The ideas presented in this conceptual paper seem to provide a useful framework for this important yet mostly unexplored area of inquiry.


1Garland, E. L., Farb, N. A., Goldin, P. R. & Fredrickson, B. L. (2015) Mindfulness Broadens Awareness and Builds Eudaimonic Meaning: A Process Model of Mindful Positive Emotion Regulation. Psychological Inquiry, 26(4), 293-314.

2Hicks, J. A, & Routledge, C. (Eds.) (2013). The experience of meaning in life: Classical perspectives, emerging themes, and controversies. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.

3Ryff, C. D. (2014). Psychological Well-Being Revisited: Advances in the Science and Practice of Eudaimonia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(1), 10-28.

4Morgan, J., & Farsides, T. (2009). Psychometric evaluation of the Meaningful Life Measure. Journal of Happiness Studies. 10(3), 351-366.

5Hutchinson, S. L., & Nimrod, G. (2012). Leisure as a resource for successful aging by older adults with chronic health conditions. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 74(1), 41-65.

6Iwasaki, Y., Messina, E., Coyle, C., & Shank, J. (2015). Role of leisure in meaning-making for community-dwelling adults with mental illness: Inspiration for engaged life. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(5), 538-555.

7Heintzman, P. (2008). Leisure-spiritual coping: A model for therapeutic recreation and leisure services. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 42(1), 56-73.

8Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C., Shank, J., Messina, E., & Porter, H. (2013). Leisure-Generated Meanings and Active Living for Persons with Mental Illness, Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 57(1), 46-56.

9Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). Positive emotions broaden and build. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 1-53.

10Carruthers, C. P., & Hood, C. D. (2011). Mindfulness and well-being: Implications for TR practice. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 45(3), 171-189.

11Chun, S., & Lee, Y. (2010). The role of leisure in the experience of posttraumatic growth for people with spinal cord injury. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(3), 393-415.

12Trussell, D. E., & Mair, H. (2010). Seeking Judgment Free Spaces: Poverty, Leisure, and Social Inclusion. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(4), 513-533.

13Mata-Codesal, D., Peperkamp, E., & Tiesler, N. C. (2015). Migration, migrants and leisure: Meaningful leisure? Leisure Studies, 34(1), 1-4.

14Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Applications of flow in human development and education: The collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. New York, NY: Springer Science & Business Media.

15Iwasaki, Y., Messina, E., Coyle, C., & Shank, J. (2015). Role of leisure in meaning-making for community-dwelling adults with mental illness: Inspiration for engaged life. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(5), 538-555.

16Deschenes, G. (2011). The spiritual anthropology of leisure: The homo faber-religiosus-ludens. Counselling and Spirituality / Counseling et spiritualite, 30(2), 57-85.

17Newman, D. B., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(3), 555-578.

18Carruthers, C., & Hood, C. D. (2007). Building a life of meaning through therapeutic recreation: The leisure and well-being model, part I. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 41(4), 276-297.

19Iwasaki, Y. (2008). Pathways to meaning-making through leisure in global contexts. Journal of Leisure Research, 40, 231-249.

20Kleiber, D. A. & Hutchinson, S. L., Williams, R. (2002). Leisure as a resource in transcending negative life events: Self-protection, self-restoration, and personal transformation. Leisure Sciences, 24, 219-235.

21Sharpe, E. K., & Lashua, B. D. (2008). Introduction to the special issue: Tuning in to popular leisure. Leisure/Loisir, 32(2), 245-258.

22Stewart, W. (2014). Introduction to the Special Issue: Leisure Research to Enhance Social Justice. Leisure Sciences, 36, 325–339.

Author contact

Yoshitaka Iwasaki
10230 Jasper Avenue
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T5J 4P6

Return to concurrent session 3

Lessons from cross-cultural policy on sport, leisure, and health

Lynn M. Jamieson, Indiana University                                                                            

Government policies reflect not only the social culture of its inhabitants, but also the best of the ideologies, and aspirations, that their culture may provide.  In some countries, this ideological domain represents a way to control and direct the populace, while in others, a looser framework is provided to encourage and support an aspiration toward attainment of specific goals.  The attainment of particular qualities, partly through policy, represents a country’s nationalism, cultural identity, and perception of strength. The development of a national policy toward sport and leisure reflects the social culture of a nation.  Researchers have noted that social policy on how people interact in a culture, affects gender relations, community leisure practices, efforts to bridge gaps between nations, and overall health and wellbeing (Kay, 2000 Coalter, 2000; Keech, 1999; and Yule, 1997). Emerging from social policy, sport and leisure policy, originated as a European movement to counterbalance elite sport and was organized by the Council of Europe (Macintosh, 1991). Over 160 countries address policies toward sport and leisure at the national level.  Over the past 50 years the “Sport for All’ concept grew to include a broader range of approaches in that, sport, leisure, intervention, health and wellness concepts expanded its original mission. Jamieson and Pan (2000) explored the nature of government policies on ‘Sport for All’. Using the roster of members of the Trim and Fitness International Sport for All Association, they surveyed the 140 countries that existed at the time.  Of the 140 countries, 88 subjects were surveyed about policy components and their strengths and weaknesses. It was found that government policy toward SFA varies according to the level of development of a specific country.  General agreement existed about the fact that the role of government is to promote the overall health of its citizens. A total of 13 countries were then studied, and through the constant comparative process, it became apparent that there were two major themes for generic comparison.  The first theme was level of development of sport and leisure policy.  There were six countries that had a well-developed sport and leisure policy at the national level with a documented history of its implementation.  On the other hand, some countries were in a development phase of their sport policy, and they did not show an extended history of implementation of sport policy.  In order to make reasonable comparisons, it was determined to separate the analysis into two groups – one with a documented history and one without.  The countries in this article represent those with a clearly identifiable policy and a history of their implementation:  Australia, Canada, England, Hong Kong, South Korea, and Singapore. These countries represent four continents globally. The second theme consisted of an ideological foundation.  As the countries were studied, it was apparent that policy development was influenced by other countries’ ideologies. Therefore, emergent in the study and comparison of these countries, there appeared to be a European Model and an Asian Model. 

Author contact

Lynn M. Jamieson
School of Public Health – Bloomington /
Department of Recreation, Park, and Tourism Studies
1025 E. 7th Street
Bloomington, IN 47405

Return to poster presentations

Leisure has left the profession: Moving forward with inclusive recreation in the United States

Adrienne Johnson, University of Iowa

Therapeutic recreation (TR) has become an archaic institution, clinging to an antiquated model of service delivery in a cycle of self-preservation (Mobily, Walter, & Finley, 2015; Mobily, 2015). TR has consistently struggled with a variety of issues since its inception, including service reimbursement, professional validation, and the inability to singularly define the field (leisure/recreation as the means versus the ends) (Mobily, 2015; Sylvester, 2015; Stumbo, 2009).  Following the dissolution of the National Therapeutic Recreation Society in 2010, TR Specialists have been left with one option for professional affiliation, the American Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA).  Despite hope that the coupling union would strengthen the profession, the divide has deepened.  ATRA (2013) defines TR as a treatment service specifically prescribed to produce functional outcomes and narrows the scope of practice, exclusively representing the medical model.  Leisure is dismissed altogether. This leaves community TR professionals at a crossroads.  Continue in a field that stigmatizes, labels and marginalizes members of diverse communities (Sylvester, 2015; Brittain, 2004). Or, align with a professional organization that diminishes the value of leisure (Mobily, Walter, & Finley, 2015; Mobily, 2015). Or, arise from the ashes as a profession that recognizes leisure as a fundamental human right.

The theoretical and conceptual frameworks of inclusion address many of the socially stagnant factors encumbering TR.  The focus shifts from the limitations of the individual toward the accessibility of the environment. Pegg & Compton (2003) suggest that the practice of inclusion does not attempt “to integrate our populations into society, but to create conditions where one can be included in the mainstream of society” (pg. 18).  Inclusive service delivery embraces the value of leisure experiences for individuals with disabilities, those otherwise marginalized, and communities at large. Dattilo (2012) noted these many benefits stating, “people who have been oppressed prepare for life in their community, practitioners improve their professional skills, and overall society makes the conscious decision to operate according to the social value of equality for all people” (p. 287).  Inclusive recreation has emerged as a result of the disability rights movement, increased diversity, escalating health care costs, ADA, and the emphasis on the ethic of care. (Miller, Schleien, & Lausier, 2009; Carter & LeConey, 2004).  Armed with a broad education in disability studies, ethics, social sciences, and inclusive ideology, TR specialists are equipped to address these advancing societal forces. But how many professionals actually acquire this sort of broadly diverse education?  Devine (2012) further noted that the rapid emergence of the field has contributed to evident gaps in employment of effective inclusion coordinators.  TR specialists’ disability-specific expertise and skillset in adaptive programming, communication, collaboration and flexibility have positioned them as ideal candidates to manage these roles (Devine, 2012; Miller, Schleien, & Lausier, 2009; Schleien, Miller, & Shea, 2009; Klitzing & Wachter, 2005).  

The Chinese philosopher, Lao Tzu, once professed, “When I let go of what I am, I become what I might be.” It is time to let go of the outmoded version of TR and to become what we might be in inclusive recreation.


American Therapeutic Recreation Association (ATRA).  (2013).  Standards for the practice of recreational therapy.  Hattiesburg, MS:  ATRA.

Brittain, I. (2004). Perceptions of disability and their impact upon involvement in sport for people with disabilities at all levels. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 28(4), 429-452.

Carter, M.J. & LeConey, S.P. (2004).  Therapeutic Recreation in the Community:  An Inclusive Approach (2nd ed).  Champaign, IL:  Sagamore.

Dattilo, John.  (2012).  Inclusive Leisure Services (3rd ed).  State College, PA:  Venture Publishing, Inc.

Hironaka-Juteau, J.H. & Crawford, T. (2010).  Introduction to Inclusion.  In Inclusive Recreation: Programs and Services for Diverse Populations pp. 1-17.  Champaign, IL:  Human Kinetics.

Klitzing, S.W. & Wachter, C.J. (2005).  Benchmarks for the delivery of inclusive community recreation services for people with disabilities.  Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 39(1), 63-77.

Mobily, K. (2015). Should US recreation therapy be replicated globally? An opportunity to do better. Part II. World Leisure Journal, 57(1), 57-68.

Mobily, K. E., Walter, K. B., & Finley, S. E. (2015). Deconstruction of TR/RT: does TR/RT contribute to the negative construction of disability? Part I. World Leisure Journal, 57(1), 46-56.

Pegg, S. & Compton, D. M. (2003). Creating opportunities and ensuring Access to leisure and recreation services though Inclusion in the Global Community. Leisure/Loisir, 28(1-2), 5-26.

Stumbo, N. J. (2009). Professional issues in therapeutic recreation: On competence and outcomes. Champaign, IL:  Sagamore.

Sylvester, C. (2015). With leisure and recreation for all: Preserving and promoting a worthy pledge. World Leisure Journal, 57(1), 76-81.

Author contact

Adrienne Johnson
The University of Iowa
E206 Field House
Iowa City, IA  52242  USA

Return to concurrent session 5

The arts as a medium for relationships, emergent learning, life enrichment and engagement

Christine Jonas-Simpson, Nursing, York University; Director, Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy
Gail Mitchell, Nursing, York University
Sherry Dupuis, Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Pia Kontos, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-University Health Network

There is an urgent need to create age- and dementia-friendly communities and for transformative change in order to help people focus on quality of day-to-day living for all citizens (Dupuis et al., 2016a). Research at a relational, arts-based academy, the Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy (DBWA), established for persons living with dementia advances this agenda. The Academy embraces expressions of self through the arts and transgenerational learning. Art, in all forms, is used as a medium for relationship building, engagement, and life enrichment.

The DBWA differs substantially from the predominant models of dementia care and the tendency to use art as a therapy. First, we are committed to creating spaces for persons with memory loss that are non-clinical and that align with the values of the culture change movement (Dupuis et al., 2016b). Therefore, we do not assess, categorize, judge, or manage behaviours in this space.  It is our belief that being tested, assessed, and labeled is harmful. We have created a space for freedom and choice with an unconditional respect that nurtures expressions of selfhood.  Art is available to be enjoyed, experienced, and expressed in ways that enhance relationships and enrich the lives of persons with dementia and their care partners. For example, dancing and singing often break out in spontaneous moments of joyful expression. Second, although other dementia programs include the arts, they are typically confined to scheduled activities. In contrast, the curriculum offered at the DBWA is both tailored and impromptu, to enable persons to more deeply express their stories, histories, memories, desires, losses, and hopes. Third, the DBWA partners with community organizations, artists, high schools and Universities to create intergenerational learning opportunities that are mutually beneficial to the youth and DBWA participants. Fourth the Academy is a centre for teaching-learning where all persons in the Academy are considered teachers and learners. There are opportunities to learn theatre improv or music composition with a composer, to play instruments such as the ukulele and drums, or to explore poetry in quiet contemplation.

The focus of the research presented in this session is about experiences of relational caring, a research-based, theoretically grounded concept that has been translated into practice at the DBWA using three foundational concepts: knowing otherwise (Olthuis, 1997), embodied selfhood (Kontos, 2012) and relationality (Nolan, et al., 2001). The purpose of our research was to describe how relational caring is experienced by academy members, their families and care partners, as well as artists, staff, and volunteers who make up the DBWA community. We set out to explore what changes are experienced by a community when relational philosophical concepts inform care. The space at the DBWA was constructed to be open, warm, welcoming, and home-like in order to support the relational philosophy. The findings of our research, presented with documentary film clips, show the value of relational caring in practice as experienced by a dementia friendly community and distinguishes relational caring (Jonas-Simpson, et al, 2016; Kontos et al. In press) from person centred care (Kitwood, 1997).


Dupuis, S.L., Kontos, P., Mitchell, G., Jonas-Simpson, C., Gray, J. Re-claiming citizenship through the arts. (2016). Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice (Special Issue on Citizenship), 15(3); 358-380.

Dupuis, S., McAiney, C.A., Fortune, D., Ploeg, J., & Witt, L.D. (2016). Theoretical foundations guiding culture change: The work of the Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice, 15(1), 85-105.

Jonas-Simpson, C., Mitchell, G.J., Dupuis, S., & Kontos, P. (2016). Relational caring in Communities Living with Dementia. Presentation at the Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy.

Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Oxford: Oxford Press

Kontos, P. (2012). Alzheimer expressions or expressions despite Alzheimer's?: Philosophical reflections on selfhood and embodiment. Occasion: Interdisciplinary Studies in the Humanities, 4(May 31), 1-12.

Kontos, P., Miller, K. L., & Kontos, A. (In press). Relational citizenship:  Supporting embodied selfhood and relationality in dementia care. Sociology of Health & Illness.

Nolan, M., Keady, J., & Aveyard, B. (2001). Relationship-centered care is the next logical step. British Journal of Nursing, 10(12), 757. 

Olthuis, J. H. (Ed.). (1997). Knowing other-wise. Philosophy at the threshold of spirituality. New York, NY: Fordham University.

Author contact

Christine Jonas-Simpson, RN, PhD 
Director, York-UHN Academy
Director, Dotsa Bitove Wellness Academy
Associate Professor, Faculty of Health
School of Nursing, York University
4700 Keele St.
Rm. 321 HNES Bldg.
Toronto ON  M3J 1P3
416-736-2100, ext. 21019  
Fax (416) 736-5714

Return to concurrent session 4

The role of neighbourhood associations in facilitating a sense of belonging among neighbourhood residents

Lindsay Kalbfleisch, University of Waterloo
Sarah Byrne, University of Waterloo
Darla Fortune, Concordia University

Belonging has been identified as a fundamental human need that enhances our well-being and happiness (Baumeister & Leary, 1995). Much has been written about how neighbourhoods can provide a context for socially supportive relationships that contribute to a sense of belonging. Within neighbourhoods people can find a close-to-home source of social support and connection (Forrest & Kearns, 2001). Neighbourhood associations (NAs) are common forms of mobilization through which neighbours work together to pursue shared goals (Austin, 1991) and contribute to social cohesion (Knickmeyer, Hopkins & Meyer, 2003). Despite the focus on cohesion and connection, concerns have been raised about lack of diversity in the structure and function of NAs, particularly with respect to factors such as age and ethnicity (Koschmann & Laster, 2011).

The purpose of this presentation is to explore how NAs are working to promote a sense of belonging among neighbourhood residents. We present findings of a study for which we conducted individual interviews with nine active members of different NAs in a mid-sized Ontario city. During interviews we asked study participants to share their perceptions of how their NAs may be addressing the belonging needs of different members of their community. Through our analysis we identified two main themes related to the work of NAs: connecting people/introducing neighbours and protecting mutual interests. Connecting people and introducing neighbours often took the form of organizing large, neighbourhood-wide leisure events planned primarily for children and intended to bring families together. Protecting mutual self-interests involved NA members in efforts to maintain their shared neighbourhood recreation facilities and increase personal property values.

The presentation will highlight how many NA-run community events and initiatives are explicitly aimed at enhancing belonging, but are often exclusively geared toward young families and encompasse traditionally Western themes and values. Findings suggest little effort is being made to involve or connect people across different age groups and cultural backgrounds. For example, when asked why older adults are not more involved in the NA, one participant explained: “Either they felt they didn’t fit in or they realized it was a family-focused organization.” Participants also described a lack of conscious effort to reflect cultural diversity within their NA initiatives. We heard comments such as “We don’t do multicultural” and “We wouldn’t make any extra effort to include anyone who is a minority.” We discuss the implications these findings can have on the sense of belonging and inclusion within neighbourhoods. We argue that NAs should be doing more to promote a sense of belonging, specifically for individuals who are at increased risk of social isolation such as older adults (Nicholson, 2009) and new Canadians (Community Foundations of Canada, 2015). As our neighbourhoods continue to age and become more diversified, it is necessary for NAs to broaden their focus in order to offer services and programs that promote the belonging and inclusion of all neighbourhood residents.


Austin, D. M. (1991). Community context and complexity of organizational structure in neighborhood associations. Administration & Society, 22, 516-531.

Brower, S. (1996). Good Neighborhoods: a study of in-town and suburban residential environments. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger.

Callaghan, B. (1998). What does it mean to belong. The Way, 38, 108-116.

Clarkson, A. (2014). Massey lectures: The circle widens. [Audio Version]. 

Community Foundations of Canada (2015). Belonging: Exploring connection to community

Forrest, R., & Kearns, A. (2001). Social cohesion, social capital and the neighbourhood. Urban Studies, 38, 2125-2143.

Kearns, A., & Parkinson, M. (2001). The significance of neighbourhood. Urban studies, 38, 2103-2110.

Knickmeyer, L., Hopkins, K., & Meyer, M. (2003). Exploring collaboration among urban neighborhood associations. Journal of Community Practice,11(2), 13-25.

Koschmann, M., & Laster, N. M. (2011). Communicative tensions of community organizing: The case of a local neighborhood association. Western Journal of Communication, 75(1), 28-51.

Nicholson, N. R. (2009). Social isolation in older adults: an evolutionary concept analysis. Journal of advanced nursing65(6), 1342-1352.

Author contact

Lindsay Kalbfleisch
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 38187

Return to concurrent session 2

Social involvement in LGBT-focused sport is associated with identity disclosure: Testing a model of symbolic self-completion

Lindsay Kalbfleisch, University of Waterloo
Steven E. Mock, University of Waterloo

Although social integration and a sense of belonging are fundamental for wellbeing (Baumeister et al.,, 1995), the rejection experienced by those with stigmatized identities (Goffman, 1963)  interferes with these fundamental social processes (Meyer, 2003). Sexual minority identity (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans; LGBT) is one such stigmatized identity and, as such, sexual minority individuals are often motivated to conceal their identities to protect themselves from rejection (Savin-Williams, 1996). Unfortunately, there are costs to identity concealment including anxiety about identity disclosure (Pachankis, 2007), preoccupation with identity concealment (Smart & Wegner, 1999), and psychological distress (Quinn et al., 2009). In contrast to these negative consequences of stigmatization, social contact with others who share a concealable stigma enhances psychological wellbeing (Frable et al., 1998). Further, such contact builds a sense of belonging to the stigmatized group, enhances identity acceptance, and leads to greater identity disclosure (McKenna & Bargh, 1998). For sexual minorities, LGBT-focused sport groups offer a social context with the potential to create many of these benefits (Jones & McCarthy, 2010). Thus, in this study we examine the association of social involvement in LGBT-focused sport groups with sexual minority identity disclosure.  Further, drawing on the theory of symbolic self-completion (Gollwitzer, 1986), we test sense of belonging and identity acceptance (i.e., reduced internalized homophobia) as potential explanatory factors in any potential link between social involvement and identity disclosure.

To test this, we draw upon survey data provided by 320 individuals, each an active participant in sexual minority sport group in a large Canadian city. Sexual minority-focused sport group participants interested in study participation were sent individualized links to a web-based survey that assessed degree of social involvement in the sport group, affiliation with the group and the broader LGBT community, degree of identity disclosure across diverse contexts (i.e. work, school/work, family/friends), and measures of wellbeing. All participants included in analyses identified as a sexual minority. Approximately 60% of the participants were male, 37% were female, 0.6% identified as trans, and 1.6% gave diverse responses (e.g., genderqueer, not defined). The mean age was roughly 37 years, and approximately 38% of participants indicated being in a married or cohabitating relationship.

Linear regression analyses demonstrated a significant main effect between greater social involvement in LGBT sport groups and increased frequency of LGBT identity disclosure. Sense of belonging to the LGBT community and internalized homophobia were tested as mediators of this association and were found to fully mediate the relationship between sport group social involvement and identity disclosure. In line with the theory of symbolic self-completion (Gollwitzer, 1986), findings suggest that social involvement in sexual minority sport groups increases sense of belonging to the LGBT community which in turn decreases internalized homophobia and leads to increased identity disclosure across multiple areas of life.


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995).  The need to belong:  Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation.  Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497-529.

Frable, D. E., Platt, L., & Hoey, S. (1998). Concealable stigmas and positive self-perceptions: feeling better around similar others. Journal of personality and social psychology74(4), 909.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Touchstone.

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1986).  Striving for specific identities:  The social reality of self-symbolizing. In R. Baumeister (Ed.), Public self and private self (pp. 143-159).  New York:  Springer.

Jones, L. & McCarthy, M. (2010).  Mapping the landscape of gay men’s football.  Leisure Studies, 29, 161-173.

McKenna, K. Y. A., & Bargh, J. A. (1998). Coming out in the age of the Internet:  Identity "de-marginalization" through virtual group participation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 681-694.

Meyer, I. H. (2003).  Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations:  Conceptual issues and research evidence.  Psychological Bulletin, 129, 674-697.

Pachankis, J. E. (2007).  The psychological implications of concealing a stigma:  A cognitiveaffective-behavioral model.  Psychological Bulletin, 133, 328-345.

Quinn, D. M. & Chaudoir, S. R. (2009).  Living with a concealable stigmatized identity:  The impact of anticipated stigma, centrality, salience, and cultural stigma on psychological distress and health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 634-651.

Savin-Williams, R. C. (1996).  Self-labeling and disclosure among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths.  In J. Laird & R. J. green (Eds.), Lesbians and gays in couples and families:  A handbook for therapists (pp. 153-182).  San Francisco:  Jossey-Bass

Smart, L. & Wegner, D. M. (1999).  Covering up what can’t be seen:  Concealable stigma and mental control.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 474-486.

Author contact

Lindsay Kalbfleisch
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 
519-888-4567, ext. 38187

Return to concurrent session 3

Maximising participation of volunteers with a disability: The role of human resource management

Pam Kappelides, La Trobe University
Jennifer Spoor, La Trobe University

The aim of this study is to explore the human resource management (HRM) implications for organisations seeking to include people with a disability in volunteer positions. Despite the known benefits of volunteering, there are few reported studies of the extent to which people with disabilities fulfil volunteer roles and little is understood of their experiences or perceptions of volunteering. This study will assist practitioners and researchers concerned with volunteerism and the disability sector to better understand how to support people with disabilities in their organisations, particularly those associated with leisure programs and activities.

People with disabilities are generally not viewed by the community as potential volunteers as they are typically assumed to be recipients of services rather than service providers. People with disabilities, as well as those who might benefit from the potential services and contributions they might provide, are being disadvantaged. Bogdan and Taylor (1999, p. 1) addressed the importance of individuals with disabilities in the community but also as part of the community, through interacting and forming relationships, as an end goal. They concluded that being part of the community meant not only having meaningful employment but also volunteering. However, it is highly likely that there are significant barriers to including individuals with disabilities in volunteering, but there is very little prior research exploring these barriers (Miller, Schleien, & Bedini, 2003), and there is no prior research examining the potential solutions, such as human resource management practices to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities in volunteering.

A qualitative research method will be used for this study. 30 in-depth interviews to identify the extent of barriers, problems and challenges for people with disabilities who volunteer within leisure organisation will be conducted with volunteers themselves, as well as various stakeholders (staff from NFP organisations and clients or program participants within programs that are supported by volunteers with a disability).

The following findings will be explored:

  1. What is currently known of the range and context of volunteer roles undertaken by people with disabilities?
  2. What are the experiences of volunteers with a disability, their managers and the clients or program participants within programs that are supported by volunteers with disabilities?
  3. What is the nature and extent of barriers, problems and challenges for people with disabilities who wish to participate in volunteer roles?
  4. What models of good Human Resource Management can potentially overcome these barriers, problems and challenges in order to maximise the participation of volunteers with disabilities in volunteer roles?

This research will contribute important practical and theoretical knowledge to the field of volunteerism and disability.  Knowledge developed from this research may assist in improving volunteer opportunities among individuals with disabilities by improving volunteer management procedures and practices in sport and leisure organisations. This research also aims to fill the void evident in the current research literature, where there are limited studies examining the outcomes of volunteers with a disability.


Balandin, S., Llewellyn, G., Dew, A., Ballin, L., & Schneider, J. (2006). Older disabled workers’ perceptions of volunteering. Disability & Society, 21(7), 677-692.

Bogdan, R., & Taylor, S. J. (1999, February). Building stronger communities for all: Thoughts about community participation for people with developmental disabilities. In President’s Committee on Mental Retardation’s Forgotten Generations Conference, Washington, DC.

Miller, K. D., Schleien, S. J., & Bedini, L. A. (2003). Barriers to the inclusion of volunteers with developmental disabilities. Journal of Volunteer Administration, 21(1), 25-30.

Author contact

Dr Pam Kappelides
La Trobe University
Kingsbury Drive, Bundoora
Victoria, Australia
+61 3 9479 3899

Return to concurrent session 6

Jason and the Argonauts: Exploring how a social intrapreneur created a corporate social responsibility initiative and the difference it made

Lisa Kikulis, Brock University
Laura Cousens, Brock University

In recent years many professional sport teams have connected and invested in communities as part of their corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. Several researchers have explored the development, implementation, and impact of CSR in the professional sport industry (e.g., Babiak, 2010; Babiak & Wolfe, 2009, 2013; Kihl & Tainsky, 2013; Smith & Westerbeek, 2007). This presentation aims to build in this literature by exploring the capacity of professional sport to address social issues in their communities. In particular, we focus on the efforts of social intrapreneurs or difference makers as agents of change and how their vision and efforts championing specific causes is an important yet neglected consideration in the literature. Elkington (2008) defined a social intrapreneur as “someone who works inside an organization to develop and promote practical solutions to social or environmental challenges...” (p. 4).  This presentation will focus on the efforts of the Director of Education and Community Programs of the Argonauts Football Club, Jason Colero, and his efforts to launch and implement The Level the Playing Field football program in high schools in economically disadvantaged communities in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). We offer an analysis of how the initiative emerged as a key response to both a decline in high school football participation and escalating youth violence, how it was leveraged by key stakeholders, and the impact it has had on positive social chane (Stephan, Patterson, Kelly, & Mair, 2016) and in particular on positive youth development (Holt, 2008; Turnnidge, J., Côté, J., & Hancock, 2014) or youth empowerment through skill development (e.g., Akuru, Obajimi, & Omoregie, 2012; Lawson, 2005; Olaleye, 2010). In this case study of three high schools over two years, data were collected using semi-structured interviews with school principles, football coaches/teachers, guidance couselors, and Jason Colero. Focus groups were conducted with athletes on the football teams at each school. Finally observations were conducted at team practices and games throughout the football seasons. Findings show how instrumental a social intrapreneur as a catalyst for CSR initiatives developed by professional sport teams that use sport as a tool for positive social change by galvanizing interests and connecting with community partners to gain support. In addition, we uncovered how, through participation in the Level the Playing Field program, students were encouraged to take leadership roles, face new challenges, and build support networks that went beyond the field of play. Findings also show that there are challenges that professional sport teams and social intrapreneurs face in sustaining CSR initiatives that use sport as a tool to address social issues. We conclude with our discussion of the role of “difference makers” and the contribution that “collective impact” can make if sustained positive social change is desired.


Akuru, G., Obajimi, G., & Omoregie, P. (2012). Sport Roles as Correlate of Development and Peace among Crisis-Communities Area in Nigeria. IFE Psychologia, 20(2), 168-174.

Babiak, K. (2010). The role and relevance of corporate social responsibility in sport: A view from the top. Journal of Management & Organization, 16(4), 528-549.

Babiak, K., & Wolfe, R. (2009). Determinants of corporate social responsibility in professional sport: Internal and external factors. Journal of Sport Management, 23(6), 717-742.

Babiak, K., & Wolfe, R. (2013). Perspectives on Social Responsibility in Sport. In J.L. Paramio-Salcines, K. Babiak, & G. Walters (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport and Corporate Social Responsibility (pp. 17–34). New York: Routledge.

Elkington, J. (2008). The social intrapreneur: A field guide for corporate changemakers. SustainAbility & The Skoll Foundation.

Holt, N. (2008). Introduction: Positive youth development through sport. In N. Holt (Ed.), Positive youth development through sport (pp. 1-5). New York: Routledge.

Kihl & Tainsky, 2013 Delivery of large-scale CSR efforts through community involvement: Lessons from Major League Baseball’s Reviving Baseball in Inner Cities program. In J. L. Paramio-Salcines, K. Babiak, & G. Walters (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sport and Corporate Social Responsibility (pp. 185-197). New York: Routledge.

Lawson, H.A. (2005). Empowering people, facilitating community development, and contributing to sustainable development: The social work of sport, exercise, and physical education programs. Sport, Education and Society, 10, 135-160.

Olaleye, Y. (2010). Youth Empowerment as a strategy for reducing crime in the society. European Journal of Social Science, 15(2), 104-111.

Smith, A., & Westerbeek, H. (2007). Sport as a vehicle for deploying corporate social responsibility. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 25, 43-54.

Stephan, U., Patterson, M., Kelly, C., & Mair, J. (2016). Organizations driving positive social change: A review and integrative framework of change processes. Journal of Management, 42 (5), 1250-1281.

Turnnidge, J., Côté, J., & Hancock, D.J. (2014). Positive youth development from sport to life: Explicit or implicit transfer? Quest, 66 (2), 203-127.

Author contact

Lisa Kikulis
Department of Sport Management
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1
905-688-5550 ext. 5004

Return to concurrent session 1

Are leisure constraints models reflective or formative?: A confirmatory tetrad analysis of LTPA constraints

Shintaro Kono, University of Alberta
Eiji Ito, Wakayama University
Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta

Kyle and Jun (2015) recently challenged the way in which leisure constraints measurement models have been conceptualized. In the past, leisure constraints models were almost always assumed to be reflective (e.g., Hubbard & Mannell, 2001), wherein indicators represent a unidimensional latent variable equally well, and a level of the latent variable causes variation in people’s responses to indicators. Kyle and Jun proposed that most extant constraints measures should instead be identified as a different type of measurement model: formative, where each indicator captures a unique aspect of the latent variable and a set of indicators defines the meaning of the latent variable (Diamantopoulos & Winklhofer, 2001). Proper identification of the type of measurement model is critical because misspecification biases parameter estimations inside and outside given measurement models (Jarvis, MacKenzie, & Podsakoff, 2003). If Kyle and Jun’s proposition is correct, therefore, then past constraint research findings based on factor-analytic approaches—including structural equation modeling—may be erroneous. Unfortunately, Kyle and Jun did not conduct a hypothesis test of which type of measurement model—reflective or formative—fit better with certain constraints measures. Thus, the purpose of this study is to directly examine the type of leisure constraints measurement models by using confirmatory tetrad analysis (CTA) in the partial least squares context (Gudergan, Ringle, Wende, & Will, 2008).

CTA draws upon the notion of a tetrad (τ)—the difference between the products of two pairs of covariances among four indicators of a latent variable (e.g., τ1234 = σ12σ34 – σ13σ24). If a tested measurement model is reflective, all non-redundant tetrads should have a value of zero (Bollen & Ting, 2000). Conversely, if at least one tetrad has a non-zero value, then the test indicates the formative specification. Constraints scales used in our study were specifically designed to measure nine types of constraints to leisure-time physical activities (LTPA): physiological, lifestyle, psychological, interpersonal, financial, time, commitment, environment, and LTPA-specific. Data were collected via an online survey from 296 Canadian respondents (59.1% female; mean age of 43.3 years [SD = 13.6]). A series of CTA with a bootstrap sample size of 5,000, significance level of .10, and the Bonferroni correction (Gudergan et al., 2008) were conducted, using SmartPLS 3.

In six out of the nine measurement models of the constraint sub-dimensions (i.e., except for lifestyle, interpersonal, and time constraints), at least one tetrad was significantly different from zero, thus favoring the formative model. This was true, moreover, despite the reliability and validity indicators associated with the reflective model having favorable scores (i.e., composite reliability ρc ranging from .837 to .937 and average variance extracted ranging from .564 to .833). Our results provide more direct, albeit mixed, support for Kyle and Jun’s proposition. They also suggest that adequate reliability and validity scores do not justify blind use of the reflective model. Thus, careful conceptualization of constraints measurement models, and the use of CTA to confirm researcher’s reasoning, is recommended.


Bollen, K. A., & Ting, K. (2000). A tetrad test for causal indicators. Psychological Methods, 5, 3-22.

Diamantopoulos, A., & Winklhofer, H. M. (2001). Index construction with formative indicators: An alternative to scale development. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 269-277.

Gudergan, S. P., Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2008). Confirmatory tetrad analysis in PLS path modeling. Journal of Business Research, 61, 1238-1249.

Hubbard, J., & Mannell, R. (2001). Testing competing models of the leisure constraint negotiation process in a corporate employee recreation setting. Leisure Sciences, 23, 145-163.

Jarvis. C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2003). A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 199-218.

Kyle, G., & Jun, J. (2015). An alternate conceptualization of the leisure constraints measurement model. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 337-357.

Author contact

Shintaro Kono
University of Alberta
3-156 University Hall, University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 3

Balancing striving and enjoyment through leisure towards ikigai or a life worth living: A structural equation modeling test of a grounded theory

Shintaro Kono, University of Alberta
Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta
Eiji Ito, Wakayama University

In 2007, Iwasaki called for theorizing the pathways through which leisure impacts well-being. Over the past decade, several attempts have been made (e.g., Newman, Tay, & Diener, 2014; Sirgy, Uysal, & Kruger, in press; Stebbins, 2015). Most efforts have been based on the extant literature, however, and thus there is the need for an inductive theorization of the relationship between leisure and well-being. Also underexplored is the potential for cultural variation in this relationship (Iwasaki, 2007). A limited number of cross-cultural studies suggest that non-Westerners may conceptualize and experience well-being differently than Westerners in their leisure lives (e.g., Spiers & Walker, 2009). To address these gaps in the literature, Kono, Walker, and Hagi (2016) developed a grounded theory of the relationship between leisure experiences and a Japanese well-being concept called ikigai, or a life worth living, among college students. The purpose of the present study is to test this theory using structural equation modeling (SEM). Specifically, we examine whether: (a) both enjoyable and striving experiences during leisure directly contribute to students’ ikigai (H1 & H2); and (b) both leisure-based enjoyment and striving indirectly make students’ lives worth living by enhancing the balance between overall striving and enjoyment (H3 & H4).

Based on Kono et al.’s (2016) findings, we developed new scales for our study, which were then expert-reviewed and pilot-tested. Leisure-based striving and enjoyment and ikigai were each measured using three items. The balance between overall enjoyment and striving was measured using a single item. Data were collected via an online survey with 669 undergraduate college students across Japan (50.2% female; average age of 20.14 years). SEM was conducted using Amos 23 with the maximum likelihood estimation method.

The enjoyment, striving, and ikigai scales’ reliability scores were acceptable (i.e., α = .84, .78, and .84, respectively). As shown in Figure 1, SEM revealed significant direct paths from enjoyment and striving through leisure to ikigai (b* = .33, p < .001 and b* = .15, p < .01, respectively). Model fit was acceptable based on Hu and Bentler’s (1999) criteria: χ2(30) = 76.231, p = .000; GFI = .978; CFI = .984; RMSEA = .048, 90% CI [.035; .062]; and SRMR = .028. The bootstrap procedure (5,000 bootstrap samples, 95% CI, and bias-corrected) identified a significant indirect effect of leisure-based striving on ikigai (b* = .19, [.123; 279], p = .000); however, the indirect effect of leisure-based enjoyment on ikigai was only approaching the .05 level (b* = .05, [-.007; .119], p = .080). Overall, the model explained 61 percent of ikigai’s variance. Our results support the grounded theory proposed by Kono et al. (2016), except for H3. This null finding may indicate that as a life domain focused primarily on enjoyment, having enjoyable leisure experiences does not enhance the balance between overall enjoyment and striving; however, when one lacks striving in other life domains, leisure serves as an opportunity to seek further striving. This explanation appears consistent with our findings, although future moderation analysis can substantiate this assertion.


Hu, L.-T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.

Iwasaki, Y. (2007). Leisure and quality of life in an international and multicultural context: What are major pathways linking leisure to quality of life? Social Indicators Research, 82, 233-264.

Kono, S., Walker, G. J., & Hagi, Y. (2016, October). Experiencing leisure for an engaged life among college students. A paper presented at the 2016 National Recreation and Park Association Research Sessions in St. Louis, Missouri.

Newman, D. B., Tay, L., & Diener, E. (2014). Leisure and subjective well-being: A model of psychological mechanisms as mediating factors. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15, 555-578.

Sirgy, M. J., Ulysal, M., & Kruger, S. (in press). Towards a benefits theory of leisure well-being. Applied Research Quality Life.

Spiers, A., & Walker, G. J. (2009). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness, and quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 31, 84-99.

Stebbins, R. A. (2015). Leisure and positive psychology: Linking activities with positiveness. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Shintaro Kono
University of Alberta
3-156 University Hall, University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to poster presentations

Everyday choreographies of citizenship: Towards a reconceptualization of dance as leisure in long-term care

Pia Kontos, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-University Health Network
Alisa Grigorovich, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto

There is a growing literature that argues for the value of dance as an embodied practice for persons with dementia, as it draws significantly on the body’s potentiality for innovation and creative action and significantly supports non-verbal communication and affect. Dance as a practice and field of study focuses on intersubjectivity and embodied or somatic expression (Eddy, 2009; Mullan, 2014; Rouhiainen, 2008). Yet despite the critical theoretical knowledge base of dance from phenomenology and somatics, dance scholarship and practice in the dementia field largely represent a contemporary movement towards cognitive science with an emphasis on embodied cognition (Batson, Quin, & Wilson, 2012; Warburton, 2011).  Within this paradigm, agency is conceptualized as being dependent upon cognition, a relationship of dependence that implicitly denies that the body itself, separate and apart from cognition, could be a source of intelligibility. This consequently overlooks that the body can be a source of inventiveness and creativity in everyday life, imbued with a life force that has its own intentionality (Kontos, 2004, 2006). Cognitive science and the biomedical paradigm, treatment protocols and treatment care plans have further restricted understanding of dance in dementia and has consequently limited the development of opportunities to more fully support this embodied form of self-expression in long-term care settings. Specifically, dance has been adopted primarily as a therapeutic intervention that combines the physical benefits of exercise with psychosocial therapeutic benefits with the aim of reducing neuropsychiatric symptoms such as agitation, improve cognitive and physical functioning (Guzmán‐García, Hughes, James, & Rochester, 2013; Karkou & Meekums, 2014).

We argue that understanding and fully supporting dance, not as a therapeutic, but rather as an everyday experience of leisure (Genoe & Dupuis, 2014), requires a turn to citizenship, specifically to a model that emphasizes how corporeality – including movements, gestures, senses, and socio-cultural dispositions of the body – is a fundamental source of the capacity for self-expression, interdependence, and reciprocal engagement, which defines human agency (Kontos, Grigorovich, Kontos, & Miller, 2016; Kontos, Miller, & Kontos, In press; Miller & Kontos, 2016). We articulate this argument by analyzing findings of an ethnographic study of selfhood in Alzheimer’s disease in a Canadian long-term care facility in the context of a relational model of citizenship. Specifically, we focus on findings that feature self-expression through dance in the context of everyday life in long-term residential care: recreational and religious social programs and non-structured occasions. Drawing on the connections between primordial and socio-cultural dispositions, self-expression through dance as leisure, and citizenship, we offer a novel understanding of the agential sources of dance while also capturing broader issues of inclusivity and the ethical imperative to fully support dance through institutional policies, structures and practices. As such we argue that a relational model of citizenship offers an important contribution to the critique of ‘leisure as therapy’ (Genoe & Dupuis, 2014) by giving the critical discourse on leisure a political advocacy platform. Our hope is that relational citizenship is taken up by other scholars equally committed to ensuring that persons with dementia are entitled to have equal opportunities to participate in everyday life—including the pursuit of dance—to the fullest extent possible.


Batson, G., Quin, E., & Wilson, M. (2012). Integrating somatics and science. Journal of Dance & Somatic Practices, 3(1-2), 183-193.

Eddy, M. (2009). A brief history of somatic practices and dance: Historical development of the field of somatic education and its relationship to dance. Journal of Dance & Somatic Practices, 1(1), 5-27.

Genoe, M. R., & Dupuis, S. L. (2014). The role of leisure within the dementia context. Dementia, 13(1), 33-58.

Guzmán‐García, A., Hughes, J., James, I., & Rochester, L. (2013). Dancing as a psychosocial intervention in care homes: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(9), 914-924.

Karkou, V., & Meekums, B. (2014). Dance movement therapy for dementia: Intervention protocol. The Cochrane Library, 3, 11-15.

Kontos, P. (2004). Embodied selfhood: Redefining agency in Alzheimer's disease. In E. Tulle (Ed.), Old age and agency (pp. 105-121). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Kontos, P. (2006). Embodied selfhood: An ethnographic exploration of Alzheimer's disease. In L. Cohen & A. Leibing (Eds.), Thinking about dementia: Culture, loss, and the anthropology of senility (pp. 195-217). New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.

Kontos, P., Grigorovich, A., Kontos, A., & Miller, K. L. (2016). Citizenship, human rights, and dementia: Towards a new embodied relational ethic of sexuality. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice, 15(3), 315-329.

Kontos, P., Miller, K. L., & Kontos, A. (In press). Relational citizenship:  Supporting embodied selfhood and relationality in dementia care. Sociology of Health & Illness.

Miller, K. L., & Kontos, P. (2016). The use of elder-clowning to foster relational citizenship in dementia care. In T. A. Andreassen, J. F. Gubrium & P. K. Solvang (Eds.), Reimagining the human service relationship (pp. 158-177). New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Mullan, K. J. (2014). Somatics: Investigating the common ground of western body–mind disciplines. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 9(4), 253-265.

Rouhiainen, L. (2008). Somatic dance as a means of cultivating ethically embodied subjects. Research in Dance Education, 9(3), 241-256.

Warburton, E. C. (2011). Of meanings and movements: Re-languaging embodiment in dance phenomenology and cognition. Dance Research Journal, 43(02), 65-84. 

Author contact

Pia Kontos, PhD
Senior Research Scientist
Toronto Rehabilitation Institute-University Health Network, Toronto, Canada
Associate Professor
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada
550 University Ave., Suite 11-171
Toronto, ON  M5G 2A2
416-597-3422, ext. 7609

Return to concurrent session 4

Girls’ experiences of post-feminism and the denigration of feminine sports

Laura Kovac, Brock University

Despite the increase in female sport participation, sport is still considered a masculine domain (Clément-Guillotin, Chalabaev, & Fontayne, 2012). Girl-centered positive youth development programs are becoming increasingly popular; and although these programs are beneficial, they often paradoxically reinforce gender inequality by ignoring sexism inherent in girls’ lives (Rauscher & Cooky, 2016). Furthermore, although there has been a significant increase in opportunities for girls to participate in masculine sports, gender traits associated with femininity remain devalued (Schmalz, 2013). Likewise, there is evidence to suggest that feminine sports have become stigmatized (Schmalz & Kerstetter,2006).

As with all social identities, notions of the ideal femininity have changed over time and are fluid (Adams, Schmitke, & Franklin, 2005). The modern ideal girl embodies masculine and feminine traits (Bettis & Adams, 2006) and is athletic and stays active (Bettis, Ferry, & Roe, 2016). Furthermore, female athleticism is increasing being normalized (Ezzell, 2009). As a result, many female athletes are beginning to embrace qualities of aggressiveness and competitiveness required in many sports (Broad, 2001; Chase, 2006; Ezzell, 2009).

The changing nature of girl culture has not led to equal status between genders. Although girls may be praised for adopting masculine traits such as confidence and assertiveness, they are judged more harshly than boys are judged for breaking rules (Mannay, 2013). Furthermore, girls who are deemed as overly masculine are at high risk for being ostracized by their peers (Jeanes, 2011). At the same time, the new feminine ideal is still highly focused on appearance (Jeanes, 2011). Moreover, the females gaze is pervasive and females judge themselves and others in their ability to maintain an attractive, heterosexual appearance (Riley, Evans, & Mackiewicz, 2016). In a world that deems masculine traits to be superior to feminine traits, gender equality cannot be reached. That is because regardless of how successful a girl may be at adopting masculine traits, she will still be in a less privileged position than a boy (Craig & Lacroix, 2011).

Few studies in the leisure studies field have explored young women’s leisure experiences and meanings from post-feminist theoretical perspective. Moreover, much of the research that does exist on girls’ leisure tends to be focused on young women’s participation in what may be considered traditionally masculine activities such as ice hockey (Theberge, 2003). Drawing on insights from post-feminist scholars, this paper aims to explore the ways post-feminism and the new feminine ideal have altered the experiences of girls in feminine sports. Post-feminist discourses suggest gender equality has been achieved and feminism is no longer needed (Butler, 2013; Pomerantz, Raby, & Stefanik, 2013). Furthermore, post-feminism promotes a narrow version of femininity which is limiting and exclusionary (Butler, 2013). Discussion will investigate the new feminine ideal, the changing nature of feminine sports, and girl culture. Finally, using a post-feminist theoretical lens, this paper will examine the experiences of girls in feminine sports from an angle that values traits traditionally perceived as feminine.


Adams, N., Schmitke, A., Franklin, A., Women, S., & Summer, S. S. (2005). Tomboys , Dykes , and Girly Girls : Interrogating the Subjectivities of Adolescent Female Athletes Published by : Feminist Press at the City University of New York. Women Studies Quarterly, 33(1), 17–34.

Bettis, P., Ferry, N. C., & Roe, M. (2016). Lord of the Guys: Alpha Girls and the Post-feminist Landscape of American Education. Gender Issues, 33(2), 163–181.

Bettis, P. J., & Adams, N. G. (2006). Short skirts and breast juts: cheerleading, eroticism and schools. Sex Education, 6(2), 121–133.

Broad, K. L. (2001). The gendered unapologetic: Queer resistance in women’s sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.

Butler, J. (2013). For White Girls Only?: Postfeminism and the Politics of Inclusion. Feminist Formations, 25(1), 35–58.

Chase, L. F. (2006). (Un)Disciplined Bodies: A Foucauldian Analysis of Women’s Rugby. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23(3), 229–247. 

Clément-Guillotin, C., Chalabaev, A., & Fontayne, P. (2012). Is sport still a masculine domain? A psychological glance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 43(1), 67–78.

Craig, T., & Lacroix, J. (2011). Tomboy as protective identity. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 15(4), 450–65.

Ezzell, M. B. (2009). “Barbie Dolls” on the Pitch: Identity Work, Defensive Othering, and Inequality in Women’s Rugby. Social Problems, 56(1), 111–131.

Jeanes, R. (2011). “I”m into high heels and make up but I still love football’: exploring gender identity and football participation with preadolescent girls. Soccer & Society, 12(3), 402–420.

Mannay, D. (2013). “If it”s Pink, Scrape the Pink Off’ : Negotiating Acceptable “Tomboy” Femininity in the Playground. Women in Society, 5.

Pomerantz, S., Raby, R., & Stefanik, A. (2013). Girls Run the World?: Caught between Sexism and Postfeminism in School. Gender & Society, 27(2), 185–207.

Rauscher, L., & Cooky, C. (2016). Ready for Anything the World Gives Her?: A Critical Look at Sports-Based Positive Youth Development for Girls. Sex Roles, 74(7–8), 288–298.

Riley, S., Evans, A., & Mackiewicz, A. (2016). It’s just between girls: Negotiating the postfeminist gaze in women’s “looking talk.” Feminism & Psychology, 26(1), 94–113.

Schmalz, D. L. (2013). Girls, gender, and recreational sports. In V. J. Freysinger, S. M. Shaw, K. A. Henderson, & M. D. Bialeschki (Eds.), Leisure, women, and gender (pp. 127–136). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Schmalz, D., & Kerstetter, D. (2006). Girlie Girls and Manly Men: Children’s Stigma Consciousness of Gender in Sports and Physical Activities. Journal of Leisure Research, 38(4).

Theberge, N. (2003). “No Fear Comes” Adolescent Girls, Ice Hockey, and the Embodiment of Gender. Youth & Society, 34(4), 497.

Author contact

Laura Kovac
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 2

A qualitative analysis of occupational valence, perceived organizational support, and efficacy levels of youth workers

Chris Kowalski, University of Northern Iowa
Anthony Smothers, University of Northern Iowa

This research project was grounded in social cognitive theory, and used Bandura’s (1986) concept of self-efficacy as the “springboard” for the investigation.  The purpose of this research project was fourfold: (a) to identify the factors that significantly impact youth workers’ efficacy levels (Kowalski, Gassman & Konecny, 2011); (b) to identify the factors that significantly impact whether youth workers’ current jobs satisfy personal goals, also known as occupational valence (Manhardt, 1972); (c) to identify youth workers’ perception of how much an organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being, known as perceived organizational support (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison & Sowa, 1986); and (d) to explore how youth workers’ occupational valence and perception of organizational support influences their youth work efficacy levels. 

An interview format was implemented to explore the perspective of the participants involved in the research project.  During data analysis, open and axial coding occurred; this process highlighted content areas, grouped important data segments, and led to the development of lower and higher order thematic categories (Merriam, 2009).  These categories or themes served as the results of the research study.  Twelve participants were involved in the study; they were full-time and part-time youth workers employed at public, private, and nonprofit youth development agencies.  Kvale (1996) states that a minimum of 10 participants is suggested for an effective qualitative study of this nature.  The interview format allowed the professionals to share their experiences working for the youth work organization.  As Patton (2002, p. 340-341) points out, “the purpose of interviewing, then, is to allow us to enter into the other person’s perspective”. 

This research project contributed to the scholarly discipline by building on the body of extremely limited knowledge associated with youth work efficacy.  Numerous research topics exist that focus on professional development components associated with youth work, such as finding personal identity through work (Imel, 2002), addressing ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Banks, 1999; Sercombe, 2010), and effective techniques to adolescent group work (Malekoff, 1997).  Past research also discusses effective professional development for youth workers (Shockley & Thompson, 2012), yet there is extremely limited research on the youth workers’ confidence in their professional abilities.  Whether it is through athletics, before and/or after school care, or a summer camp, organization representatives have expressed the desire for their staff to be “up-to-speed” with guidance techniques and theoretical knowledge of youth development related to their organization’s mission.  The youth worker is the individual who “sets the stage” for the culture or environment in which youth and adults interact and go about the business of “doing life together” with the youth development agency (DeVries & Zan, 1994).  Organization representatives also discuss the importance of having youth workers who are confident in their abilities and can work independently and creatively with youth.  The research on youth work efficacy and the study results of this project will continue to shed light on an important staff development issue and will provide insight into youth workers’ confidence in their own professional abilities.      


Bandura, A. (1986).  Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: W.H. Freeman and Company.

DeVries, R. & Zan, B. (1994).  Moral classrooms, moral children: Creating a constructivist atmosphere in early education.  New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S. & Sowa, D. (1986).  Perceived organizational support.  Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 500-507.

Imel, S. (2002).  Career development for meaningful life work.  Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education. 

Kowalski, C.L., & Gassman, J., & Konecny, C.L. (2011).  Measuring youth worker efficacy levels in a not-for-profit youth development setting.  Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership, 2(1), 47-59.

Kvale, S.  (1996).  Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Malekoff, A. (1997).  Group work with adolescents.  New York, NY: Guilford.

Manhardt, P. (1972).  Job orientation of male and female college graduates in business. Personnel Psychology, 25, 361-368.

Merriam, S.B. (2009).  Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation.  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Patton, M.Q. (2002).  Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Shockley, C. & Thompson, A. (2012).  Youth workers in college: A replicable model for professional development.  Child & Youth Services Review, 34(4), 735-739.

Author contact

Chris Kowalski, Ed.D
University of Northern Iowa
School of KAHHS
Cedar Falls, IA. 50614-0241

Return to concurrent session 9

Applying Potter’s cognitive model of media literacy to the Hooter’s restaurant website: ‘It was crazy to me how much the Hooters website sexually objectified women . . .”

Chris Kowalski, University of Northern Iowa
Rodney B. Dieser, University of Northern Iowa
Sam Lankford, California State University, Fresno

Mass media is a powerful societal force that greatly influences the relationship among leisure, lifestyle, and society (Crawford, 2015; Dieser, 2013). Potter (2016) defined media literacy as providing tools to help people critically analyze and interpret the meaning of media message, and his Cognitive Model of Media Literacy (CMML) consists of four stages: (a) knowledge structures: Teaching a sets of organized information about the media, specifically, media effects, media content, media industries, real world, and self-awareness; (b) decisions motivated: Motivating media viewers to increase a personal locus by paying special attention to messages in the media and being active in the meaning making aspects of media exposure; (c) information-processing tools: Gaining information processing skills, such as critical thinking or an activist strategy; and (d) Flow of information-processing tasks: move beyond accepting the meaning that the media has constructed in order to construct meaning for one self. This qualitative investigation examined if using Potter’s CMML would lead to participants moving beyond accepting the meaning that the media has constructed in order to construct meaning for oneself (Stage 4 of Potter’s model). In particular, 36 undergraduate students (28 women, eight men) were part of this study that examined Hooter’s Restaurant as a leisure site connected to sports media and its philanthropic endeavors to support nonprofit organizations, specifically Special Olympics.  Media literacy consisted of following Potter’s first three stages of media literacy in order examine if outcomes consisted of critical construction of meaning for oneself. After being exposed to knowledge structures (e.g., American Psychological Association report on the sexualization of girls/women in America and the harmful effects), decisions motivated (e.g., participants pay special attention to both covert and overt messages focused on increasing sexual arousal), and information-processing tools (e.g., critical thinking skills) students interacted with the Hooter’s Restaurant and wrote a 2-page reflective paper on their thoughts about Hooter’s Restaurant. A constant comparison analysis was conducted on the reflective journals.  A constant theme among participants when completing this media literacy assignment is that they learned the three components of the fourth stage of Potter’s CMML of (a) recognizing invisible symbols used by the media to manipulate or persuade them, (b) to filter out (ignore) certain media messages, and (c) to move beyond media constructed meaning in order to construct meaning for oneself. In particular, instead of viewing Hooter’s restaurant as a fun place to experience leisure the majority of participants distances themselves from this leisure site and created their own meaning related to viewing Hooter’s as a place that harms women. This is captured in the following quotation by a research participant “[Media literacy] . . . helped me create my own meaning of the Hooter’s restaurant internet advertising . . . It makes me want to never go there again and tell everyone I know not to go there. It really opened up my eyes to how advertising is used to sexualize women.”

Crawford, G. (2015). Virtual leisure. In T. Blackshaw (Ed.), Routledge handbook of leisure studies (pp. 560-570). New York: Routledge.

Devereux, E. (2007). Understanding the media (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Dieser, R. B., (2013). Leisure education: A person-centered, system-directed, social policy perspective Champaign, IL: Sagamore.

Potter, W. J. (2016). Media literacy (8th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Author contact

Chris Kowalski, Ed.D.
University of Northern Iowa
School of KAHHS
Cedar Falls, IA.  50614-0241 USA

Return to concurrent session 3

“If I want to know anything I just Google it”: Older adults’ functional and social leisure activities and technology

Cory Kulczycki, University of Regina
Rebecca Genoe, University of Regina
Hannah Marston, Open University
Shannon Freeman, University of Northern British Columbia
Charles Musselwhite, Swansea University
Haley Rutherford, University of Regina

Technology use is increasing globally as more people acquire access to it. Older adults are among the fastest growing group of technology users (Perrin & Duggan, 2015). Almost 60% of people over 65 use the Internet and 77% have a cell phone (Smith, 2014). Furthermore, mobile technology is becoming more relevant for older adults (Kim & Preis, 2016). However, older adults’ perceptions of the benefits of technology use vary (Selwyn, 2004). Those who adopt technology tend to be younger, more educated, and have a higher income than those who do not (Smith, 2014). Users focus on project-based or purposeful use while non-users are indifferent to technology and/or engage in non-technological activities during their free-time (Hanson, 2010; Selwyn, 2004). Despite these variations, several benefits of technology use have been identified, including: enjoyment and entertainment, increased learning opportunities, information searches, business transactions (e.g., shopping, finances), and social contact (Gatto & Tak, 2008). However, adults aged 70 and older are underrepresented and little attention has been paid specifically to older adults and technology use in the leisure literature (for exceptions see Kim & Preis, 2016; Nimrod, 2011).

The Technology In Later Life (TILL) Project explored technology use among adults aged 70 and older since “despite the increasing political, academic, and practitioner interest in older adults and technology, we know little of the realities of how older adults use, and do not use [information and communications technologies] in their everyday lives” (Selwyn, 2004, p. 370-371). The focus of the TILL Project was to understand older adults’ perceptions and use or non-use of technology.

We adopted a mixed methods approach for this international pilot study. Participants were recruited from four different sites spanning urban and rural environments; two sites were located in Canada and two in the UK. Thirty-seven participants completed an 80-item online survey and then participated in a semi-structured focus group. Survey questions included types of devices owned and reasons for using technology (e.g., social networking, banking). Focus group discussions were a minimum duration of 60 minutes and were digitally recorded and transcribed. Questions explored benefits and challenges of technology use, including issues such as access to and use of technology, learning how to use technology, and privacy concerns

Several themes were identified through initial and focused coding (Charmaz, 2014), including technology use habits, benefits of using technology, and challenges of using technology. Technology use was both functional and social as participants researched information, maintained health and safety records, constructed communication pathways (e.g., social media, video conferencing) and engaged in leisure (e.g., gaming and reading). Technology played a role in the participants’ leisure activities, ranging from information searches for crafting to online games and communication. Despite these identified benefits, some participants remained cautious, taking care to protect personal information and limit time spent on technology. This study provides insight into the possibilities of technology use as a site for leisure amongst older adults, as well as the barriers or challenges experienced as older adults embrace technology for leisure engagement.


Charmaz, K. (2014).  Constructing Grounded Theory, 2nd Ed.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Hanson, V. L. (2010). Influencing technology adoption by older adults. Interacting with Computers, 22, 502-509.

Gatto, S. L., & Tak, S. H. (2008). Computer, internet, and e-mail use among older adults: Benefits and barriers. Educational Gerontology, 34(9), 800-811.

Kim, M. J., & Preis, M. W. (2016). Why seniors use mobile devices: Applying an extended model of goal-directed behavior. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 33(3), 404-423.

Nimrod, G. (2011).  The fun culture in seniors’ online communities.  The Gerontologist, 51(2), 226-237. 

Perrin, A., & Duggan, M. (2015).  American’s Internet access: 2000-2015.  Pew Research Centre.  

Selwyn, N. (2004). The information aged: A qualitative study of older adults’ use of information and communications technology. Journal of Aging Studies, 18, 369-384.

Smith, A. (2014).  Older adults and technology use.  Pew Research Center.  

Author contact

Cory Kulczycki
University of Regina
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina SK  S4S 0A2

Return to concurrent session 1

“There’s actually climbing in the Prairies”: A study of climbing place meaning

Cory Kulczycki, University of Regina

Rock climbing is not typically an activity associated with prairie landscapes or residents. However, climbing is present in the prairies and warrants a thorough investigation since rock climbers are receptive of their environment (Lewis, 2000). They form detailed knowledge about their crags, landscapes, and surroundings which is based on their assessments of the sites for opportunities, features, and location (Lewis, 2000; Steele, 2006).

Place meanings are “thoughts, feelings, and emotion[s] individuals and collectives express toward place” (Kyle & Johnson, 2008, p. 111). Just as climbers are attuned to their settings, place meanings are shaped by site features, social interactions, and experiences (Tuan, 1975; Wynveen, Kyle, & Sutton, 2012). Experiences within place influence how someone’s senses and body interact with the place and people thereby establishing a lived experience (Crouch, 2000; Spinney, 2006). These experiences along with meanings are shared through interactions and stories (Kruger, 2006; Mullins, 2009). Therefore, place meanings can influence place-based activities and behaviours, management decisions about places, and ultimately other place meanings (Spartz & Shaw, 2011). Currently, climbing research does not thoroughly explain what place meanings evolve through climbing for people residing in non-typical climbing centres.

Based on the above conceptualization of place meaning, the research question was ‘What rock climbing place meanings exist for rock climbing Prairie residents?’ Consistent with previous place meaning research an interpretive inquiry methodology was utilized (e.g., Wynveen et al., 2012). Through an interpretive inquiry, participants provided their interpretations of their experiences (Holt, Tamminen, Tink, & Black, 2009) which assisted the researcher in understanding the meanings of these experiences (Gephart, 2004).

Eight residents of Saskatchewan and six residents of Manitoba participated in individual interviews. Eight participants were female and six were male. Semi-structured interviews lasted between 45 and 105 minutes. An interview guide focused the questions on participants’ climbing background (e.g., climbing history, partners, and motivations), indoor and outdoor climbing places (e.g., typical climbing locations), and a rock climbing trip experience. For example, participants were asked ‘Can you please describe your most memorable climbing trip?’ Probing questions inquired about trip characteristics including what was detected by the climber’s senses. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim prior to analysis.

Consistent with previous place meaning research, transcripts were subjected to inductive line-by-line coding focused on uncovering place meanings of the participants’ climbing places (e.g., Davenport & Anderson, 2005). Place meanings centred on social interactions, rock climbing and peripheral activities, and significant physical features. Places were presented with a climbing focus including access, routes, challenges, and accomplishments. However, places also supported interactions with friends, families, and like-minded people. Finally, nature was important, as were non-climbing activities such as eating, hiking, and sightseeing.

This study provides insight into the experiences of prairie climbers who actively engaged their places. It reveals that people created multiple place meanings while adapting to their surroundings which were not always optimal for their chosen activities. For climbing site managers, it is recommended that they be cognizant of climbing activities, associated activities, socializations, and how site characteristics influenced the climbers’ experiences.


Crouch, D. (2000). Places around us: Embodies lay geographies in leisure and tourism. Leisure Studies, 19(2), 63-76.

Davenport, M. A., & Anderson, D. H. (2005). Getting from sense of place to place-based management: An interpretive investigation of place meanings and perceptions of landscape change. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, 18(7), 625-641.

Gephart, R. P. (2004). Qualitative research and the Academy of Management Journal. Academy of Management Journal, 47(4), 454-462.

Holt, N. L., Tamminen, K. A., Tink, L. N., & Black, D. E. (2009). An interpretive analysis of life skills associated with sport participation. Qualitative Research in Sport and Exercise, 1(2), 160-175.

Kruger, L. E. (2006). Recreation as a path for place making and community building. Leisure/Loisir, 30(2), 383-391.

Kyle, G. T., & Johnson, C. Y. (2008). Chapter 6—Understanding cultural variation in place meaning. In L. E. Kruger, T. E. Hall, & M. C. Stiefel (Tech. Eds.), Understanding concepts of place in recreation research and management (pp. 109-134). Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-744. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station.

Lewis, N. (2000). The climbing body, nature and the experience of modernity. Body & Society, 6(3-4), 58-80.

Mullins, P. M. (2009). Living stories of the landscape: Perceptions of place through canoeing in Canada’s north. Tourism Geographies, 11(2), 233-255.

Spartz, J. T., & Shaw, B. R. (2011). Place meanings surrounding an urban natural area: A qualitative inquiry. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31, 344-352.

Spinney, J. (2006). A place of sense: A kinaesthetic ethnography of cyclists on Mont Ventoux. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 24, 709-732.

Steele, W. (2006). Engaging rock climbers-creating opportunities for collaborative planning and management in protected areas. Australasian Parks and Leisure, 9(2), 42-48.

Tuan, Y. (1975). Place: An experiential perspective. Geographical Review, 65(2), 151-165.

Wynveen, C. J., Kyle, G. T., & Sutton, S. G. (2012). Natural area visitors’ place meaning and place attachment ascribed to a marine setting. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32, 287-296.

Author contact

Cory Kulczycki
University of Regina
3737 Wascana Parkway
Regina SK  S4S 0A2

Return to concurrent session 3

Imagining inclusion: My health, wellbeing and community

Ania Landy, Simon Fraser University
Colleen Reid, Douglas College  
Maya Alonso, Open Door Group
Marina Morrow, York University

This community-based research Photovoice project was a partnership between Douglas College and Open Door Group. The aim of the Photovoice process was to examine how individuals living with serious mental illness experienced community inclusion, health and wellbeing and to involve them in a participatory research process. Thirty-two individuals with serious mental illness, including major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar, PTSD, borderline personality disorder, and anxiety, were involved as research participants. The data set included 270 photographs and photo reflections, 34 meeting transcripts, and over 40 sets of fieldnotes.  NVivo10 was used to analyze the data. All stages of data collection and analysis were participatory. Two peer researchers were hired at the onset of the project. The peer researchers and participants were involved in data analysis, writing newsletters, public speaking, and facilitating photo exhibits in the community. Major themes arising from the data, that are portrayed in the photo exhibit, are: the overwhelming impact of stigma; deep suffering and isolation; physical and material insecurity and vulnerability; challenges with the bureaucracies of the healthcare, mental health, recreation, housing, and employment insurance systems; the need for self-determination, agency and control; and a holistic vision of recovery that includes health, well-being, and relentless efforts to remain hopeful. Individuals with lived experience of mental illness continue to struggle with stigma and other personal and societal barriers that influence their health, well-being and recovery. As one participant said: "People with mental illnesses will be the last of the underprivileged minorities to gain equal status with the rest of humanity." In the current context of deinstitutionalization individuals living with mental illnesses are increasingly attempting to gain access to community services and resources (Gertrud & Severinsson, 2006). As such their significant personal and societal barriers must be acknowledged and addressed. Visual representations of individuals' lived experiences of mental illness, such as photographs from a Photovoice process, are an effective tool for communicating these experiences and raising awareness among service providers and the general public (Nykiforuk, Vallianatos & Nieuwendyk, 2011).


Granerud, A. A. & Severinsson, E. E. (2006). The struggle for social integration in the community – The experiences of people with mental health problems. Journal of Psychiatric & Mental Health Nursing, 13(3), 288-293.

Nykiforuk, C. J., Vallianatos, H., & Nieuwendyk, L. M. (2011). Photovoice as a method for revealing community perceptions of the built and social environment. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 10(2), 103-124.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Ania Landy
Simon Fraser University
928 Quadling Ave.,
Coquitlam, BC, V3K 2A5

Return to concurrent session 8

Leisure, mobile cinema and urban subtraction: Re-envisioning cities with the “kino-cine-bomber”

Brett Lashua, Leeds Beckett University
Simon Baker, University of Sheffield

Architecture by subtraction is the practice of renewing the urban landscape by removing redundant, disused, or over-engineered elements (Easterling, 2014). It embraces negative space or deconstruction, rather than additive architecture or construction. This paper brings architecture by subtraction together with cinema projection in redundant urban spaces. What parts of a city might be subtracted, and how might cinema highlight specific spaces that might be subtracted for leisure and cultural activity instead? Leisure scholars have explored film production (Singh, Johnson, Roberts & Sykes, 2010; Lashua, 2010) and its consumption (López-Sintas & García-Álvarez, 2016). In-between production and consumption, we present a mobile cinema project as an art intervention to re-envision cities. Part of a larger, ongoing research project (disrUPt! Creativity, Protest and the City), we focus on the development of a self-contained, mobile cinema apparatus we call the “kino-cine-bomber.” The prefixes kino (movement) and cine (film) evoke the spirit of the “kino-eye” in the pioneering work of documentary filmmaker Dziga Vertov (Hicks, 2007). Vertov celebrated cinematography’s capacities for capturing movement:

I am kino-eye, I am a mechanical eye. I, a machine, show you the world as only I can see it. I’m in constant movement. […] My way leads towards the creation of a fresh perception of the world. Thus I explain in a new way the world unknown to you. (1984, p. 17)

We redeploy Vertov’s kinesthetic sensibilities through filmic projection, mobilizing cinema in unexpected or “uncanny” ways, to de-familiarize familiar urban spaces (Huskisson, 2016). Using the city as screen or projection surface, the kino-cine-bomber bridges the production and consumption of leisure spaces in the city, creating disruptions in urban space (Lashua & Baker, 2014). We refer to the apparatus as a “bomber” through a focus on subtraction of the redundant architectural spaces of Leeds and Coventry – both cities heavily bombed in World War II, then rebuilt, which we “bomb” again, this time with film projections. Designed and built by postgraduate architecture students in the Re-Activist studio at the University of Sheffield, the kino-cine-bomber will be deployed first in Coventry. There, Re-Activist students are tracing a hidden river, culverted in postwar redevelopment, thus identifying an engineering infrastructure no longer fit for purpose that could be subtracted from the urban landscape. The hidden river determines locations above ground for our cinematic events. In Leeds, over-engineered roadways, sprawling yet underused, have been identified where cinema events can reclaim adjacent ground for cultural use. As it disrupts, the kino-cine-bomber challenges audiences and passers-by to reflect and – as Vertov invited – see the world around them in new ways (Clarke, 1997). As a leisure intervention in urban environments, our project offers a re-activation of “zombie spaces” turning these into new communal spaces (Lashua, 2015; Maak, 2015). The kino-cine-bomber re-shapes space; it projects a vision of possible futures, of places re-conceived. To share the project, we propose an alternative format presentation that would include video of the apparatus ‘in action’, along with a presentation of the ideas that underscore its creation and deployment.


Clarke, D. B. (1997). The Cinematic City. London: Routledge.

Easterling, K. (2014). Critical Spatial Practice: Subtraction. Berlin: Sternberg Press.

Hicks, J. (2007). Dziga Vertov: Defining documentary film. London: I. B. Tauris and Co., Ltd.

Huskisson, L. (2016). The Urban Uncanny: A collection of Interdisciplinary Studies. London: Routledge.

Lashua, B. D. (2015) Zombie Places? Pop Up Leisure and Re-Animated Urban Landscapes. In S. Gammon & S. Elkington (Eds.), Landscapes of Leisure: Space, Place and Identities (pp. 55-70). Aldershot: Palgrave Macmillan.

Lashua, B. D. (2010). ‘Crossing the line’: Addressing youth leisure, violence and socio‐geographic exclusion through documentary film‐making. Leisure Studies, 29(2), 193-206.

Lashua, B. D. & Baker, S. (2014). Cinema beneath the stars, heritage from below. In J. Schofield (Ed.) Who Needs Experts? Counter-Mapping Cultural Heritage (pp. 133-145). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate.

López-Sintas, J., García-Álvarez, M.E., & Hernández-López, A.G. (2016). In and out of everyday life through film experiences: An analysis of two social spaces as leisure frames. Leisure Studies, 1-14.

Maak, N. (2015). Living Complex: From Zombie City to the New Communal. Munich: Hirmer Press.

Singh, A. A., Johnson, C. W. (Producers), Roberts, J., & Sykes, A. (Filmmakers). (2010).  We exist: Collective memories of transgender youth in Georgia high schools [Documentary].  United States.

Vertov, D. (1984). Kino-eye: The writings of Dziga Vertov. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Author contact

Brett D. Lashua
Leeds Beckett University,
Carnegie Faculty, Headingley Campus, Cavendish Hall,
Leeds LS6 3QU, United Kingdom
(+44)(0)113 8125327

Return to concurrent session 8

Connecting through leisure: How leisure activities in urban nature spaces can contribute to the social inclusion of older adults

Heidi Lauckner
Lara Fenton 
Karen Gallant

Trisha Dempsey

There is growing concern regarding how to foster social networks and supports among older adults (Hutchinson & Gallant, 2016). It has been proposed that public outdoor spaces (such as parks, gardens, or other places where people can interact socially) can facilitate social connections and support (Baur & Tynon, 2010; Hebblethwaite & Pedlar, 2005) and a sense of belonging (Iwasaki et al., 2014), thus contributing to social inclusion (Donnelly & Coakley, 2002).  This was an exploratory qualitative pilot study that aimed to describe older adults' experiences of connection and belonging that occur through participation in leisure activities (particularly dog walking and gardening) in two outdoor, public leisure spaces (a public park and an urban farm) in a small Canadian city. An occupational science perspective, which involves the interdisciplinary study of human participation in daily activities (referred to as occupations) and the impact of such occupations on health and wellbeing, supplemented a focus on leisure as a means of fostering social inclusion.  Together, these complementary perspectives provided a theoretical foundation for this study.  This research engaged four participants who frequented a nature-based park frequented by dog walkers and three who participated at an urban farm. These seven older adults, aged 64 years and over, were instructed on the use of photovoice (Annear, Cushman, Gidlow, Keeling, Wilkinson, & Hopkins, 2014; Wang & Burris, 1997) to generate photographs of personally meaningful activities that occurred in either the park or the farm. Each participant then participated in a one-hour interview where the photographs were used to elicit further description of their experiences, with particular reflection on feelings of connections and belonging. A focus group with all participants was then conducted to collectively discuss the photographs and verify or expand preliminary interpretations of individual interviews.  Interviews and the focus group were transcribed and analyzed using interpretive description (Thorne, 2008).   At least two researchers reviewed each transcript, first analyzing all transcripts from one site together and then looking across sites.  Connection and belonging for the older adults in these outdoor leisure spaces involved connection to other people, to self and to nature/place through occupations. Key themes generated included: 1) an appreciation of having access to nature in the city which allowed for learning from nature and connection to something bigger, 2) Informal stewardship and formal contributions, such as volunteering, that foster connection to people and places, 3) socio-historical and temporal connections to activities and places, and 4) negotiating different levels of connection through a range of shared and individual occupations including dog walking, gardening, “just being”, and shared food and celebrations. The findings of this study supports the transactional relationship of human occupations within context (Dickie, Cutchin & Humphrey, 2011) and highlights the value of public outdoor spaces for leisure that can foster a sense of belonging for older adults.  Occupational scientists and leisure scientists can collaborate to further explore the complex relationship between leisure occupations and outdoor public spaces that promote social inclusion and well-being among older adults.


Annear, M., Cushman, G., Gidlow, B., Keeling, S., Wilkinson, T., & Hopkins, H. (2014). A place for visual research methods in the field of leisure studies? Evidence from two studies of older adults’ active leisure. Leisure Studies, 33(6), 618-643.

Baur, J. W., & Tynon, J. F. (2010). Small-scale urban nature parks: why should we care?. Leisure Sciences, 32(2), 195-200.

Dickie, V., Cutchin, M., & Humphrey, R. (2006).  Occupation as Transactional Experience: A critique of Individualism in Occupational Science.  Journal of Occupational Science, 13 (1), 83-93.

Donnelly, P., & Coakley, J. J. (2002). The role of recreation in promoting social inclusion (Perspectives on social inclusion working paper series). Toronto: Laidlaw Foundation.

Hebblethwaite, S., & Pedlar, A. (2005). Community integration for older adults with mental health issues: Implications for therapeutic recreation. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 39(4), 264-276.

Hutchinson, S., & Gallant, K. (2016). Can seniors’ centres be contexts for aging in Third Places? Journal of Leisure Research. 

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C., Shank, J. W., Messina, E., Porter, H., Salzer, M., . . . Koons, G. (2014). Role of leisure in recovery from mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 17(2), 147-165.

Thorne, S. (2008).  Interpretive Description. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Wang, C., & Burris, M. A. (1997). Photovoice: Concept, methodology, and use for participatory needs assessment. Health education & behavior24(3), 369-387.

Author contact

Heidi Lauckner, PhD, OT Reg (NS)
Assistant Professor
School of Occupational Therapy
Dalhousie University
5869 University Avenue,
Forrest Building Room 215
PO BOX 15000
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2
Phone: 902-494-2608
Fax: 902-494-1229

Return to concurrent session 7

Understanding socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of leisure services users: The need for large-scale estimation of leisure participation

Marc-André Lavigne, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR)

The objective of this presentation is to describe a model built for leisure scholars and managers to analyze leisure participation in a given community, using metadata provided by Statistics Canada and georeferenced information, and explore how it could be used for research purposes. Put differently, the model helps to answer a simple yet crucial question that has been fascinating leisure management and marketing specialists for a long time : who are using our sport and recreation facilities and programs?

The model diverges from the discussion on leisure participation and does not aim to provide a fine-grained analysis of constraints and barriers, but instead focuses on a more macroscopic understanding of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of leisure services users. Using Statistics Canada metadata, the Material and Social Deprivation Index (Pampalon et al., 2012) and additional data (including postal codes) provided by local governments or leisure and sports associations, the model enabled us to compare leisure participation in several neighborhoods (Statistics Canada’s dissemination areas) and to estimate the main differences in socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of leisure users.

The contribution of this model to a better understanding of leisure participation is twofold. Not only can it provide a management information system robust enough to contribute to effective decision-making for leisure managers, but it also constitutes a valuable source of data to understand better the characteristics of leisure users. Socioeconomic status (e.g., income, education, employment) and ascribed characteristics (e.g., age, ethnicity, gender) have often been used in leisure studies to describe the realities of specific clienteles or communities (Breuer, Hallmann, & Wicker, 2011; Breuer, Hallmann, Wicker, & Feiler, 2010; Pronovost, 2013, 2015; Van Tuyckom, Scheerder, & Bracke, 2010, among others), with a recent renewed interest in analyzing determinants of active leisure (Eime et al., 2013; Eime et al., 2015; Hurst, 2009; Son, Kerstetter, & Mowen, 2008). But it has much less frequently been linked to leisure participation in programs and facilities on a larger scale (Howard & Crompton, 1984), with the exception of discussing public library use (Park, 2012a, 2012b) and equity-mapping for parks (Maroko, Maantay, Sohler, Grady, & Arno, 2009). The model can also be used to explore the effectiveness of accessibility policies targeting low-income citizens which has also been rarely questioned (McCarville, 2008) or evaluated (Lamari & Ménard, 2012; Reiling, Cheng, & Trott, 1992) in such a way.

The presentation will focus on the description of this model and its variables, and on the methodological and ethical challenges faced in implementing it. We will then focus on possible usages for the model and how it could contribute to future research on leisure services users and non-users. For example, this model could be used to explore the effectiveness of accessibility policy and to assess if, and to what extent, public leisure services are really used by the less well-off and if specific programs are effectively reaching low-income families; if the socioeconomic profile of users tend to vary from a sport to another; or if young elite athletes come from wealthier neighborhoods.


Breuer, C., Hallmann, K., & Wicker, P. (2011). Determinants of sport participation in different sports. Managing Leisure, 16(4), 269-286.

Breuer, C., Hallmann, K., Wicker, P., & Feiler, S. (2010). Socio-economic patterns of sport demand and ageing. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 7(2), 61-70.

Eime, R., Harvey, J., Sawyer, N., Craike, M., Symons, C., Polman, R., & Payne, W. (2013). Understanding the contexts of adolescent female participation in sport and physical activity. Res Q Exerc Sport, 84.

Eime, R. M., Casey, M. M., Harvey, J. T., Sawyer, N. A., Symons, C. M., & Payne, W. R. (2015). Socioecological factors potentially associated with participation in physical activity and sport: A longitudinal study of adolescent girls. J Sci Med Sport, 18.

Hurst, M. (2009). Who participates in active leisure. Canadian Social Trends, 87, 25-32.

Lamari, M., & Ménard, C. (2012). Démocratiser les loisirs et faciliter l'accès aux activités sportives: évaluation d'une initiative d'économie sociale visant les populations handicapées ou démunies au Québec, Canada. Leisure/Loisir, 36(1), 37-52.

Maroko, A. R., Maantay, J. A., Sohler, N. L., Grady, K. L., & Arno, P. S. (2009). The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach. International Journal of Health Geographics, 8(34), 1-23.

McCarville, R. (2008). The Design of Financial Assistance Programs: Suggestion from Those Living in Poverty. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 26(4).

Pampalon, R., Hamel, D., Gamache, P., Philibert, M. D., Raymond, G., & Simpson, A. (2012). An Area-based Material and Social Deprivation Index for Public Health in Québec and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 103(8), 6.

Park, S. J. (2012a). Measuring public library accessibility: A case study using GIS. Library & Information Science Research, 34(1), 13-21. 

Park, S. J. (2012b). Measuring travel time and distance in library use. Library Hi Tech, 30(1), 151-169.

Pronovost, G. (2013). Comprendre les jeunes aujourd'hui : trajectoires, temporalités. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec.

Pronovost, G. (2015). Que faisons-nous de notre temps? : vingt-quatre heures dans la vie des Québécois : comparaisons internationales. Québec: Presses de l'Université du Québec.

Reiling, S. D., Cheng, H. T., & Trott, C. (1992). Measuring the discriminatory impact associated with higher recreational fees. Leisure Sciences, 14(2), 121-137.

Son, J. S., Kerstetter, D. L., & Mowen, A. J. (2008). Do age and gender matter in the constraint negotiation of physically active leisure? Journal of Leisure Research, 40(2), 267.

Van Tuyckom, C., Scheerder, J., & Bracke, P. (2010). Gender and age inequalities in regular sports participation: A cross-national study of 25 European countries. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(10), 1077-1084.

Author contact

Marc-André Lavigne
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351, des Forges, C.P. 500
Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 5H7
819-376-5011, ext. 3279

Return to concurrent session 9

Sibling relationships in emerging adulthood: Shared leisure and relationship quality

Eric K. Layland, Pennsylvania State University
Camilla J. Hodge, Pennsylvania State University
Nimay Godbole, Pennsylvania State University

Leisure is an important context for family relationships (Orthner, Barnett-Morris, & Mancini, 1994). Sibling relationships, however, are missing from family leisure research even though sibling relationships are potentially the longest-lasting across the lifespan (Cicirelli, 1994; Whiteman, McHale, & Soli, 2011). Moreover, family leisure research has consistently focused on distinct life stages without considering transitions occurring within or between life stages (Hodge et al., 2015). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between leisure and sibling relationships at two transition points for emerging adults: entry into and exit out of university. We examined the relationships between shared leisure, geographic distance, sibling gender, and sibling relationship quality.

The Family Life Course Developmental Framework encompasses (1) the individual lifespan theory, (2) family developmental theory, and (3) life course theory (White & Klein, 2008). The framework considers and combines the factors affecting the development of the individual, the changes families experience as they “move through stages and events of their family life course” (White & Klein, 2008, p. 122), and the event history of an individual (i.e., how previous events affect later outcomes) (White & Klein, 2008). In addressing the primary purpose of this study, focus groups were used to understand the diversity of experience for individuals transitioning into and out of college, and a web-based survey was used to measure sibling relationship quality, geographic distance, and frequency of shared leisure.

Of the 164 respondents, more than half (n = 89, 54.3%) were in their first two years of university. The sample was mostly male (64.0%) and White (85.4%) with an average age of 20.1 years (SD = 1.44). Sixty-two respondents were firstborn siblings (37.8%), 68 (41.5%) were second born siblings, and 34 (20.7%) were third born or greater. Forty-nine respondents reported a male-male sibling dyad (29.9%), 56 (34.1%) reported a female-female sibling dyad, and the remaining 59 (36.0%) reported a male-female sibling dyad. Analyses indicate significant positive associations between both the frequency of shared sibling digital leisure and in-person leisure and indicators of sibling relationship quality such as “My sibling is one of my best friends” (rdigital= .308, p < .001; rin-person= .186, p < .05) and “My sibling makes me happy” (rdigital= .306, p < .001; rin-person= .218, p < .01). Further analyses explore impact of sibling dyad types and individual characteristics on sibling relationship quality.

This paper seeks to connect individual life transitions to the impact on family life. Emerging adults in college remain members of their family systems even when geographically removed and shared leisure is an important part of the changing family system. This research expands an inclusive approach to family leisure research by focusing on a heretofore overlooked family subsystem: siblings.


Cicirelli, V. (1994). The longest bond: The sibling life cycle. In L. L’Abate (Ed.), Handbook of developmental family psychology and psychopathology (pp. 44–59). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Hodge, C. J., Bocarro, J. N., Henderson, K. A., Zabriskie, R. B., Parcel, T. L., & Kanters, M. (2015). Family leisure: An integrative review of research from select journals. Journal of Leisure Research, 47(5), 577–600. 

Orthner, D., Barnett-Morris, L., & Mancini, J. (1994). Leisure and family over the life cycle. In L. L’Abate (Ed.), Handbook of developmental family psychology and psychopathology. New York, NY: Wiley.

White, J., & Klein, D. (2008). Family theories. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

Whiteman, S. D., McHale, S. M., & Soli, A. (2011). Theoretical perspectives on sibling relationships. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 3(2), 124–139.

Author contact

Eric Layland
Pennsylvania State University
814 Ford Building
State College, PA 16802 USA

Return to concurrent session 4

Un cadre conceptuel comparatif de l’accueil et de l’hospitalité

Marc LeBlanc, Université de Moncton
François de Grandpré, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

L’accueil peut être définie comme étant «un acte volontaire interpersonnel dans un cadre particulier qui introduit un étranger dans une entreprise, une communauté ou un territoire et qui, à ce titre, facilite l’accès à divers bénéfices utilitaires, ludiques et culturels de ces lieux le temps d’un séjour. Même si l’accueil se vit principalement pendant le séjour, certaines composantes de l’accueil peuvent se manifester avant et après » (de Grandpré et al. 2012).

Le terme « accueil » est difficile à traduire littéralement en anglais, il présente également des distinctions sur le fond. L’objectif de cette communication est de proposer un cadre conceptuel comparatif de l’accueil et l’hospitalité.

En langue anglaise, ce sont les mots hosiptality, hospitableness et welcome qui sont utilisés, mais ils ne suffisent pas à traduire le sens profond de l’accueil. D’ailleurs le concept même d’hospitalité a grandement évolué depuis la première définition qui touchait essentiellement à l’offre de nourriture, de boissons et d’hébergement (Lashley, 2003).

Même si en français le terme « accueil » est très largement utilisé dans le monde du tourisme, il demeure encore aujourd’hui relativement peu conceptualisé, ce qui amène à des interprétations variées. La situation semble pareille dans les travaux en langue anglaise quand il est question d’hospitality ou hospitableness, puisqu’on note que même si ces concepts existent depuis des temps immémoriaux, les chercheurs s’y intéressent uniquement à partir des deux ou trois dernières décennies (Lashley & Morrison, 2000; Brotherton, 2005; Pizam & Shani, 2009).

Dans le but de comparer l’accueil et l’hospitalité (pour hospitality en anglais), les travaux de Gouirand (2009) et de Lashley (2014) ont été utilisés. Ainsi, le schéma ci-dessous situe les concepts de l’accueil et de l’hospitalité selon ces recherches. On retrouve dans l’accueil les enchaînements de reconnaissance (par l’hôte envers le touriste), d’hospitalité (notions très nuancées du sens anglo-saxon et qui est l’entrée dans la « famille ») et de maternage (prise en charge des problèmes du touriste) avec des ramifications de ce qui définit l’hospitality, à savoir la nourriture, la boisson et l’hébergement dans les contextes privé, social et commercial. Le concept d’hospitability, pas plus que le concept de service à la clientèle ne sont des synonymes de l’accueil, ce sont des composantes différentes, mais complémentaires. L’accueil a une dimension volontaire importante, ce qui permet de le distinguer avec le service à la clientèle. Le service a un caractère obligé (par exemple, le serveur n’a pas vraiment d’autre choix que de prendre la commande du client au restaurant, etc.)

Comme nous l’indiquerons dans la communication, l’accueil, contrairement à l’hospitalité, est l’affaire de toutes les personnes identifiables à l’espace visité. Il contribue à faire passer le visiteur de son statut initial d’étranger à celui d’hôte et, jusqu’à un certain point, finira par le faire sentir comme un des siens.


Brotherton, B. (2005). The Nature of Hospitality : Customer Perceptions and Implications. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 2 (3), 139-153.

de Grandpré, F., LeBlanc M., & Royer C. (2012). Étude sur l’accueil touristique au Québec. Québec, Canada : Ministère du Tourisme du Québec.

Gouirand, P. (2009). L'accueil: Entre reconnaissance, hospitalité et maternage. Espaces tourisme et loisirs, 276, 11-14.

Lashley, C., (2003). Studying hospitality:  Some reflections on hospitality management education. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 21 (2), 233-261.

Lashley, C., (2014). Insights into the study of hospitality. Hospitality Management, 4 (1-2), iii-v.

Lashley, C. & Morrison, A. (2000). In Search of Hospitality : Theoretical Perspectives and Debates. Oxford : Butterworth-Heinemann.

Pizam, A. & Shani, A. (2009). The Nature of the Hospitality Industry : Present and Future Managers’ Perspectives, Anatolia, 20 :1, 134-150.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Marc LeBlanc, Professeur titulaire
École de kinésiologie et de loisir
Université de Moncton
Moncton NB  E1A 3E9

Return to concurrent session 7

Leisure and happiness

Andrew Lepp, Kent State University

A number of leisure related variables have been linked to happiness. These include awareness of leisure’s intrinsic rewards (Graef, Csikszentmihalyi & Gianinno, 1983) and the preference for challenging activities which require skill and effort (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Leisure routine, operationalized as an assessment of how an individual utilizes daily free time, has also been associated with happiness. In particular, social engagement, personal reflection, outdoor recreation (Bailey & Fernando, 2012; Lloyd & Auld, 2002), volunteering (Doerksen, Elavsky, Rebar & Conroy, 2014), involvement in leisure time physical activity (Sato, Jordan & Funk, 2014), and serious leisure (Heo, Stebbins, Kim & Lee, 2013) have all been positively associated with happiness. While these studies highlight the importance of a meaningful leisure routine, it is how this leisure routine is experienced that seems to have the greatest impact on happiness (Kim, Lee & Chun, 2010; Spiers & Walker, 2009). Thus it is surprising that the Leisure Experience Battery (LEB) (Caldwell, Smith & Weissinger, 1992) has not been tested in happiness studies. The LEB measures an individual’s experience of leisure along four dimensions: boredom, challenge, distress, and awareness.

The purpose of this study was to extend previous research by examining the relationship between happiness and leisure as assessed by the four dimensions of the LEB.

A paper survey including the LEB, a validated measure of happiness, and basic demographic variables was distributed to a random sample of college students (N = 507). Happiness was assessed with the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). All scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency with Cronbach’s α ≥ .73 except leisure awareness (α = .62). Independent samples t-tests found no significant difference between males and females in 4 of 5 study variables including happiness (p ≥ .144). Thus, sex was dropped from further analysis. Relationships between happiness (i.e., SWLS) and the four dimensions of the LEB were first examined using Pearson correlations. Then, a tertile split was performed and participants were assigned to a low happiness (< 33rd percentile), moderate happiness (33rd – 66th percentile) or high happiness (>66th percentile) group based upon their SWLS score. After completing the tertile split, an ANOVA was performed with Bonferroni’s post-hoc comparisons to assess differences in leisure experience between the three groups.

Happiness was significantly and positively related to preference for leisure challenge (r = .172, p ≤ .001) and awareness of leisure (r = .286, p ≤ .001). Happiness was significantly and negatively related to leisure boredom (r = -.213, p ≤ .001), and leisure distress (r = -.128, p ≤ .001). ANOVA demonstrated that each of the four dimensions of the LEB (i.e., boredom, challenge, distress, awareness) varied significantly by level of happiness (F ≥ 5.078, p ≤ .007).  Post Hoc analysis revealed that the happiest individuals had the greatest preference for leisure challenge, the highest level of awareness of opportunities for leisure, experienced the least leisure boredom, and experienced the least leisure distress. Implications are discussed within the context of leisure education.


Bailey, A.W. & Fernando, I.K. (2012). Routine and project based leisure, happiness, and meaning in life. Journal of Leisure Research, 44, 139-154.

Caldwell, L.L., Smith, E.A. & Weissinger, E. (1992). Development of a leisure experience battery for adolescents: Parsimony, stability, and validity. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(4), 361-376.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Doerksen, S.E., Elavsku, S., Rebar, A.L., & Conroy, D.E. (2014). Weekly fluctuations in college student leisure activities and well-being. Leisure Sciences, 36, 14-34.

Graef, R., Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Gianinno, S.M. (1983). Measuring intrinsic motivation in everyday life. Leisure Studies, 2, 155-168.

Heo, J., Stebbins, R.A., Kim, J. & Lee, I. (2013). Serious leisure, life satisfaction, and health of older adults. Leisure Sciences, 35, 16-32.

Kim, B., Lee, Y. & Chun, S. (2010). An exploratory study examining the relationships between leisure-related variables and subjective well-being of community residents. Annals of Leisure Research, 13, 613-629.

Lloyd, K.H. & Auld, C.J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research, 57, 43-71.

Sato, M., Jordan, J.S. & Funk, D. (2014). The role of physically active leisure for enhancing quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 36, 293-313.

Spiers, A. & Walker, G.J. (2008). The effects of ethnicity and leisure satisfaction on happiness, peacefulness, and quality of life. Leisure Sciences, 31, 84-99.

Author contact

Andrew Lepp, Associate Professor
Recreation, Park and Tourism Management
Kent State University
PO Box 5190, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA

Return to concurrent session 6

Social connections among female softball players

Toni Liechty, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Julie Son, University of Idaho
Stephanie West, Appalachian State University
Jill Naar, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Research suggests that leisure provides a vehicle for women to develop friendships in later life, which can have important benefits for their social and emotional well-being (Green, 1998; Son, Yarnal & Kerstetter, 2010). Little research, however, has explored older women’s experiences of social connections in a team sport setting. Burnett-Wolle and Godbey (2007) have argued that our understanding of leisure and relationships in later life can be enhanced by adopting the lens of socioemotional selectivity theory (SEST). SEST is a life-span development model which suggests that with age, adults narrow the size of their social network and focus on a smaller circle of friends and relatives (Carstensen, 1992). The theory suggests that older adults increasingly seek emotional meaning from relationships because time is of the essence (Charles & Carstensen, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore social connections among older women who play softball using SEST as a conceptual framework. This study utilized focus groups to collect data with 64 players on six softball teams in the North Carolina Senior Games program. Participants were between the ages of 55 and 79. Each team completed one focus group session. Focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using initial, focused, and selective coding (Charmaz, 2014). Participants described social connections as one of the strongest motivations for playing softball. Playing softball provided the women opportunities to make new friends with shared interests and relationships with teammates extended off the field (e.g., having meals together). In some cases, participants also enjoyed re-connecting with women they had played with previously.  In addition, teammates provided a valuable social network in times of need (e.g., when facing health challenges). For example, in one session the moderator asked, “If you had to stop playing softball, what would you miss?” which prompted the following exchange:

Betty: The comradery…

Melody: All the people.  Because we have met some great friends and people I did not know.

Margaret: What impressed me about the ladies on the team…was, I had just become a member of the team when my mother passed away…Every one of these ladies came to console me … So there’s a lot of support.

Findings highlight the potential for team sport to promote social connectedness among older women and provide insight into the application of socioemotional selectivity theory. The findings support SEST by suggesting that participants were looking for emotional closeness from their relationships. However, the findings contradict SEST in that rather than narrowing their social networks, participants appreciated playing softball as a means of making new friends or re-connecting with old friends. It is possible that the current generation of retirement-age women is different from previous generations in that they are seeking to expand their social networks. It is also possible that the narrowing of social networks is not a linear process. For example, within an overall pattern of narrowing, some relationships may be added to meet individual needs (e.g., some participants joined a team after being widowed).


Burnett-Wolle, S., & Godbey, G. (2007). Refining research on older adults' leisure: Implications of selection, optimization, and compensation and socioemotional selectivity theories. Journal of Leisure Research, 39(3), 498.

Carstensen, L. L. (1992). Social and emotional patterns in adulthood: support for socioemotional selectivity theory. Psychology and aging, 7(3), 331.

Carstensen, L. L., Fung, H. H., & Charles, S. T. (2003). Socioemotional selectivity theory and the regulation of emotion in the second half of life. Motivation and emotion, 27(2), 103-123.

Charles, S., & Carstensen, L. L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. Annual review of psychology, 61, 383.

Charmaz, K. (2014).  Constructing Grounded Theory (2nd Ed.).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Green, E. (1998). ‘Women doing friendship’: An analysis of women's leisure as a site of identity construction, empowerment and resistance. Leisure studies, 17(3), 171-185.

Hutchinson, S. L., Yarnal, C. M., Staffordson, J., & Kerstetter, D. L. (2008). Beyond fun and friendship: The Red Hat Society as a coping resource for older women. Ageing and Society, 28(07), 979-999.

Son, J., Yarnal, C., & Kerstetter, D. (2010). Engendering social capital through a leisure club for middle‐aged and older women: Implications for individual and community health and well‐being. Leisure Studies, 29(1), 67-83.

Author contact

Toni Liechty
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
104 Huff Hall
Champaign, IL, 61820

Return to concurrent session 1

Factors affecting social participation among adults with mobility disabilities 

Angela Loucks-Atkinson, Memorial University
Matthew Atkinson, Statistics Consultant, St. John’s NL

Mobility disability (MD) is a highly reported disability causing activity limitations among Canadian adults (HRSDC, 2006). The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) defines disability as the relationship between body structures/functions, daily activities, and social participation (SP) (WHO, 2001). SP is involvement in societal and social activities (Levasseur, Richard, Gauvin, & Raymond, 2010; WHO, 2001) and is associated with well-being (e.g., Janke, Jones, Payne, & Son, 2012; Norrbäck, de Munter, Tynelius, Ahlström, & Rasmussen, 2015). The ICF proposes that extrinsic physical and social environmental (e.g., accessibility, social support) and personal (i.e., coping style, health) factors influence SP. This secondary analysis explores environmental and personal factors that constrain or facilitate SP among young and middle-aged Canadian adults with MD.  Secondary analysis was conducted on a sub-sample of 20-64 year-old respondents with MD (n=6,105) from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) (Statistics Canada, 2009).  Based on the ICF model, variables from PALS were conceptualized as environment or personal factors. Environmental factors included assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs); need for additional assistance with ADLs; home accessibility features; lack of home accessibility features; social support; and barriers to leisure.  Personal factors included use of aids; lack of aids; self-rated health; and disability as barrier to activity.  SP was the frequency of participation in seven activities.  SP was collapsed into 3 groups: low (reference category), moderate, and high. Multinomial logistic regression (Norušis, 2011) determined associations between SP groups and the main effects of environmental and personal factors. Environmental factors: increased assistance with ADLs reduced the likelihood of being in the low versus high SP group (OR=1.09); increased need for assistance with ADLs and greater lack of home accessibility features reduced the likelihood of being in the moderate (OR=1.31; OR=1.29, respectively) or high (OR=1.35; OR=1.37, respectively) SP groups; and as barriers to leisure increased one was more likely to be in the moderate (OR=0.81) or high (OR=0.83) SP groups.  Personal factors: increased use of aids and self-rated health status both increased the likelihood of being in the moderate (OR=0.93; OR=0.81, respectively) or high (OR=0.89; OR=0.61, respectively) SP groups; lack of aids was not a significant predictor; and as frequency of disability as barrier to activity increased one was less likely to be in the moderate (OR=1.05) or high (OR=1.13) SP groups.  Environmental factors with the largest significant negative effects on SP included need for assistance with ADLs and lack of home accessibility features.  Disability as a barrier to activity was the strongest personal factor and reduced SP.  Use of aids (personal) and assistance with ADLs (environmental) had the largest effects among facilitative SP factors.  Overall, environmental factors had a stronger association with SP than personal factors.  Strategies are needed to increase home and activity supports for people with MDs. Greater effort is needed to address complex environmental factors influencing participation (Stucki, Reinhardt, & Bickenbach, 2015).  Future research should take an ecological approach to explore environmental factors that affect SP (Levasseur et al., 2015; Shumway-Cook et al., 2003).


Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2006). Canadians in context: People with disabilities

Janke, M. C., Jones, J. J., Payne, L. L., & Son, J. S. (2012). Living with arthritis: Using self-management of valued activities to promote health. Qualitative Health Research, 23, 360-372.

Norrbäck M., de Munter, J., Tynelius, P., Ahlström, G., & Rasmussen, G. (2015). The impact on social capital of mobility disability and weight status: The Stockholm Public Health Cohort.  Disability and Health Journal, 8(2), 200-207.

Norušis, M. (2011). IBM SPSS Statistics 19 Advanced Statistical Procedures Companion.  Boston: Addison Wesley.

Levasseur, M., Cohen, A.A., Dubois, M-F., Généreux, M., Richard, R., Therrien, F-H., & Payette, H.  (2015). Environmental factors associated with social participation of older adults living in metropolitan, urban, and rural areas: The NuAge Study. American Journal of Public Health, 105(8), 1718-1725.

Levasseur, M, Richard, M., Gauvin, L., & Raymond, L.  (2010). Inventory and analysis of definitions of social participation found in the aging literature: Proposed taxonomy of social activities. Social Science & Medicine, 71(12), 2141-2149.

Shumway-Cook, A., Patla, A., Stewart, A., Ferrucci, L., Ciol, M., & Guralnik, J. (2003). Environmental components of mobility disability in community-living older persons. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(3), 393-398.

Stucki, G., Reinhardt, J.D., & Bickenbach, J. (2015).  Theoretical foundations for the measurement of environmental factors and their impact on participation among people with disabilities.  Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(9), 1739-1740.

Statistics Canada. (2009). Statistics Canada: Participation and Activity Limitation Survey

World Health Organization (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Geneva: World Health Organization.

Author contact

Angela Loucks-Atkinson, Ph.D.
Memorial University
St. John's, NL, A1C 5S7
(709) 864-6911

Return to poster presentations

Constraint negotiation and facilitators in recreational sport

Bradley MacCosham, University of Ottawa
François Gravelle, University of Ottawa

This study sought to understand how amateur athletes negotiate leisure constraints and understand what facilitates their involvement in sport. This study is important as it can help leisure practitioners understand what constraints impede athletes’ participation in physically active leisure, as well as how athletes overcome these constraints to maintain their engagement in recreational sport. Although researchers have put forth various models to classify leisure constraints, they are most commonly classified as being interpersonal, interpersonal, or structural (Crawford, Jackson, & Godbey, 1991). Leisure constraints are important to consider when looking at leisure behavior, as they can impede an individual’s leisure participation in preferred activities, such as sport. Furthermore, the leisure constraints model has also inspired other important frameworks such as the constraint negotiation strategies and leisure facilitator’s frameworks. Constraint negotiation strategies are either cognitive or behavioral, and emphasize on how individuals, such as athletes, are capable of overcoming leisure constraints (Henderson & Bialeschki, 1993; Jackson, Crawford, & Godbey, 1993; Jackson & Rucks, 1995; Kennelly, Moyle, & Lamont, 2013). Similarly, leisure facilitators, which are also classified as being interpersonal, interpersonal or structural, are the factors, which help maintain leisure participation (Raymore, 2002). While there is a growing body of literature on these frameworks, there is a need to better understand how these apply to various contexts, including amateur recreational sport. This study used a qualitative research design where data was collected through single semi-structured interviews with ten amateur athletes. Amateur athletes represented sports such as soccer, ice hockey, football, and weightlifting. Interviews lasted between 20 and 40 minutes. Data was analyzed using a thematic analysis (Grbich, 2013). Findings revealed that amateur athletes encountered various intrapersonal (e.g., lack of motivation and interest, disappointment), interpersonal (e.g., not sharing similar interests with friends/significant others, conflicts between spending time with friends and having to attend sport), and structural (e.g., poor weather, schedule conflicts between work/school and sport) leisure constraints. Participants were able to overcome these constraints by employing a number of cognitive and behavioral negotiation strategies. Cognitive strategies involved convincing one’s self that attending sport would be pleasurable, understanding the benefits of being physically active by engaging in sport, and being efficient in prioritizing/accommodating daily activity schedules. Behavioral strategies involved time management to ensure that each facet of life could be tended to, discipline props by joining sports clubs, communication with others to let them know when they would be attending sport and when they were not, and flexibility by allowing a sufficient amount of time to take part in various activities while keeping in mind that it could change at any time. Findings of this study also revealed that participants relied on individual beliefs and social relationships to help facilitate their involvement in sport. When encountering conflicts in scheduling, peers helped participants attend their sport and encouraged them to stay involved in their sport despite constraints. Participants also convinced themselves to participate because they believed physical activity would be beneficial to them.


Crawford, D., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309-320.

Grbich, C. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Henderson, K. A., & Bialeschki, M. D. (1993). Negotiating constraints to women’s physical recreation. Society and Leisure, 16(2), 389-412.

Jackson, E. L., Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1993). Negotiation of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 15(1), 1-11.

Jackson, E. L., & Rucks, V. C. (1995). Negotiation of leisure constraints by junior-high and high school students: An exploratory study. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(1), 85-105.

Kennelly, M., Moyle, B., & Lamont, M. (2013). Constraint negotiation in serious leisure: A study of amateur triathletes. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(4), 466-484.

Raymore, L. A. (2002). Facilitators to Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(1), 37-51.

Author contact

Bradley MacCosham, Ph.D. (student)
University of Ottawa
1320 Inge Crescent
Ottawa ON  K4B 1M7

Return to poster presentations

A theoretical model for measuring the intensity of leisure experiences

Bradley MacCosham, University of Ottawa

The purpose of this theoretical paper is to propose a model that will allow us to measure the intensity of pleasurable experiences associated with leisure. While the definition of leisure remains somewhat ambiguous, it is generally agreed upon that leisure is often associated with pleasurable experiences. Pleasurable experiences commonly associated with leisure range from relaxation, pleasure, gratification, fulfillment, self-actualization, and flow, among others (Blackshaw, 2010; Csikszentmihalyi, 1990; Elkington & Stebbins, 2014 Freysinger & Kelly, 2004; Iso-Ahola, 1980; Neulinger, 1981 Podilchak, 1991; Stebbins, 2015). What is important to note is that each of these experiences vary in their intensity, as relaxation is not the same experience as flow for example. Little attention has been given as to how or what factors are responsible for producing these experiences. This model illustrates how these experiences are produced based on a number of factors. This paper is important, as it can allow leisure practitioners to identify what type of experiences individuals are having when engaged in leisure and how they relate to their continued involvement in preferred activities. In this paper the researcher has identified certain factors that could potentially be responsible for influencing the intensity of pleasurable experiences associated with leisure. What this model proposes is that the experience produced will likely depend on the compatibility and interaction between these factors. The pleasurable leisure experiences identified in this paper are: 1-relaxation, 2-pleasure, 3-gratification, 4-fulfillment, 5-actualization, and 6-flow. Each experience is ranked in order of their intensity with relaxation being the lowest and flow being the highest and/or most significant experience. The factors identified by the researcher as being responsible for producing these experiences are motivation, competence, attitude, engagement, environment, and expectation. In order to identify which experience is produced participants are asked to rate their level of motivation (intrinsic – extrinsic), competence (high – low), attitude (positive – negative), engagement (intense – moderate), environment (stimulating – dull), and expectation (fulfilled – unfulfilled) in a 6-point likert scale (corresponding with the number of experiences). The average score of the overall rankings for each factor is then calculated and corresponds with one of the experiences. Example: motivation (5), competence (4), attitude (5), engagement (4), environment (6), and expectation (3). Average: 4.5 or 5. Experience = actualization. 


Blackshaw, T. (2010). Leisure (key ideas). New York, NY: Routledge.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row.

Elkington, S., & Stebbins, R. A. (2014). The serious leisure perspective: An introduction. New York, NY: Routledge.

Freysinger, V. J., & Kelly, J. R. (2004). 21st century leisure: Current issues (2nd ed.). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Iso-Ahola, S. E. (1980). Social psychological perspectives on leisure and recreation. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Neulinger, J. (1981). The psychology of leisure (2nd ed.). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Podilchak, W. (1991). Distinctions of fun, enjoyment and leisure. Leisure Studies, 10(2), 133-148.

Stebbins, R. A. (2015). Leisure and positive psychology: Linking activities with positiveness. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Author contact

Bradley MacCosham, Ph.D. (student)
University of Ottawa
1320 Inge Crescent
Ottawa ON  K4B 1M7

Return to poster presentations

A goal for social inclusion: Street soccer and social capital

Julian Macnaughton, University of Waterloo

At its best, sport offers vital benefits, including improved mental health, self-esteem, physical wellbeing, and positive community development and integration (Skinner, Zakus & Cowell, 2008).  Leveraging sport to improve the wellbeing of marginalized people has become an increasingly common practice.  Street soccer, in particular, has been one of the more successful programmes to take rise (Magee, 2011; Sherry & Strybosch, 2012).  While grassroots street soccer programmes have enjoyed success in local communities around the world, documentation of how and why such programmes improve participant wellbeing remains sparse (Skinner et al., 2008; Trussell & Mair, 2010).  This presentation shares findings from a nineteen-month ethnography, which focused on a single, local, Canadian, street soccer team, the Victoria Dreams.  Participant, volunteer, and researcher experiences are examined, providing insights into street soccer, social inclusion and social capital theory.  Specifically, discussion focuses on how participation with the Victoria Dreams 1) expanded social contacts and increased access to social capital, 2) improved player’s self-esteem and motivation for a healthier lifestyle, and 3) developed portable life skills and confidence. A number of tensions inherent within the programme are also noted, including the problematic lack of linking capital (Sretzer & Woolcock, 2004).  Additionally, important questions about the durability of social capital and the need for ongoing investment from players and volunteers in relation to expressive actions and social support are considered (Glover, 2016). 


Glover, T. D. (2016). Social capital: The value of social networks in community. In E. Sharpe, F. Yuen & H. Mair (eds.), Community development: Applications for leisure (pp. 49-58). State College, PA: Venture Publishing

Magee, J. (2011). Disengagement, demotivation, vulnerable groups and sporting inclusion: A case study of the homeless world cup. Soccer and Society, 12(2), 159-173.

Sherry, E., & Strybosch, V. (2012). A kick in the right direction: Longitudinal outcomes of the Australian community street soccer program. Soccer and Society, 13(4), 495-509.

Skinner, J., Zakus, D. H., & Cowell, J. (2008). Development through sport: Building social capital in disadvantaged communities. Sport Management Review, 11(3), 253-275.

Szreter, S., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Health by association? Social capital, social theory, and the political economy of public health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 33(4), 650-667.

Trussell, D. E., & Mair, H. (2010). Seeking judgment free spaces: Poverty, leisure, and social inclusion. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(4), 513.

Author contact

Julian Macnaughton
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 1

Still standing? Assessing the media-led construction of tourism development in rural Canada

Heather Mair, University Waterloo

This paper presents the results of a critical evaluation of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s (CBC) comedy/documentary series “Still Standing” as it serves to represent the efforts of members of rural communities to reinvent themselves in the face of broad socio-economic challenges. The series is described on the CBC website this way, “Comedian Jonny Harris explores small towns on the ropes, performs stand-up shows for the locals who have stuck it out, and proves that Canadians know how to laugh at themselves”. Beginning in 2015 and now in its second season, the series chronicles Jonny’s visits to more than 20 rural communities and each 22-minute episode, “showcases Canada’s vast beauty and highlights the country’s unique and diverse characters”.

Building on research investigating the influence of media on (rural) tourism (e.g., Andersson & Jansson, 2010; Beeton, 2004; Busby & Klug, 2001; Connell, 2005; Croy, 2010; Mordue, 2009), the purpose of this project is to critically investigate the ways “Still Standing” attempts to capture and represent rural community development and resilience in Canada and, more specifically, to consider the role of tourism therein.  Pritchard and Jaworski (2005) set the stage for tourism researchers to ask questions about the role of discourse in shaping not just the tourism experience but also its development. Hannam and Knox (2005; see also Ayikoru, Tribe, & Airey, 2009; Feighery, 2012) outline post-structuralist (Foucauldian) accounts of discourse analysis and point out that in this perspective, “the nature of discursive knowledge production has an effect on what actions are undertaken and thus what outcomes are likely within any socio-cultural context.” (p. 26).

Episodes of “Still Standing” were watched no less than three times and detailed notes were taken to record not just the frequency (and duration) of tourism discussions presented in the shows but also the tone of these discussions. Data analysis generated five broad themes, which together reflect the complexity of the social construction of tourism as an option for rural development and resilience. They include: (1) overcoming and embracing the rural ‘obstacle’, (2) reinforcing and re-valuing rural knowledges, (3) resisting and reifying stereotypes, (4) commodifying and de-commodifying community, and (5) marketing and muting the natural environment.

The research presented here resists the urge to assign linear, causal relationships between the documentary series and the way viewers, community members, and potential tourists might experience the communities portrayed in the series, however, it offers opportunities to critically evaluate both the ways these rural (tourism) development practices (and rural tourism places) are portrayed in the media and to consider the implications thereof. Further, it seeks to locate this seemingly isolated investigation within the broader social, political, and economic contexts (what Andersson and Jansson (2010) have called “rural media spaces”) within which all considerations of rural and tourism development must be situated.


Ayikoru, M., Tribe, J., & Airey, D. (2009). Reading tourism education: Neoliberalism unveiled. Annals of Tourism Research36(2), 191-221.

Andersson, M. & Jansson, A. (2010). Rural media spaces: Communication Geography on new terrain. Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, 2, 121-130.

Beeton, S. (2004). Rural tourism in Australia — Has the gaze altered? Tracking rural images through film and tourism promotion. International Review of Tourism Research, 6, 125-135.

Busby, G. & Klug, J. (2001). Movie-induced tourism: The challenge of measurement and other issues. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7, 316–332

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Still Standing. [last accessed September 2, 2016]

Connell, J. (2005). Toddlers, tourism and Tobermory: Destination marketing issues and television-induced tourism. Tourism Management, 26, 763-776.

Croy, W. G. (2010). Planning for film tourism: Active destination image management. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7, 21–30.

Feighery, W. G. 2012. Tourism and self-Orientalism in Oman: A critical discourse analysis. Critical Discourse Studies, 9, 269-284.

Hannam, K. & Knox, D. (2005). Discourse analysis in tourism research: a critical perspective. Tourism Recreation Research, 30, 23-30.

Jaworski, A. & Pritchard, A. (2005). Discourse, Communication and Tourism. Clevedon, Buffalo: Channel View Publications.

Mordue, T. (2009). Television, tourism, and rural life. Journal of Travel Research, 47, 332-345.

Author contact

Heather Mair
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 35197

Return to concurrent session 9

The legacy of friendship: Exploring the role of volunteer supports for women who have been incarcerated

Heather Mair, University of Waterloo
Steven Mock, University of Waterloo
Bronwen Valtchanov, University of Waterloo
Rachel Gillmore, University of Waterloo
Lindsay Kalbfleisch, University of Waterloo
Richard Norman, University of Waterloo
Halyna Tepylo, University of Waterloo
Pooneh Torabian, University of Waterloo

Past research with and about women who have been incarcerated suggests women who ‘offend’ face a range of barriers, which shapes their path to community re-integration (e.g., Chesney-Lind & Pasko, 2013; Fortune et al., 2010; Gobeil, 2008; Hannah-Moffat & Shaw, 2000; Van Voorhis, 2013).  Access to employment, housing, volunteering, and childcare, for instance, is typically limited primarily due to social stigma, health issues, and the lack of broad social supports (Gobeil, 2008; Pedlar et al., 2008) While corrections systems attempt to offer opportunities for incarcerated women to reintegrate, the restorative justice movement draws attention to the role community members can and should play alongside these women as they move back into community.

The Stride program is “a strengths-based and woman-centered crime prevention program designed to connect community volunteers with women reintegrating from federal prison in order to provide supports that help women successfully re-enter the community” (Gillmore & Mair, 2016, p. 1). Community Justice Initiatives (CJI), a restorative justice organization located in downtown Kitchener, Ontario has long run Stride and other programming with the Grand Valley Institution for Women (GVI - a prison for federally-sentenced women) in Kitchener. Stride Circles are built by a woman as she prepares to leave prison and includes two or three Stride volunteers, whom she has come to know during her time at GVI. The Circle forms an informal system of supports as she moves back into community.

A team of University of Waterloo researchers has been working with CJI and GVI to assess the impact of Stride Circles. To date, survey interviews have been conducted with 30 Circle participants since 2009 and many participants have agreed to be re-interviewed every year. Additionally, survey interviews with a total of 48 control participants have been conducted. Quantitative data analyses show women with Circles reported feeling lower stress, higher personal growth, and stronger family relationships than their control group counterparts (Gillmore & Mair, 2016). Qualitative data were collected in two ways and lend deep, contextualized, and detailed insights into the experiences of women with Circles. First, open-ended questions were included in the survey and all interviews conducted with Circle participants were audio-recorded to capture the conversations that took place. Analysis of transcribed interviews highlights the challenges and opportunities posed by integration into community as well as the long-lasting impacts of the partnerships and friendships participants have built with their Circle members. Key themes emanating from the analysis include: (1) Circle members are emotional and practical supporters; (2) Circle members are women who can be trusted; and (3) Circle members are helpful mediums for community involvement.

Although the population of federally-sentenced women is small in comparison with men, the incarceration rate of this population is increasing much more rapidly (Sapers, 2013) and there is a growing need to provide community reintegration programming. The research presented here reinforces the importance of assessing the legacy of the relationships that are built by these programs and offers insights into ways their benefits can be extended to new communities.


Chesney-Lind, M. & Pasko, L. (2013). The female offender: Girls, women, and crime. Sage.

Fortune, D., Thompson, J., Pedlar, A., & Yuen, F. (2010). Social justice and women leaving prison: Beyond punishment and exclusion. Contemporary Justice Review13(1), 19-33.

Gillmore R., & Mair, H. (2016). CPAF Annual Process & Impact Evaluation (Stride Program – Year 1). Report submitted to National Crime Prevention Centre.

Gobeil, R. (2008) Staying Out: Women`s Perceptions of Challenges and Protective Factors in Community Reintegration (no. R-201). Ottawa, ON: Correctional Service Canada.

Hannah-Moffat, K., & Shaw, M (Eds.) (2000). An ideal prison? Critical essays on women’s imprisonment in Canada. Halifax: Fernwood.

Pedlar, A., Arai, S., Yuen, F., & Fortune, D. (2008). Uncertain Futures: Women Leaving Prison and Re-Entering Community. Waterloo, ON: University of Waterloo. Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies.

Sapers, H. (2013). Annual report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2012-2013. Ottawa, ON: Office of the Correctional Investigator of Canada.

Van Voorhis, P. (2013). Women’s Risk Factors and New Treatments/Interventions for Addressing Them: Evidence-Based Interventions in the United States and Canada. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Corrections, National Institute of Corrections.

Author contact

Heather Mair
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 
519-888-4567, ext. 35197

Return to concurrent session 6

Climate change and community grass-based sport facilities

Cheryl Mallen, Brock University
Greg Dingle, La Trobe University

This research examined community grass-based sport facilities and maintenance adaptations in response to climate change within the Golden Horseshoe (from Niagara Falls through to Toronto, Ontario, Canada). The approach involved 16 in-depth interviews (Kiem & Austin, 2013) with municipal directors, managers and key maintenance personnel of departments such as Parks and Recreation, Community Facilities, Parks and Cemeteries, Parks and Open Spaces, or Parks Operations. The participants work experience spanned from three to 36 years and their total combined experience involved 259 years with an average of 16.18 years. The study was underscored with resource-based theory (Grant, 1991). The findings revealed four noted impacts, including (i) extreme heat, (ii) either heavy precipitation or drought, (iii) new pests and disease and (iv) seasons that are not considered “normal.” These impacts have spurred the turf maintenance personnel to adapt utilizing seven (7) key strategies that focused on (i) education and safety, (ii) drainage and irrigation (iii) soil and aeration (iv) changing seed cultivars and practices, (v) shade; (vi) fertilizers, and (vii) the schedule. Interestingly, the findings revealed a polarization of views concerning the adaptive actions that directly related to resource-based theory. On one end of the spectrum the adaptations involved large expenditures of resources to scientifically manage the turf, including the use of costly irrigation systems, as well as, what one participant indicated as an annual water bill that was “over $500,000.00.” On the other end of the spectrum, the adaptations involved what one participant described as: “being so far behind that they are ahead of the curve” because they were safeguarding the municipalities financial and water resources as a priority over the provision of green turf. On the resulting ‘brown’ turf, these municipalities did not reduce the usage - the players were just utilizing less-green fields. This great divide on the expenditure or conservation of resources was based on the availability of funds as well as perspectives concerning visions of future directions. Interestingly, two municipalities were found to be implementing unique strategies, including a winter growth tarp strategy and the use of a larger crowned field that allowed for the movement of the boundaries of the field to be adjusted on an annual basis. Finally, the majority of the municipalities had implemented at least one artificial turf field, or were working to do so in the near future. Some participants predicted that the cost, environmental and health impacts of artificial turf means that this strategy would be short-lived. The practical implications of this research is that there is an opportunity to share and learn from the strategies being implemented within municipalities. Also, and importantly, this research encourages open debates that are needed to provide the community grass-based sport field maintenance personnel with directions on how to move forward towards the future. In particular, what is the desired balance between the provision of community grass-based sports fields and the protection of the municipalities financial and water resources?  What is the future for this legacy of community grass-based sport facilities?


Grant, R. (1991). The resource-based theory of competitive advantage: Implications for strategy formulation. California Management Review, 33, 114-135.

Kiem, A., & Austin, E. (2013). Drought and the future of rural communities: Opportunities and challenges for climate change adaptation in regional Victoria, Australia. Global Environmental Change, 23, 1307-1316.

Author contact

Dr. Cheryl Mallen
Brock University
500 Sir Isaac Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1
905-688-5550, ext. 3036

Return to concurrent session 3

Framing sex through a serious leisure lens

Rachele Manett, Dalhousie University
Karen Gallant, Dalhousie University

While North American society is increasingly embracing sexuality and sexual activity as more than just a means of procreation, there is still stigma associated with having sex for pleasure, particularly for certain populations such as older adults and people with disabilities. Encouraging discussion and study of sex as a form of leisure is one means of addressing this stigma. Although the definition of sex has evolved since its exclusive association with procreation, gaps continue to be evident in societal understanding of sex and sexuality. We should begin to address these gaps by exploring sex as a leisure activity within the context of leisure studies, based on its association with freedom of choice, identity, pleasure and positive outcomes (Heintzman, 2007). The purpose of this presentation is to provide a framework for conceptualizing sex as a form of serious leisure, to begin to move away from the idea that sex is a frivolous activity, and make the case for it to be incorporated into Therapeutic Recreation practice.

There has been limited research on exploring sex from a leisure perspective (e.g. Meany & Rye, 2007; See also Berdychevsky et al, 2013; Berdychevsky & Nimrod 2016), but the majority of the leisure research related to sex categorizes it as “deviant” leisure (e.g., Byrne, 2006; Bowen & Daniels, 2006). However, with what we know about the mental, physical and emotional aspects of sexuality and sexual activity (Elders, 2010), there is increasing societal understanding that sex can be a positive act for many individuals. Furthermore, sex has not yet been explored as a form of serious leisure within the leisure research, missing out on an important opportunity to understand the long term benefits of a positive, healthy sex life. While Meany and Rye (2007) define sex and sexuality as potential forms of leisure, and briefly explain sexuality as personal development, relationships, social identity, social control and ethics, leisure scholars have not yet analyzed aspects of sexuality and sexual activity that can be described within the serious leisure framework.

A natural outcome of an increased focus on sex as a leisure activity is consideration of the role of sex and sexuality within Therapeutic Recreation practice. Therapeutic Recreation thrives on a person-centered approach (Robertson & Long, 2008), where individuals’ interests and experiences are considered in the context of life changes or physical limitations, with the goal that individuals can continue to pursue their leisure interests by incorporating adaptations or through education. In cases where a client or patient has been sexually active, and describes sex as an enjoyable leisure activity, there is opportunity to consider sex within their leisure repertoire.

Overall, this presentation aims to deconstruct sex using the serious leisure framework, in addition to being a form of casual leisure, as previously described by Stebbins (1997), to begin to better make the case for sex to be incorporated into Therapeutic Recreation practice.


Berdychevsky, L., & Nimrod, G. (2016). Sex as leisure in later life: A netnographic approach. Leisure Sciences, 1-20.

Berdychevsky, L., Nimrod, G., Kleiber, D. A., & Gibson, H. (2013). Sex as leisure in the shadow of depression. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(1), 47-73.

Bowen, H. E., & Daniels, M. J. (2006). Beyond body: Buying and selling attitude and fantasy. Leisure/Loisir, 30(1), 87-109.

Byrne, R. (2006). Beyond lovers’ lane—The rise of illicit sexual leisure in countryside recreational space. Leisure/Loisir, 30(1), 73-85. 

Elders, M. J. (2010). Sex for health and pleasure throughout a lifetime. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(S5), 248-249.

Heintzman, P. (2007). Defining leisure. In R. McCarville & K. MacKay (Eds.), Leisure for Canadians (pp. 3–11). State College, PA: Venture.

Meaney, G. J., & Rye, B. J. (2007). Sex, sexuality, and leisure. In R. McCarville & K. MacKay (Eds.), Leisure for Canadians (pp. 131–138). State College, PA: Venture.

Robertson, T., & Long, T. (2008). Foundations of therapeutic recreation. Champaign, IL.: Human Kinetics.

Stebbins, R. A. (1997). Casual leisure: A conceptual statement. Leisure Studies, 16, 17- 25.

Author contact

Rachele Manett
Dalhousie University
6230 South Street
Halifax, NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 8

A progressivist ideology in the 21st century: A case study of the student-in-residence program at the Western Home Communities

Carolyn Martin, Western Home Communities
Chris Kowalski, University of Northern Iowa
Jerry Harris, Western Home Communities
Rodney B. Dieser, University of Northern Iowa

This case study illustrates how Progressivism and Erickson’s Human Development theory are serving as social constructs for the mission and vision of the Student-in-Residence program at the Western Home Communities, a retirement residential campus in Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA.  In March of 2016, three students enrolled at the University of Northern Iowa were selected for the Student-in-Residence program. Students live at various campus locations within the Western Home Communities, designing intergenerational recreation programs for residents.  The students pay a minimal amount for rent to live at the campus, receive a 15 meal/week plan, and have free access to other amenities.  In exchange, the students spend 10-15 hours a week engaging residents.  The programming has manifested in formal and informal ways (e.g., eating meals together, movie nights, day trips).  The impetus for the Western Home Communities trying the Student-in-Residence program stems from the success of similar programs at other international and national retirement care campuses, including Residential and Care Center Humanitas in Deventer, The Netherlands; and Judson Manor in Cleveland, Ohio (Jansen, 2013).     

Under the Progressivism “umbrella”, individuals are social beings who learn and grow while actively engaging in meaningful experiences with others (Dewey, 1938).  The learning that occurs involves doing; this is nourishment for one’s soul and enhances healthy development, even in later stages of life (Kohlberg & Mayer, 1972).  The opportunity for intergenerational recreational activities via the Student-in-Residence program promotes successful navigation through Erikson’s (1993) latter stages in Human Development – Generativity vs. Stagnation (Stage 7) and Integrity vs. Despair (Stage 8).  Western Home Communities residents by age fall into these two stages; key points associated with each stage have led to incorporating Erikson’s Human Development theory into the Student-in-Residence program principles.  Residents are starting to look at giving back to their fellow community members.  With Stage 7, people who have stagnated may fear they do not have “anything to show” for their life up to this point.  Looking ahead to the rest of their life, they may fear social isolation, inclusive of a lack of caring relationships.  The fear of social isolation in this stage also may impair one’s health and well-being (Steptoe, Shankar, Demakakos, & Wardle, 2013).  In Stage 8, sharing what one has learned throughout life, and sharing it with others so they can benefit is a strong concern. People who do not resolve this conflict in this stage may wonder about their life’s purpose.  Positive resolution of these two stages, partnered with a Progressivist mindset in programmatic design, is a primary reason why the Student-in-Residence program has shown initial success.  The students are immersed in life with people who are resolving these stages, and residents have an outlet for their legacy.  When the students talk about their classes with residents, or ask for insight on relationships or professional careers, the residents are able to share their experiences and leave their legacy with the students. 


Dewey, J. (1938).  Democracy in education.  New York, NY: MacMillan.

Erikson, E.H. (1993).  Childhood and Society.  New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company.   

Hansman, H. (October 16, 2015).  College students are living rent-free in a retirement home

Jansen, T.R. (October 2, 2015). The nursing home that’s also a dorm.  

Kohlberg, L. & Mayer, R.  (1972).  Development as the aim of education.  Harvard Educational Review, 42(4), 449-496. 

Steptoe, A., Shankar, A., Demakakos, P., & Wardle, J. (2013).  Social isolation, loneliness, and all cause mortality in older men and women. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(15), 5797-5801. 

Author contact

Carolyn Martin
WRC 239,
c/o University of Northern Iowa School of KAHHS
Cedar Falls, IA.  50614-0241 USA

Return to concurrent session 3

Active transportation or active trivialization? The discourse of recreation in planning

Rebecca Mayers, University of Waterloo
Troy Glover, University of Waterloo

The purpose of this presentation is to interrogate the discourse of active transportation. Our main argument is that planners, elected officials and developers distinguish between active transportation and recreation deliberately to advance the interests of car culture. The term “Active Transportation” is used to categorize a group of people who walk or cycle as a mode of getting from one place to the next (Frank, 2006). By contrast, “Active Recreation” refers to engaging in walking or cycling during one’s free time. Why is this distinction necessary? Our presentation explores this question critically. According to Transport Canada, only 7.7% of Canadian citizens walk or cycle as a mode of transportation (Transportation Canada, 2011). On the other hand, Statistics Canada reports that 70% walk as the most predominant mode of leisure across the country and 23.9% bike for leisure (Statistics Canada, 2005). These statistics suggest that most Canadians engage in this type of activity. Even so, we argue that for political purposes, the terms “active transportation” and “active leisure are separated intentionally to influence planning and development in urban contexts. In deconstructing this discourse, we argue that distinction is underpinned by a neoliberal ideology. Neoliberalism supports free market principles and advances the primacy of the individual over government action (Martinez & Garcia, 1997). Bercovitz (2000) suggests that government purposefully categorizes cycling and walking as “Active Living” to camouflage the underlying politics and to diminish the spending by the welfare state and places the responsibility on the individual. By separating into two modes, recreation is intentionally trivialized, thereby shifting responsibility for supporting walking and biking to the individual. Despite the large number of people who engage in active recreation, walking and biking for leisure is deemed trivial. “Active transportation” by contrast is regarded as non-trivial activity, but its seemly low number of participants, renders it politically insignificant in so far as policy makers argue that it would be inappropriate to invest in infrastructure that supports such a small portion of the population. This presentation will give audience members a better understanding of the ideologies and politics that underpin walking and cycling within an urban context.


Bercovitz, K. L. (2000). A critical analysis of Canada's ‘Active Living’: Science or politics?. Critical Public Health, 10(1), 19-39.

Frank, L. D., Sallis, J. F., Conway, T. L., Chapman, J. E., Saelens, B. E., & Bachman, W. (2006). Many pathways from land use to health: associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. Journal of the American Planning Association72(1), 75-87.

Martinez, E., & Garcia, A. (1997). What is neoliberalism? A brief definition for activists. National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights1.

Statistics Canada. (2005). Percentage participating in select leisure-time activities and average number of times per month, household population aged 12 or older. Statistics Canada.

Transport Canada. (2011). Active transportation in Canada: a resource and planning guide. Transportation Canada.

Author contact

Rebecca Mayers
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 8

To stay or not to stay: The impact of internships on career intentions in sport and recreation programs

Cole McClean, Brock University
Shannon Kerwin, Brock University (Advisor)

An undergraduate internship provides students with much needed work experience, networking opportunities, and even the opportunity to narrow down a career path to follow in an industry (Coco, 2000; Chen & Chen, 2011; O’Neill, 2010). Unfortunately, internships are not always positive experiences (Coknaz, 2014; Kasli & Ilban, 2013), and this research aims to uncover (1) types of stimulus events occurring during internship placements, (2) the nature of stimulus events (i.e., positive or negative experiences), and (3) how often stimulus events occur. Specifically, this study will explore the nature and impact of stimulus events on student career intentions and well-being during fourth year undergraduate internship placements in one academic program.

Stimulus events in this study are notable or minor occurrences that stimulate the student in a positive or negative manner. Further, stimulus events will be explored through Lee and Mitchell’s (1994) Unfolding Model of Employee Turnover outlining employee decision paths resulting in leaving an organization; this study will adjust career related outcomes of stimulus events to apply to interns, and interns’ career intentions specifically. Finally, the other noted main outcome being explored in relation to the students’ internship experience, and any stimulus events that occur, is their well-being. Specifically, Lamers, Westerhof, Bohlmeijer, ten Klooster, and Keyes (2011) well-being consists of the following three components: emotional well-being (positive or negative affect of student), psychological well-being (functioning well in life), and social well-being (functioning well socially). Student well-being is important in relation to internships because the internship experience is designed to prepare students for their industry of choice, and is argued to be a necessity for career placement (Chen & Chen, 2011; Coco, 2000; Parveen & Mirza, 2012).

This study will use a mixed-methods approach. First, pre-post surveys will measure internship expectations, experiences, career intentions, and well-being. Second, semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the students who demonstrate significant changes (positive or negative) between pre-post survey scores.

The findings of this study will contribute to theory in that stimulus events associated with student internships will be explored to explain career choice. Recreation and leisure administrators who manage interns may find these results useful in developing internship programs that are mutually beneficial for their communities and their interns. Alternatively, findings could lead to assistance in directing student preparation for these placement experiences. Finally, this study contributes to theory as it provides empirical support of the conceptual pathway from “stimulus events” occurring during student internships that ultimately influence career choice. As a whole, the vision of this research is to highlight the internship experience from the student perspective, and dissect whether or not the intended outcome of these experiences is being delivered. Legally, and morally, academic programs and internship placement sites should be ensuring that students expectations are at the forefront of decision making.


Chen, C.-T., & Chen, C.-F. (2011). The influence of internship experiences on the behavioural intentions of college students in Taiwan. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(1), 73–92.

Coco, M. (2000). Internships : A try before you buy arrangement. S.A.M. Advanced Management Journal, 65 (2), 41-47.

Coknaz, D. (2014). Internship in sport management: a case study in Turkey. International Journal of Academic Research, 6 (1), 47-56.

Kaşli, M., & İlban, M. O. (2013). The influence of problems faced during internships on interns’ views of their profession and their intention to work in the tourism industry. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 52, 79–96.

Lamers, S., Westerhof, G. J., Bohlmeijer, E. T., ten Klooster, P. M., & Keyes, C. L. (2011). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the mental health continuum‐short form (MHC‐SF). Journal of clinical psychology, 67(1), 99-110.

Lee, T. W., & Mitchell, T. R. (1994). An alternative approach: The unfolding model of voluntary employee turnover. Academy of Management Review, 19(1), 51–89.

O’Neill, N. (2010). Internships as a High-Impact Practice: Some Reflections on Quality. Peer Review, 12(4).

Parveen, S., & Mirza, N. (2012). Internship Program in Education: Effectiveness, Problems and Prospects. International Journal of Learning and Development, 2(1), 487–498. 

Author contact

Cole McClean
Brock University,
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 8

Considerations of gender within municipal recreation program policy: A case study

Megan McGinnis, Brock University

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of gender in designing and implementing recreation programs at a municipal level. Rationale: Previous research indicates that leisure acts as a discourse for perpetuating gender-based stereotypes but also a way to resist gender norms (Allison & Hibbler, 2010; Grossman, O'Connell, & D'Augelli, 2005; Shaw, 1994; Wilson, White & Fisher, 2001). Gender-based programming design often involves masculine/ feminine activities that are oriented around gender-specific characteristics (Grossman, O’Connell & D’Augelli, 2005). As a result, non-conforming youth (i.e. LGBTQ) face a dilemma in aligning themselves within gender-based programs at the time of program registration (i.e. sports, beauty and fashion,) (Grossman, O’Connell & D’Augelli, 2005; Johnson, 2012; Johnson, 2013) Method: The main research questions of this study asked about the perceptions of first-line staff involved in the planning and design phase of program development, and the perceptions of supervisors of recreation about the policies that are implemented in programs. As the principal investigator, I recruited 3 municipal recreation staff in an urban town within Southern Ontario who offered their perspectives of implementation of their programs. Findings: In this study, the overarching theme that became prominent was community needs for inclusion in school-aged versus youth programs in regards to gender. This theme identifies different community needs and the role stakeholders play in recreation. Community needs for inclusion in school-aged versus youth programs in regards to gender has six distinct categories. School aged program restrictions reveals how participants’ felt that the organization offered a wide variety of programming to fit the needs of children and school-aged participants. However, it was identified that programs were geared towards one gender or the other. Youth program restrictions describes the variety of programs offered to youth as well the restrictions that it entailed (i.e. age). that were requested by either boys or girl participants may have been viewed as more traditional. Governed policies and management in regards to gender describes the governed policies and management in regards to gender. This category describes the impact of policy and the discussions among management teams. Expectations as well as standards of community members and recreation services explains the contribution of high demands from various stakeholders within the community. Inclusion and accessibility considers inclusion and accessibility at a municipal level. In this category, it was expressed that the organization was accepting to all members, however, the girl’s hockey club was at a disadvantage within their local community. Male hockey leagues are privileged with ice time, leading all female leagues to travel to other rinks. Having a voice and new conversations within the community describes the ability to voice opinions and the new conversations that have emerged in the community. Conclusion: Researchers should further explore the opinions from front-line staff to better understand gender in a recreational context and to gain community members’ understanding of inclusion. Further research should also investigate school-aged program options during service delivery and determine the reasons behind youth decision- making for engaging in specific activities.


Allision, M. T., & Hibbler. (2010). Organizational barriers to inclusion: Perspectives from the recreational perspective. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26(3), 261-280.

Grossman, A. H., O'Connell, T. S., & D'Augelli, A. R. (2005). Leisure and recreational "girl-boy"  activities--studying  the  unique  challenges  provided  by  transgendered  young people. Journal of The Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 29(1), 5-26.

Johnson, W. C. (2010). Living the game of hide and seek: Leisure in the lives of gay and lesbian young adults. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 24(3), 255-278.

Johnson, C.W. (2013). Feminist masculinities: Inquires into leisure, gender, and sexual identity. In V.J. Freysinger, S.M. Shaw, K.A. Henderson, & D.M. Bialeschki  (Eds.), Leisure, Women and Gender (pp. 245-255). PA: Venture Publishing.

Shaw, S. M. (1994). Gender, leisure, and constraint: Towards a framework for the analysis of women's leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 26(1), 8.

Wilson, B., White, P., & Fisher, K. (2001). Multiple identities in a marginalized culture. Female youth in an "inner-city" recreation/drop-in center. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 25(3), 301-323.

Author contact

Megan McGinnis
156 Enfield Place
Mississauga ON

Return to poster presentations

Exploring students’ expectations and experiences of short-term language programs

Ekaterina McKnight, University of Waterloo
Karla Boluk, University of Waterloo

This study examines the concept of language learning as part of educational tourism with a particular emphasis on the participants enrolled in short-term English programs in Toronto. The purpose of this phenomenological study is to explore the relationships between participants’ expectations prior to enrolling in a language program and their experiences throughout the program. Additionally, the researcher intends to determine how their expectations were formulated, and what factors influenced their decision to participate in language programs. Despite the steady growth of the language school industry, it is surprising that so little research has been carried out into the relationships between participants’ expectations and experiences. Furthermore, it is notable that only a few studies have explored non-native English students learning English as a second or foreign language abroad (albeit Eder, 2010; Gertner, 2010; Miao & Harris, 2012; Foster, 2014). Regarding students’ expectations, some scholars have examined expectations but in regard to their academic achievements (Wilkinson, 1998; Badstübner & Ecke, 2009; Ketsman, 2012) not in relation to their experiences. Such studies were intended to explore the influence of students’ expectations on their academic performance before participating in language programs. This study will utilize phenomenology as a theoretical perspective, and it is grounded in a constructivist epistemology, within the interpretivist framework. The purpose of adopting a phenomenological perspective in this study is to gain a deep understanding of people’s shared experiences. Since this study is focused on students’ expectations and experiences while participating in short-term language programs, phenomenology is appropriate. Scholars working in this field fully immerse themselves in the process of data collection, as they believe this is the only way to gather accurate information. This study will utilize an interpretive approach, which relies on the ontological stance, looking at the physical existence of the phenomenon and the ways it can be interpreted. Overall, this study fulfills a theoretical gap as limited studies have explored the effects of students’ expectations on their experiences while participating in short-term language programs. Furthermore, this study has the potential to benefit both language schools and students. The analyzed data should provide schools with valuable information on how to improve their programs and make adjustments to their current processes in meeting students’ expectations. Satisfying students’ needs can contribute to the school’s reputation, ultimately attracting more clients. From the students’ perspective, if their expectations are met, they will be likely to have memorable experiences and return, generate positive word of mouth, and/or recommend the school to their friends. The anticipated data that will emerge from this study will contribute to a better understanding of the language schools’ market. 15 semi-structured interviews were carried out at three language schools in Toronto offering short-term English language programs in October and November 2016.


Badstübner, T., & Ecke, P. (2009). Student expectations, motivations, target language use, and perceived learning progress in a summer study abroad program in Germany. Die Unterrichtspraxis/Teaching German42(1), 41-49.

Eder, J., Smith, W. W., & Pitts, R. E. (2010). Exploring factors influencing student study abroad destination choice. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism10(3), 232-250.

Foster, M. (2014). Student destination choices in higher education: Exploring attitudes of Brazilian students to study in the United Kingdom. Journal of Research in International Education13(2), 149-162.

Gertner, R. K. (2010). Similarities and differences of the effect of country images on tourist and study destinations. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing27(4), 383-395.

Ketsman, O. (2012). Expectations in the foreign language classrooms: A case study. The Qualitative Report17(53), 1.

Miao, S. Y., & Harris, R. (2012). Learning and personality on study tours abroad. Research in Post-Compulsory Education17(4), 435-452.

Wilkinson, S. (1998). Study Abroad from the Participants' Perspective: A Challenge to Common Beliefs1. Foreign Language Annals31(1), 23-39.

Author contact

Ekaterina McKnight
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 2

Critically exploring the institutional logics and work in sport-for-development: The case of a local sport-for-development programme in Southern Africa

Mitchell McSweeney, Brock University

In recent years, the field of sport-for-development (SFD) has seen a growth in scholarly attention (see Coalter, 2013; Darnell, 2012; Hayhurst, 2015), leading to an increasing amount of research, practice, and establishment of programming by organizations located both in the Global North and the Global South. The distinction between SFD and sport development has been discussed by academics (Houlihan & White, 2002; Kidd, 2008), and has been most especially examined by Coalter (2013), who provides a broad approach to differentiating SFD organizations by categorizing them as sport-plus (primarily using sport in addition to other programmes to reach development goals) and plus-sport (using sport’s popularity to promote educational and social programmes which are the focus of development). Building on these arguments, the focus of this paper is to explore and identify the institutional logics and institutional work that shape the activities in a local SFD organization within Southern Africa, that has adopted a blended approach to SFD and sport development. Institutional logics are those practices and beliefs in societies that shape the interrelationship between individuals, organizations, and society (Friedland & Alford, 1991). Institutional work refers to the, “purposive action of individuals and organizations aimed at creating, maintaining and disrupting institutions” (Lawrence & Suddaby, 2006, p. 215). Scott (2000) suggests that within institutional fields, such as SFD, there are particular institutional logics that provide principles and ideas shaping the institutional work or practices of organizations. This paper is based on critical institutional ethnographic research (Smith, 2005) conducted in a Southern African local SFD organization. It examines the institutional work of volunteers and staff in local organizations within the context of contested/blended institutional logics of international development and sport: sport development and sport for development. Data were collected over a four-month period during which I worked in the organization and lived in the community. Participant-observation took place on a daily basis and was supplemented with structured interviews with individuals who held key roles in the organization. In addition, documents that assisted the understanding of how the local programming was implemented were also reviewed. The results of this research highlight how globally defined Western terms such as SFD may shape ideas and assumptions around what sport-for-development and sport development constitute, yet, may differentiate from local understanding and work being done in community organizations in the Global South. Additionally, the findings of this research explore and challenge how sport development, may, by its very nature in particular contexts, define and enable ‘development’ to occur in local SFD organizations. As the field of SFD grows, the ability to differentiate between ‘SFD’ and ‘sport development’ is influenced by those institutional logics associated with each term, while the institutional work of local actors and agency continue to disrupt and/or maintain those ideas surrounding the two fields.


Coalter, F. (2013). Sport for development: What game are we playing? New York, NY: Routledge.

Darnell, S. (2012). Sport for Development and Peace: A Critical Sociology. New York, NY: Bloomsburg.

Friedland, R., & Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices and institutional contradictions. In W. Powell & P. DiMaggio (Eds.), The new institutionalism in organizational analysis, (p. 232-265). USA: The University of Chicago Press.

Hayhurst, L. M. (2015). Sport for development and peace: a call for transnational, multi-sited, postcolonial feminist research. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health 1-20.

Houlihan, B., & White, A. (2002). The politics of sports development: development of sport or development through sport? London, England: Routledge.

Kidd, B (2008). A new social movement: Sport for development and peace. Sport in Society, 11, 370–80.

Lawrence, T. B., & Suddaby, R. (2006). Institutions and institutional work. In S.R. Clegg, C. Hardy, T.B. Lawrence & W.R. Nord, The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies (p. 215-254). USA: Sage Publications.

Scott, W. R. (2000). Institutional change and healthcare organizations: From professional dominance to managed care. USA: University of Chicago Press.

Smith, D. E. (2005). Institutional ethnography: A sociology for people. USA: Altamira Press.

Author contact

Mitchell McSweeney
Brock University
10 Southampton Dr.
Hamilton, ON L8V 4V9 CAN

Return to concurrent session 6

Building connections through the visual arts for persons with dementia

Lisa Meschino, Alzheimer Society of Sault Ste. Marie & Algoma District
Sherry Dupuis, Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo

Perceptual psychologist, Rudolph Arnheim, wrote that, “by demonstrating what it can do for the distressed, art reminds us what it is meant to do for everybody” (Arnheim,1986).  Arnheim’s observation that art is uniquely experienced as having therapeutic potential reflects the growing interest in the contribution of creative arts to the health of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Much of the recent research focuses on the use of creative art as a clinical intervention or therapy toward improved physical and cognitive ability (see Rusted et al., 2006).  However, such an interventionist approach restricts the activity of art to a functional context and limits relationships for persons with dementia in that context to task-oriented personal care (Bamford & Bruce, 2000). What remains unclear is the subjective experience of creative art for people with dementia and their care partners and the experience of their relationships within an art-based context.         

Gather at the Gallery was a collaborative visual art program and research project between the Kitchener-Waterloo Alzheimer Society, the Murray Alzheimer Research and Education Program (University of Waterloo), local artists and art educators in Canada.  Inspired by the Meet Me at MoMA model, Gather at the Gallery was a weekly, community-based art-looking and art-making program for people with dementia and their care partners (Rosenberg, 2009).  Guided by a relationship-centred care philosophy (Kitwood,  1997; Nolan et al., 2004; Dupuis et al., 2016)  and phenomenological methods (van Manen, 1990), its research objectives were:  1) to use a phenomenological approach to describe experiences of meaningful engagement with visual art for persons with dementia and their care partners; 2) to raise awareness of how creative arts can serve an experience of continued companionship and social integration; and 3) to expand our understanding of relationship-centred care outside the clinical/medical context. Spanning five 10-week modules, each program module brought together a diverse group of 10-16 participants (5-8 persons with dementia; 5-8 care partners), varying in age (50 - 80 years old), relationship dynamic (husbands and wives; mothers and daughters), place along the dementia journey (newly diagnosed to mid-phases), prior experience with art, and expectations for the program.

The research presented in this session examines how the program challenged misperceptions of the abilities of persons with dementia through detailed descriptions of participants’ connection to self, others, a creative process, as well as, engagement with new learning and with community spaces.  Also, interpretations of these subjective experiences of lived human relation (relationality) are explored in terms of the phenomena of awakened creative consciousness, celebration, shared learning, and community.  Finally, key aspects of the program are identified that can sustain experiences of meaningful relationships and continued engagement in the community.


Arnheim, R. (1986). New Essays on the Psychology of Art. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Bamford, C., & Bruce, E. (2000). Defining the outcomes of community care: the perspectives of older people with dementia and their carers. Ageing & Society, 20, 543-570.

Dupuis, S., McAiney, C.A., Fortune, D. , Ploeg, J. , & Witt, L.D. (2016). Theoretical foundations guiding culture change: The work of the Partnerships in Dementia Care Alliance. Dementia: The International Journal of Social Research and Practice, 15(1), 85-105

Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Oxford: Oxford Press

Nolan, M., Davies, S., Brown, J., Keady, J. & Nolan, J. (2004). Beyond “person-centred” care: a new vision for gerontological nursing. International Journal of Older People Nursing, 13(3a), 45-53.

Rosenberg, F. (2009). The MoMA Alzheimer’s Project: Programming and resources for making art accessible to people with Alzheimer’s disease and their caregivers. Arts and Health, 1(1), 93-97

Rusted, J., Sheppard, L., & Waller, D. (2006). A Multi-centre randomized control group trial on the use of art therapy for older people with dementia.  Group analysis, 39 (4), 517-536.

Van Manen, M. (1990). Researching Lived Experience. London: Althouse Press.

Author contact

Lisa Meschino, PhD
Community-Engaged Artist
Coordinator, Dementia Friendly Communities
Alzheimer Society of Sault Ste. Marie & Algoma District
341 Trunk Rd.
Sault Ste. Marie ON  P6A 3S9

Return to concurrent session 4

Leisure education: Untapped potential for cultivating inner well being

Catherine Miller, Cultivating Wellness

We humans are uniquely able to cultivate our inner well being from the inside-out, but until we learn how, our brain’s evolved propensity for negativity and stress-producing thoughts undermines our mental and physical health, productivity, relationships and life experience (Hanson, 2013). The ‘how’ is now available through neuroscience but is not well known to the general public, and is not easy to self-administer or sustain. It could be though, through leisure education.

This presentation introduces theories, techniques and evidence of reliable approaches to the ‘how’: relevant knowledge and science-based practices from the disciplines of positive neuroplasticity and neurophysiology – and proposes these be developed into leisure education curriculum for students to use and deliver through leisure programs and interventions.

For example, neuroscience explains how every moment our thoughts, emotions and even how we breathe, directly and immediately impact the neural structure of our brain and our body’s physiology such as our hormonal and nervous systems, which in turn directly affect our psychological and physiological well being, for better or worse (Hanson, 2013, McCraty & Childre, 2010; McCraty & Shaffer, 2014). This evidence provides new insights and practical ways of observing and understanding our selves – our inner mental, emotional and physical experience.

An example of a practical science-based technique will be presented for changing the way the body’s physiology responds to stressful situations, restoring emotional composure and building resilience (McCraty & Shaffer, 2014).

Community-based leisure education has the potential to be the ‘school’ that delivers practical learning, skill development and support for cultivating one’s personal agency for inner well being. Such a learning opportunity would compliment leisure education’s current content and purpose to facilitate the development of awareness and appreciation of leisure, and skills, knowledge, and confidence to partake in it (Mundy, 1998 cited in Brimacombe, 2011; Robertson, 2007 cited in Oncescu, 2014). It would also resonate with leisure’s Ancient Greek philosophical roots - to be the arena in which one cultivates mind, body and soul for personal growth, for the development of one’s human potential, to enhance one’s quality of life and contribute more of one’s potential to the well being of one’s community (Politics, 1269a&b, 1338a: Ethics, 1079b, 1102a, 1176b: Hemmingway, 1988).

While not new, (see Therapeutic Recreation applications in Carruthers & Hood, 2004, 2007; Groff, Battaglini, Sipe, O'Keefe, & Peppercorn, 2009; Hood & Carruthers, 2007), this concept has a wealth of vital untapped potential to support the public in ‘the development of a broad repertoire of skills to address the challenges [they] encounter in their day-to-day lives, and to be engaged in their homes, families, and communities’ (Robertson, 2007, cited in Oncescu, 2014).

Leisure can be ‘a transformative force in society’ (Brimacombe, 2011, p. 2), creating a lasting legacy by delivering community-based leisure education programs that teach individuals how to engage in their own legacy-making of personal development and well being.


Aristotle. Nichomachean Ethics. (1962). (M. Ostwald, Trans.) Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merill Educational Publishing.

Aristotle. The politics of Aristotle. (1946). (E. Barker, Trans.) London: Oxford University Press.

Brimacombe, D. (2011). Fulfilling the promise: Canada’s municipal recreation and parks sector. Prepared for the National Recreation Summit, Lake Louise, AB.

Carruthers, C. P., & Hood, C.D., (2004). The power of the positive: Leisure and well-being. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 38(2), 225-245.

Carruthers, C., & Hood, C.D., (2007). Building a life of meaning through Therapeutic Recreation: The leisure and well-being model, part 1. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 41(4), 276-297.

Groff, D., Battaglini, C., Sipe, C., O'Keefe, C., & Peppercorn, J. (2009) Lessons from breast cancer survivors: The role of recreation therapy in facilitating spirituality and well‐beingLeisure/Loisir, 33(1), 341-365.

Hanson, R. (2013). Hardwiring happiness: The new brain science of contentment, calm and confidence. New York: Harmony Books.

Hemingway, J.L. (1988). Leisure and civility: Reflections on a Greek ideal. Leisure Sciences, 10, 179-191.

Hood, C.D. & Carruthers, C., (2007). Enhancing leisure experience and developing resources:  The leisure and well-being model, part 2. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 41(4), 298-352.

McCraty, R. & Childre, D. (2010). Coherence: Bridging personal, social, and global health. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 16(4), 10-24.

McCraty, R., & Shaffer, F. (2014). Heart rate variability: New perspectives on physiological mechanisms, assessment of self-regulatory capacity, and health risk. Global Advances in Health and Medicine, 4(1), 46-61.

Mundy, J. (1998). Leisure Education: Theory and Practice. Champaign: Sagamore.

Oncescu, J. (September 5, 2014).  The case for community-based leisure education

Robertson, B. J. (2007). The leisure education manual. Wolfville, NS: Leisure Experience Associates of Canada.

Author contact

Catherine Miller
dba Cultivating Wellness
133541 Wilcox Lake Rd.,
RR 5, Flesherton ON  N0C 1E0
519-924 0660

Return to concurrent session 7

Climbing Sherpa: Stories (as legacies) from the Solukhumbu

Maggie C. Miller, University of Waterloo

The first successful summit of Mt. Everest on May 29, 1953 was accomplished with the integral support of over 382 Sherpas[1] acting as guides and porters (Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation, 2012). Over six decades later, Sherpas continue to provide support to mountaineering expeditions. Annually, they lead foreign mountaineers – “paying clients” – up the Southeast ridge to bid their summit attempt; client dollars representing the cornerstone of Nepal’s $370-million-a-year adventure tourism industry (Schaffer, 2013). More recently this industry is critiqued for the way in which people with “means” regardless of experience pursue Mt. Everest (Davis, 2014; Payne & Shrestha, 2014). Sherpa climbers commit themselves to securing and saving the lives of their clients, often endangering their own. This was illuminated in the most recent Everest tragedy on April 18, 2014, when an avalanche surged through the slopes of the Khumbu Icefall. Sixteen Sherpa and Nepali climbers were killed and ten more injured; all were reported to have been fixing rope and carrying loads for commercial mountaineering parties (Krakauer, 2014).

Social justice concerns arise as tensions grow between the international demand to climb and the risks and fatalities associated with summit attempts. Within current mountaineering, tourism, and leisure discourses, narratives of Sherpa guides and porters are limited (Notable exceptions: Bott, 2009; Ortner, 1999). Thus, drawing on narrative inquiry and sensorial methodologies, this short documentary film helps to privilege Sherpas’ stories, decentering dominant narratives (e.g., foreign climbers, media accounts) and my authority as researcher (Bochner, 2001; Pink, 2007; 2015). Visual methodologies are increasingly being incorporated into tourism and leisure research (e.g., Bandyopadhyay, 2011; Pocock, McIntosh, & Zahra, 2012) and are said to provide alternative methods and representations to explore and share participant understandings. To this end, this twenty-three minute short documentary film seeks to engage conference attendees in new ways of knowing and thinking whereby they are called to view, listen to, and embody a collection of elicited and recorded audio and visual clips of Climbing Sherpas’ stories collected during my field work in the Spring of 2015. These voices and images contribute to understandings of Sherpas’ legacies, their stories of how life and death is navigated, and the interplay of responsibilities, power, and ethics in experiences of freedom on the mountainside. These multimedia findings provide further insight around socio-cultural notions of justice on the mountains in Nepal, contributing to the breadth of tourism, mountaineering, and cross-cultural disciplines through the inclusion of Sherpa perspectives. 

[1] Sherpa has multiple meanings within a mountain context. Originally, and more times than not, this word signifies a member belonging to a specific ethnic group in the Himalayas of Nepal (Ortner, 1999). However the category of “Sherpa” has undergone changes as these Sherpa natives have been recognized to be well suited for supporting commercialized climbing expeditions. Thus, “Sherpa” as an identifier was adopted to indicate individuals who assume a role and status as a specialized high-altitude porter with at least some (and sometimes a lot of) climbing expertise (Ortner, 1999). I use Sherpa to signify ethnicity of the mountain populations.


Bandyopadhyay, R. (2011). A photo ethnography of tourism as neo-colonialism. Annals of tourism research, 33(2), 714-718.Bochner, A.P. (2001). Narrative’s virtues. Qualitative Inquiry, 7(2), 131-157.

Bott, E. (2009). Big mountain, big name: Globalised relations of risk in Himalayan mountaineering. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 7(4), 287-301.

Davis, W. (2014, Apr. 26). As equals on the mountain, the Sherpas deserve better. The Globe and Mail. 

Krakauer, J. (2014, Apr. 21). Death and anger on Everest. The New Yorker. 

Ortner, S.B. (1999). Life and death on Mt. Everest: Sherpas and Himalayan mountaineering. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Payne, E., & Shrestha, M. (2014, Apr. 20). Avalanche kills 12 in single deadliest accident on Mount Everest. CNN World. 

Pink, S. (2007). Doing visual ethnography (2nd ed). London: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Pink, S. (2015). Doing sensory ethnography (2nd ed). Los Angeles: Sage Publications, Ltd.

Popcock, N., Zahra, A., & McIntosh, A. (2009). Proposing video diaries as an innovative methodology in tourist experience research. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 6(2), 109-119.

Schaffer, G. (2013, July 10). The disposable man: A western history of Sherpas on Everest. Outside Magazine. 

Sir Edmund Hillary Foundation (2012). Sir Edmund Hilary

Author contact

Maggie C. Miller
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON N2L  3G1

Return to concurrent session 5

German women’s solo travel experiences

Ondrej Mitas, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences
Lisa Mandelartz, NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences

It has become more common for women to undertake leisure travel alone, especially in a progressive society such as Germany, where gender issues are openly discussed. Research on women traveling alone has been scarce, however, neglecting their unique experiences. We explored why German women travel alone for leisure, how constraints impact their experiences, and how they negotiate these challenges. Crawford, Jackson, and Godbey’s (1991) leisure constraints theory, as extended by Wilson and Little (2005, 2008) to women traveling alone, served as our theoretical framework.

We addressed this issue using an inductive research approach with in-depth interviews. Twenty-two women who traveled alone or having considered doing so were recruited using travel-related German social media groups. The sample was diverse in age, but not in ethnicity or national origin. All participants except two had traveled alone at least once. Interviews covered motivation, constraints, and negotiation. Through an inductive coding process based on Charmaz (2006), we created themes, which we then linked to explain German women’s solo travel experiences.

Accordingly, solo travel fueled participants’ pursuit of self-development, self-discovery, self-confidence, and meaningful social interactions. Besides lacking a travel companion, participants often found themselves at a turning point in their lives prior to their first solo travel experience. They discussed a (long-held) desire to travel alone and appreciated the freedom and flexibility of solo travel. They also encountered constraints. Self-doubt, concerns with personal safety, social roles and expectations, and a lack of money, time, transportation, and local knowledge influenced experiences and sometimes caused avoidance or postponement of solo travel. Most participants, however, negotiated by prioritising, thinking positively, preparation, adapting to local culture, meeting other tourists, and acceptance. These constraints influenced experiences while not defining or overruling them. In general, participants showed positivity and open-mindedness towards solo travel.

The motivations we found addressed multiple levels of the Travel Career Ladder (Pearce & Lee, 2005), showing that solo travel appeals to individuals with varying travel backgrounds. The prominence of turning points in life as a motivation validated Riley’s (1988), Gibson and Jordan’s (1998), and Elsrud’s (1998) statements about solo travel as often pursued at a juncture in life.

Findings about constraints support Gilmartin’s (1997), Little’s (2002), Sisjord’s, (2013), and Wilson and Little’s (2005, 2008) research suggesting that safety concerns influence women’s experiences in choosing destinations, accommodations, and activities. Concerns were amplified by friends, family, acquaintances, and locals, who labelled solo travel as inappropriate for women based on their perceptions of danger and risk. Participants’ intrapersonal constraint of self-doubt increased in turn. In general, self-doubt interlinked with constraints of other types, showing that German women’s constraints toward solo travel form an interconnected structure rather than a hierarchy as Crawford et al. (1991) suggested.

As in Little’s (2000, 2002) and Harris and Wilson’s (2007) studies, participants’ positive and optimistic attitudes toward solo travel helped them transform constraints into opportunities. Participants’ emphasis on accepting situations and using common sense exemplified the cognitive strategy of negotiation (Jackson & Rucks, 1995). Future research could examine the outcomes of solo travel experiences.


Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. London, UK: Sage.

Crawford, D., W., Jackson, E., L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A Hierarchical Model of Leisure Constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), p. 309-320.

Elsrud, T. (1998). Time Creation in Travelling – The Taking and Making of Time Among Women Backpackers. Time and Society, 7(2), p. 309-334.

Gibson, H. & Jordan, F. (1998). Travelling Solo: A Cross-cultural Study of British and American Women Aged 30-50. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference of the Leisure Studies Association, Leeds, UK.

Gilmartin, P. (1997). The Dangers of Independent Travel: A Century of Advice for ‘Lady-travelers.’ Journal of Interdisciplinary Gender Studies, 2(1), p. 1-13.

Harris, C. & Wilson, E. (2007). Travelling Beyond the Boundaries of Constraint: Women, Travel and Empowerment. In Pritchard, A. (Ed.), Tourism and Gender: Embodiment, Sensuality and Experience (pp 235-248). United Kingdom: CABI.

Jackson, E: L. & Rucks, V. C. (1995). Negotiation of Leisure Constraints by Junior-High and High-School Students: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Leisure Research, 27(1), p. 85-105.

Little, D.E. (2000). Negotiation Adventure Recreation: How Women Can Access Satisfying Adventure Experiences Throughout Their Lives. Society and Leisure, 23(1), p. 171-195.

Little, D. E. (2002). Women and Adventure Recreation: Reconstructing Leisure Constraints and Adventure Experiences to Negotiate Continuing Paticipation. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(2), p. 157-177.

Pearce, P. L. & Lee, U.-I. (2005). Developing the Travel Career Approach to Tourist Motivation. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), p. 226-237.

Riley, P.J. (1988). Road Culture of International Long-term Budget Travelers. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(3), p. 313-328.

Sisjord, M. K. (2013). Women’s Snowboarding – Some Experiences and Perceptions of Competition. Leisure Studies, 32(5), p. 507-523.

Wilson, E. & Little, D.E. (2008). The Solo Female Travel Experience: Exploring the Geography of Women’s Fear. Current Issues in Tourism, 11(2), p. 167-186.

Wilson, E. & Little, D. E. (2005). A “Relative Escape”? The Impact of Constraints On Women Who Travel Solo. Tourism Review International, 9(2), p. 155-175.

Author contact

Ondrej Mitas
NHTV Breda University of Applied Sciences
Mgr. Hopmansstraat 1
4817JT Breda, Netherlands
+31 655 877 189

Return to concurrent session 1

The social/recreation community model

Kenneth Mobily, University of Iowa
Rodney B. Dieser, University of Northern Iowa

Controversy concerning the medical model within the therapeutic recreation (TR) community has a long history--whether recreation is an effective therapeutic modality, or whether another alternative to the medical model is more useful. Some practice models, such as Leisure-Ability and Service Delivery have attempted to strike a balance between the two positions, but unsuccessfully. In this presentation, the authors challenge the legitimacy of the medical model in TR, arguing that a social model is more suitable. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and describe a theoretical framework for changing the environment through recreation relationships instead of rehabilitating the person. The construction of TR’s history cannot be understood solely based on the medical model. The usual history of TR’s beginnings is well known among professionals completing a TR curriculum. Founded in the efforts of Red Cross volunteers during World War I (WWI), the introduction of recreation programmes into the lives of wounded soldiers correlated with another dramatic development prompted by WWI—the emergence of rehabilitation medicine and the approach of remedying or correcting illness and injury related problems. We argue that a competing history arose from a heritage social concern, later correlating with the disability rights movement. The presentation further explores the theoretical and research evidence for a “contra-therapy” understanding of TR. Matching the development of the medical model is an alternative, not based on therapy but on the social model from disability studies, the ecological model from Rusalem (1973), and Haun’s (1965) milieu approach to TR. Almost 30 years ago, Hemingway (1995) urged the field to look outside itself for justification and validation, and remember its responsibility to place the consumer ahead of self-interest. Hemingway’s position was that TR should aim to advance human capacity based on the principle of distributive justice, the principle that all members of a society are entitled to an equal share of society’s goods—when the acquisition of those goods is necessary to the development of one’s full capacity. Belongingness is also identified as a concept that articulates well with the alternative view of TR based largely on the social model. The unique aspect of the Baumeister and Leary’s belonging hypothesis is the combination of frequent interaction and sustained caring, which we assert are fundamental to most recreation relationships. By including persons with disabilities in recreation (group) activities Baumeister and Leary’s hypothesis finds expression. Inclusive recreation acts to counter the expediency (of the dominant “normal” culture) of exclusion; because of its predominantly social character recreation may be the most attractive opportunity for belonging relationships. Lastly, the implications of a social/recreation community model are explored. In particular, inclusion becomes a primary goal of TR under a social recreation community model. Conscientious and well-planned inclusion efforts take considerable “sweat equity” to plan and implement and are no easy accomplishment.


Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497-529.

Haun, P. (1965). Recreation: A medical viewpoint (reprinted with permission of Teacher’s College Press, Columbia University). Arlington, VA: National Recreation and Park Association

Hemingway, J. L. (1987). Building a philosophical defense of therapeutic recreation: The case of distributive justice. In C. Sylvester, J. L. Hemingway, R. Howe-Murphy, K. Mobily & P. A. Shank (Eds.), Philosophy of therapeutic recreation: Ideas and issues (pp. 1-16). Alexandria, VA: NRPA.

Rusalem, H. (1973). An alternative to the therapeutic model in therapeutic recreation. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 7(1), 8-15.

Author contact

Kenneth Mobily
University of Iowa
Dept. of Health and Human Physiology, 316 FH
Iowa City IA  52242 USA

Return to concurrent session 5

Do campers’ ecological worldviews influence their choice of camping and outdoor recreation equipment? A study of front-country campers in Alberta

Farhad Moghimehfar, University of Northern British Columbia
Elizabeth A. Halpenny, University of Alberta
Howie Harshaw, University of Alberta

Front-country camping is a popular outdoor recreation activity among Canadians (Moghimehfar & Halpenny, 2016). For instance, in 2015, nearly 1.5 million campers stay in Alberta Parks’ front-country campgrounds (Alberta Parks, 2015). Front-country campers represent a considerable proportion of overnight park users that participate in a variety of activities from hiking to horseback riding, and all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding. Additionally, front-country campgrounds provide a context for different accommodation options ranging from tent camping to luxury RV camping. This paper reports on an exploration of the potential relationship between campers’ ecological worldview and their choice of camping and outdoor recreation equipment. To answer this question 1,009 front-country overnight visitors at Alberta Parks campgrounds were asked about the camping and outdoor recreation equipment they use on front-country camping trips. Then, we investigated participants’ ecological world view using Dunlap, Van Liere, Mertig, and Jones’ (2000) approach.

Randomly selected front-country campers were approached in their campsites in provincial parks in Alberta, Canada. Among different parks in Alberta Parks’ system, Long Lake, Cross lake, Gregoire Lake, Cypress Hills, and Kananaskis Country provincial parks were selected based on the parks’ geographical location and variety of outdoor recreation activities available in the park. As part of a larger study, campers responded to 15 items of the New Ecological Paradigm scale (NEP; Dunlap et al., 2000). They were also asked about the type of camping accommodation(s) they most often use (tent, travel trailer, motor home, pop up/tent trailer, truck camper, camping van, 5th wheel trailer, etc.), length of their trailer (for RV campers), number of motorized vehicles used to travel to the park, recreational equipment they usually take to camping trips, and camping gear they own as well as the frequency of their camping trips.

Analysis of the results is in progress. Logistic regression analysis is being utilized to reveal the associations among campers’ ecological worldview and their choice of camping gear, preferred types of accommodation, and vehicle use during outdoor recreation activities. Camping equipment owned by campers, and outdoor recreation gear mentioned by campers were categorized into green (environmentally friendly) and non-green gear (based on energy efficiency and ecological footprint). Also, RV campers will be compared against tent campers. Demographic variables will be controlled to identify the influence of income, education, and place of residence.  

We hypothesized that people’s choice of green outdoor recreation equipment is directly and positively influenced by their ecological worldview. We expect that campers’ ecological worldview influences the number of motorized vehicles they take on a camping trip. However, we expect no significant association between participants’ worldview and their use of RV or tent as their preferred camping accommodation.


Alberta Parks. (2015). Visitation statistics: Provincial parks and recreation areas 2014/15 fiscal year. Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation, Parks Division. Edmonton, Alberta.

Dunlap, R. E., Van Liere, K. D., Mertig, A. G., & Jones, R. E. (2000). New trends in measuring environmental attitudes: measuring endorsement of the new ecological paradigm: a revised NEP scale. Journal of social issues,56, 425-442.

Moghimehfar, F., & Halpenny, E. A. (2016). How do people negotiate through their constraints to engage in pro-environmental behavior? A study of front-country campers in Alberta, Canada. Tourism Management, 57, 362-372.

Author contact

Farhad Moghimehfar, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor
University of Northern British Columbia
Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management
8-244 3333 University Way
Prince George BC  V2N 4Z9

Return to concurrent session 8

Thinking mountains, shrinking mountains: Engineering the human-environment interface for wellbeing

Henry Moller1, 2, 3
Lee Saynor3
Kunal Sudan3 
Mark Chignell
1. University of Toronto, Dept. of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine
2. University of Toronto, Dept. of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Applied Sciences
3. PRAXIS Holistic Health, Toronto

Purpose: While academic study of mountain environments may not be a component of most medical textbooks, the emergence of holistic health models is highlighting the value of mountain environments in healing and personal transformation. In this paper, we seek to extend the historical and cultural legacy of the mountain sanatorium health retreat (MSHR) to digital media interventions that can potentially provide similar benefits at less cost, and less disruption to the rhythms of modern life.

Approach: We position our research within current medical models and the emerging applied medical sciences of Recreation and Leisure Studies (RLS).  We also adopt a mechanical industrial engineering (MIE)  approach to the goal of recreating leisure and wellbeing experiences, and focus on immersive media technologies, i.e., virtual reality environments (VRE), as therapeutic interventions.

Ideas: Interventional built environment research has typically focused on the physical geospatial design of urban spaces or outdoor recreational facilities such as parks e.g., for encouraging physical exercise (Kazynski & Henderson, 2007, Moller, 2010).  However, exciting research developments have emerged demonstrating that multimedia-based immersive virtual environments can authentically simulate real human perceptual experiences. The existence of mirror neurons  shows that people can develop internal models of experience, and the finding that imagery (imagined experience) recapitulates the perceptual analyses associated with actual sensory experience (Heyes, 2010, Laeng and Teodorescu, 2002), provide a powerful motivation for the use of virtual reality experience of mountains and mountain resorts in place of the real thing. Expanding on research presented at the past CCLR conference, we now integrate cultural aspects of wellbeing alongside physical characteristics of built environments to address the critically underrepresented factor of equitable leisure access for sustainable population health and wellbeing.

Practical Relevance: Employing the northeastern Swiss Alpine region as a case study, we address the public policy imperative of accessibility to wellbeing environments such as the MSHR in terms of leisure opportunities and constraints in an increasingly socioeconomically divided and urbanized developed world.  We look to supplement earlier approaches to handling stress and malaise through visits to therapeutic (natural or artificial) environments with the use of therapeutic immersive VRE . We also seek to evaluate the impact of mountain environments, whether in the form of natural MSHR’s or synthetically created VRE’s, on human correlates of well-being (physiological, psychological, and hedonic). In this evaluation we are employing an auto-ethnographic and psychometric approach to delineate components of the experience of wellbeing that are responsive to therapeutically-intentioned interventions.  We will also discuss the phenomenological and therapeutical value of this endeavor in the context of ongoing work with VRE-based mental health care. In summary, our approach uses a technology-enhanced multimodal meditation framework for clinical use, under the premise of “recreating leisure”, delineated in prior research  (Moller et al,, 2014a,2014b, 2015, 2016) 

Author contact

Dr. Henry Moller
PRAXIS Holistic Health
University of Toronto
785 Carlaw Ave, Suite 101
Toronto ON  M4K-3L1

Return to poster presentations

Urban adolescents’ community perceptions as barriers to physical activity

Peter A. Morden, Concordia University

In inner-city communities, components of the built leisure infrastructure are significant contexts in which adolescents may derive a variety of developmentally-positive outcomes (Caldwell & Baldwin, 2003; Jutras, 2003; Kleiber, 1999; Kytta, 2004); specifically, affordances that may help foster physical activity (PA) at the community level have been the focus of much research (e.g., Bracy et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2015; Nelson, Gordon-Larsen, Song & Popkin, 2006). Particular attention has been paid to youth living in communities characterized by, for instance, high levels of poverty, violence, or social discord (Bohnert, Richards, Kolmodin & Lakin, 2008). Research has revealed that community disorganization, crime, or incivility exert a negative pressure upon the use of outdoor recreation opportunities (Shinew, Stodolska, Roman & Yahner, 2013) and physical activity participation (Baran et al., 2014; Forsyth et al., 2015). Additionally, although the objective environment is of paramount importance, youth perspectives and perceptions about the community environment are increasingly sought (Aytur, Butcher, Carlson, & Schiffendecker, 2014; Hagar et al., 2013) to complement objective measures.

The purpose of this research is to examine adolescents’ perceptions that may serve as barriers or constraints to community-based PA. Of particular interest here are perceptions about community safety, social mixing, and social control, especially within a rapidly changing socioeconomic context.

This research involved semi-structured interviews conducted with over four-dozen adolescents residing in the community. Interviews, ranging in length from 20 to 90 minutes, were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a software package for this purpose.  Open coding procedures (Strauss, 1987) were initially used which led to a wide variety of descriptive categories related to community perceptions, space and place use, leisure experiences, and interpersonal relationships in the neighborhood. Subsequently, axial and selective coding procedures (Strauss) were used to derive broad themes which best captured the experiences and meaning of the community.

Youth were generally quite positive overall as well as with the PA opportunities within the community; however, distinct barriers to PA were reported. Most commonly, the perception and fear of crime was mentioned as limiting PA opportunities. Fear of crime served to limit community-based PA and also access to the local subway station. Additionally, given increasing diversity within the community, place “ownership” and consequent use was less certain for community youth. Perceived outsider status decreased the range of options both directly and by dissuading traversing the community. Lastly, community youth expressed that unwanted police surveillance and interaction had a dampening effect on their desire to utilize community public spaces in general.

Within the context of a community that has seen drastic though unequally distributed economic and social change, adolescents within the most impoverished and socially troubled area of the neighborhood perceive community attributes that constrain potential opportunities for physical activity. The prospect of further gentrification calls into question whether the benefits of community economic development will necessarily translate into greater opportunity or will potentially give rise to increased perceptions of community disorganization, spatial segregation, and the exertion of social control over community adolescents.

Author contact

Peter A. Morden
Department of Applied Human Sciences
Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke St. W.
Montreal QC  H4B 1R6

Return to concurrent session 7

When the party ends: An exploration of alcohol-involved sexual assault experiences among female university students

Laura Morrison, University of Waterloo

Drug and alcohol related sexual assault is an ongoing social phenomenon on university and college campuses (Krebs, Lindquist, Warner, Fisher, & Martin, 2009; McCauley, Calhoun, & Gidycz, 2010; Armstrong, Hamilton, & Sweeney, 2006). Although research has investigated why and how this happens, scant research has focused on the intricacies of the lived experiences of survivors (Wies, 2015). With rates of sexual assault remaining strikingly high in recent years, it is important to recognize that there is still much to be explored and understood regarding the severity of these traumatic incidences (McCauley, Calhoun, & Gidycz, 2010; Armstrong, Hamilton, & Sweeney, 2006). Senn et al. (2014) found that more than one in four female undergraduate students in Canada had experienced sexual assault, and that most of these incidences involved either the perpetrator or victim consuming alcohol, or both. The consumption of alcohol often results in lowered perceived risk of behaviours, which may leave individuals particularly susceptible to sexual assault (Crawford, Wright, & Birchmeier, 2008). However, victims’ intoxication is not the cause of increased sexual assault (Powers, Leili, Hagman, & Cohn, 2015). Research does not support the argument that alcohol-related assaults are the result of miscommunication between students who have simply had too much to drink, or that sexual assaults would end if women drank less (Senn et al., 2014). Results of a 2014 study show that men used force or threats in more than half of the sexual assaults committed, including situations where women were also incapacitated - willingly or unwillingly - by drugs or alcohol (Senn et al., 2014). The lack of acknowledgement and increased stigmatization associated with alcohol-related assault results in substantially less reporting and an avoidance of service seeking to address post-assault concerns (Walsh, Zinzow, Badour, Ruggiero, Kilpatrick, & Resnick, 2016). There is a lack of literature investigating the experiences of the people involved both the perpetrator and the victim. As identified by Wies (2015), lived experiences of college and university students are important to understand the landscape in which sexual assault incidents occur. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the experiences of alcohol-related sexual assault survivors, and to investigate the magnitude of these experiences in their lives. The aim is to use the knowledge generated to advance understanding and appreciation for the seriousness of alcohol-related sexual assault on university campuses and society at large, to better support student survivors, and to enact meaningful, appropriate prevention strategies. Taken up in a transformative paradigm, this study will capture the stories of survivors through narrative inquiry to further shed light on the reality of alcohol-related sexual assault experiences.


Armstrong, E., Hamilton, L., & Sweeney, B. (2006). Sexual Assault on Campus: A Multilevel, Integrative Approach to Party Rape. Social Problems, 53(4), 483-499.

Crawford, E., Wright, M. O., & Birchmeier, Z. (2008). Drug-facilitated sexual assault: College women's risk perception and behavioral choices. Journal of American College Health, 57(3), 261-272. 

Krebs, C. P., Lindquist, C. H., Warner, T. D., Fisher, B. S., & Martin, S. L. (2009). College women's experiences with physically forced, alcohol- or other drug-enabled, and drug-facilitated sexual assault before and since entering college. Journal of American College Health, 57(6), 639-649. 

McCauley, J., Calhoun, K., & Gidycz, C. (2010). Binge drinking and rape: A prospective examination of college women with a history of previous sexual victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 25(9), 1655-1668. 

Powers, R. A., Leili, J., Hagman, B., & Cohn, A. (2015). The impact of college education on rape myth acceptance, alcohol expectancies, and bystander attitudes. Deviant Behavior, 36(12), 956-973.

Senn, C. Y., Eliasziw, M., Barata, P. C., Thurston, W. E., Newby-Clark, I. R., Radtke, H. L., & Hobden, K. L. (2014). Sexual violence in the lives of first-year university women in Canada: no improvements in the 21st century. BMC Women's Health, 14, 135.

Walsh, K., Zinzow, H. M., Badour, C. L., Ruggiero, K. J., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Resnick, H. S. (2016). Understanding disparities in service seeking following forcible versus drug- or alcohol Facilitated/Incapacitated rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(14), 2475-2491.

Wies, J. R. (2015). Title IX and the state of campus sexual violence in the united states: Power, policy, and local bodies. Human Organization, 74(3), 276-286. 

Author contact

Laura Morrison
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 8

Music machine against war: Musical landscape of crisis in Syria from Yarmouk refugee camp to Europe

S. Ali Mostolizadeh, University of Waterloo

Considering music as a “memory bank for finding one’s way around the world” (Chatwin, 1987, p. 120), this study is an effort to unfold narrative of war and displacement in Syria with music. Since establishing in 1957, Yarmouk camp in the southern outskirts of Damascus had been known as the biggest diaspora of Palestinians in Syria with more than 150,000 population (Doucet, 2015). However, from the first days of starting civil war in Syria in 2012, Yarmouk became the forefront of battle between different parties involved in the war. The above mentioned conflict led to a humanitarian crisis in the camp in 2014 (UNRWA, 2014), a large number of refugees including infants and children had been trapped and immobilized in the camp without reliable food, water, electricity, heating, and other daily supplies and suffered from malnutrition, and disease. Amid all the circumstances happened to Yarmouk community, Ayham Ahmed a Palestinian-Syrian pianist, composer, and activist established a music group named "Youth Troupe of Yarmuk" (AFP, 2014). Posting the videos of this troupe in the social media, walking around the ruins of the camp with a portable piano and publicly performing music, attracted a global attention toward Yarmouk’s situation and raised awareness about it. Ayham who could not fled to Germany and he still plays piano and sing songs for Yarmouk refugee camp within Europe. Focusing on Ayham Ahmad’s journey from Syria to Germany and applying narrative inquiry for representing the second handed data from social media, the purpose of this study is to unpack the ways Syrian civil war has been affected Ayham’s songs and performances. This research contextualizes the songs and connects them to the situation of life as a refugee. The findings reveal that socially engaged art can become a machine of resistance and transformation within the communities that are under critical conditions such as war or displacement.


Chatwin, B. (1987). The Songlines (London, UK: Picador).

Doucet, L. (2015). Syria conflict: Fighting for a future for Yarmouk

Moussaoui, R. (2014). In Syria's starving Yarmuk camp, a pianist conjures hope.

Schreier, M. (2012). Qualitative content analysis in practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

UNRWA. (2014). #SaveYarmouk.

Author contact

S. Ali Mostolizadeh
University of Waterloo
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 6

The case of Tamir Rice: Implications for leisure studies in engaging societal issues

Rasul A. Mowatt, Indiana University

Tamir Rice, a 12-year-old boy was shot by police and subsequently died of his wounds in Cleveland, OH on November 22, 2014. For protestors, it was another rallying point about Black Lives Matter. For policy-makers, it was another opportunity to discuss gun control. For others, it was yet another opportunity to find trouble with urban youth. Yet there is a implication that lies within this case for leisure researchers, despite the overwhelming silence on the matter from the field. What has been the legacy of leisure studies on societal issues? How have we engaged those social issues? How should we?

The location of his death was in a public park, Cudell Commons. This reality has been lost on parks and recreation practitioners and researchers, and as a result no known discussion has occurred in official spaces (publications, conferences, forums, or meetings) linked to the field. However, further analysis of the Cuyahoga County Prosecutor and Sheriff’s Office 224-page five-month investigative report of the City of Cleveland Division of Police use of deadly force reveals further relevance and implications for the field. The aim of this paper, based on a content and semiotic analysis of the 224 page report, is to present the implications of the death of Tamir and how it ought to inform us.

The use of documents in social research is not new, and as Pryor (2003) noted, documents can provide “particular insight into social processes” (p. 354). In gaining insight within what is contained within a document, “content analysis is a research method that uses a set of procedures to make valid inferences from text” (Weber, 1990, p. 9). While semiotic analysis, is another layer of analysis of documents that explores the meanings behind the words and phrases in the text, but more importantly their relationship to other meanings (i.e. the word “juvenile” has no meaning without a relationship with the word “adult”; Saussure, 1996). The sole document for analysis in this study and paper was the 224-page report, looking for leisure-based words, the context of their use, and the overall meaning of their presence.

Henderson (2013) challenged scholars “to use justice as a lens for addressing more difficult questions about leisure to facilitate actions that can lead to social change” (p. 73). Floyd (2014) contended that, “leisure service agencies…alleviate leisure constraints related to race, ethnicity, and other markers of social and economic inequality” (p. 381). He further noted that, “many of us work from the presumption that individuals are “entitled” to leisure agency and self-determination, and should enjoy access to spaces where these conditions are fostered” (p. 381). This case conjures necessary discussions within leisure studies on its legacy, and who gets to be a child, who gets to play, who gets to live. As we maintain that quality of life and social equity as key tenets of the field, it is important that we truly embrace that lives matter, especially Black ones, even in death.


Cuyahoga County Sheriff’s Office. (2015, June 2). Synopsis of CCSD Case #15-004 use of deadly force incident

Durham, A. (2015). ____ While Black: Millennial race play and the post-hip-hop generation. Cultural Studies <-> Critical Methodologies, 15(4), 253-259.

Floyd, M. F. (2014). Social justice as an integrating force for leisure research. Leisure Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 36(4), 379-387.

Goff, P. A., Jackson, M. C., Di Leone, B. A. L., Culotta, C. M., & DiTomasso, N. A. (2014). The essence of innocence: Consequences of dehumanizing Black children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(4), 526-545.

Henderson, K. A. (2013). Justice in leisure research: Have the easy questions been answered?. Leisure Studies Association, 96, 73-79.

Kelly-Pryor, B. N. & Outley, C. (2014). “Just spaces”: Urban recreation centers as sites for social justice youth development.  Journal of Leisure Sciences, 46(3), 272-290.

McKenzie, T. L., Moody, J. S., Carlson, J. A., Lopez, N. V., & Elder, J. P. (2013). Neighborhood income matters: Disparities in community recreation facilities, amenities, and programs. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 31(4), 12-22.

Mowatt, R. A. (2009). Notes from a leisure son: Expanding an understanding of Whiteness in leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(4), 509-526.

Northeast Ohio Media Group. (2015, January 7). Extended Tamir Rice shooting video shows officers restrained sister [Screen shot #1 from public released Video]. 

Parker, K. F., MacDonald, J. M., Jennings, W. G., & Alpert, G. P. (2005). Racial threat, urban conditions and police use of force: Assessing the direct and indirect linkages across multiple urban areas. Justice, Research and Policy, 7(1), 53-79.

Pendleton, M. (1998). Policing the Park: Understanding Soft Enforcement. Journal of Leisure Research, 30, 552-571.

Pinckney, H. P., Outley, C., Blake, J. J., & Kelly, B. (2011). Promoting positive youth development of Black youth: A rites of passage framework. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(1), 98-112.

Pryor, L. (2003). Using documents in social research. London: Sage Publications.

Shinew, K., Mowatt, R., & Glover, T. (2007) An African American community recreation center: Participants’ and volunteers’ perceptions of racism and racial identity. Journal of Parks and Recreation Administration, 25(2), 84-106.

Weitzer, R. (2000). Racialized policing: Residents’ perceptions in three neighborhoods.Law and Society Review, 35, 129-155.

Wolch, J., Wilson, J. P., & Fehrenbach, J. (2005). Parks and park funding in Los Angeles: An equity-mapping analysis. Urban Geography, 26(1), 4-35.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Rasul A. Mowatt
Indiana University
1025 E. 7th Street
Bloomington, IN 47405

Return to concurrent session 5

Race, the “born-frees,” and tourists: Engaging with the legacies of apartheid through photovoice

Meghan L. Muldoon, University of Waterloo

Apartheid officially came to an end in South Africa on April 27, 1994 with the country’s first democratic general elections, a day that is today celebrated as Freedom Day (Govendry, 2016). Apartheid, meaning “apart-hood” in Afrikaans, was the government-mandated system of racial oppression and segregation that privileged whites over blacks beginning in 1948. It was finally brought to an end with the election of Nelson Mandela to the nation’s presidency, following decades of protests, violence, imprisonments, assassinations, and international outrage. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission that followed was a ground-breaking attempt to reconcile the past with the future of the newly minted “Rainbow Nation,” however many South Africans feel that the TRC failed them in its decision to only pursue individual, as opposed to systemic, blame for the atrocities of apartheid, and was too eager to compromise in its efforts to maintain peace and unity (Teeger, 2015; Villa-Vincencio & Verwoerd, 2000).

The young people born in or around 1994 are collectively known as the “born-frees” in South Africa (Villa-Vincencio & Verwoerd, 2000): young people who grew up with the hope and promises of their elders that their futures would represent what they had fought for. Twenty-two years later the shiny optimism has been replaced with the reality that black South Africans continue to be economically disadvantaged, own a very small proportion of the land, face racial barriers to education, and live in racially segregated neighbourhoods known as townships (Teeger, 2015). The promises that were made to the “born-frees” have not borne fruit, and in 2015 many campuses across the country witnessed protests, vandalism, and violence as black students reacted angrily to tuition hikes and Afrikaans-language classes, policies that disproportionally disadvantage black students (Hall, 2016).

For five months in 2016, I lived in South Africa and conducted my dissertation research into local experiences of hosting tourists in three townships around Cape Town. What I learned is that race is deeply implicated in experiences with international tourists for the black South Africans that I worked with. However, perspectives of white tourists in the exclusively black spaces of the townships are highly contingent on the age of the person whose perspective is being offered. There is a generational divide between older South Africans and the ‘born-frees’ that my research design completely failed to anticipate, and I found myself learning at the very end of my project that younger people did not agree with the participants that I had worked with in terms of feeling that tourists in the townships are a positive force for change in a still racialized South Africa. My paper presentation will speak to how race, age, and asking the wrong questions shaped every aspect of my research project, and what I learned about the lasting legacies of apartheid through a study of tourism in South Africa.


Govendry, S. (2016, April 26). Hope, frustration as South Africa marks Freedom Day. All Africa. Retrieved September 15, 2016.

Hall, M. (2016, March 30). Why are South African students so angry? BBC News. Retrieved September 15, 2016.

Teeger, C. (2015). ‘Both sides of the story:’ History education in post-apartheid South Africa. American Sociological Review, 80(6), p. 1175-1200.

Villa-Vincencio, C. & Verwoerd, W. (2000). Looking forward looking back: Reflections on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of South Africa. University of Cape Town Press: Cape Town.

Author contact

Meghan L. Muldoon, Ph.D (candidate)
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 

Return to concurrent session 5

The role of the social environment in mediating the relationship between active transportation and wellbeing

Nasim Naghavi, University of Waterloo
Bryan Smale, University of Waterloo

Active transportation has increasingly been linked to a greater health and wellbeing in many ways. In particular, engagement in active transportation can help to alleviate some of the greatest risks to mortality including high blood pressure, tobacco use, high blood glucose, physical inactivity, and obesity (World Health Organization, 2009). Beyond the health-related risks, active transportation could also facilitate opportunities for incidental contact among members of communities and contribute to social health by fostering social capital, cohesion, and connection (Leyden, 2003; Lund, 2002). Ultimately, greater engagement in active transportation and the enhancement of the social environment within the community can lead to higher subjective wellbeing among residents. Beyond the health components of active transportation, in an effort to understand what factors encourage active transportation, much of the literature has focused on aspects of the built environment, such as the its quality, the accessibility, and the connectivity. These factors are considered major contributors to the active transportation for people of different ages, genders, and socio-economic status (Dannenberg, Frumkin, & Jackson, 2011, Thompson, 2010).  Despite the evidence showing how social connections can result from more active transportation (Hanson et al., 2013) and that higher quality built environments can affect the degree to which people engage in active transportation (Boarnet et al., 2011; Doescher et al., 2014; Duncan et al., 2016), few studies have directly addressed the association of active transportation with subjective wellbeing, and how this association is mediated and/or moderated by the social connectivity of individuals – the social environment – and/or by quality and accessibility of environment – the built environment.  This paper sets out to close this gap by examining the relationship between active transportation and subjective wellbeing and factors that mediate/moderate it. Using data gathered by the Canadian Index of Wellbeing’s Community Wellbeing Survey conducted in the Victoria region, we tested a model of the moderating effects of built environment components ‘quality of environment’ and ‘accessibility’ as well as the mediating effects of the social environment components ‘social connectivity’ and ‘presence of family and friends’ on the association of active transportation and overall subjective well-being. Our results show that the quality of environment and accessibility does not moderate the relationship between active transportation and wellbeing; in other words, more active transportation will happen within a better quality and accessible environment, but features of the built environment do not have an impact on the relationship between active transportation and subjective wellbeing.  However, the social environment partially mediates the relationship between active transportation and subjective wellbeing. Particularly, trusting others, getting help from others, and making connections with people, construct a social support which encourages individuals to be more engaged in healthy activities, such as active transportation in the communities of Victoria region. This result demonstrates the importance of the social environment in facilitating active transportation’s contribution to enhancing the wellbeing of residents.


Boarnet, M., Forsyth, A., Day, K., & Oakes, J. (2011). The street level built environment and physical activity and walking: Results of a predictive validity study for the Irvine Minnesota inventory. Environment and Behavior, 43(6), 735-775.

Dannenberg, A., Frumkin, H., & Jackson, R.J. (2011). Making healthy places: A built environment for health, well-being, and sustainability. Washington, DC: Island Press.

Doescher, M.P., Lee, C., Berke, E.M., Adachi-Mejia, A.M., Lee, C., Stewart, O., . . . , Moudon, A.V. (2014). The built environment and utilitarian walking in small U.S. towns. Preventive Medicine, 69(Complete), 80-86.

Duncan, S., Strycker, L., Chaumeton, N., & Cromley, E. (2016). Relations of neighborhood environment influences, physical activity, and active transportation to/from school across African American, Latino American, and white girls in the United States. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23(2), 153-161.

Hanson, H.M., Schiller, C., Winters, M., Sims-Gould, J., Clarke, P., Curran, E., . . . McKay, H.A. (2013). Concept mapping applied to the intersection between older adults' outdoor walking and the built and social environments. Preventive Medicine, 57(6), 785-791.

Leyden, K.M. (2003). Social capital and the built environment: The importance of walkable neighborhoods. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9), 1546-1551.

Lund, H. (2002). Pedestrian environments and sense of community. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21(3), 301–12.

Thompson, C.W. (2011). Linking landscape and health: The recurring theme. Landscape and Urban Planning, 99(3), 187-195.

World Health Organization. (2009). Global health risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. 

Author contact

Nasim Naghavi
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
University of Waterloo
Waterloo Ontario N2L  3G1

Return to concurrent session 7

Evolution and spatial reproduction of tourism spaces in historical streets from postmodern consumer demands: Insights from Suzhou, China

Yu Niu, University of Florida
Degen Wang, Soochow University
Heather J. Gibson, University of Florida

In tourism destinations, historical streets are more than places where tourist behaviors take place. Such places are also products produced by capitalism and sites where production relations are reproduced (Zhang, 2009); in other words, under capitalism space and what relates to space contain the means to produce surplus (Lefebvre, 1976). In the postmodern world, the demands for mass culture, leisure and artistic life-styles are increasing (Durand et al, 1977; Lefebvre, 1996). Tourism destinations need to undergo constant spatial reproduction so as to preserve and improve their economic value as spatial products and mediate the inherent contradictions between capital appreciation and consumption demands (Lefebvre, 1991); meaning that profit making may depreciate what the tourists come to see. The purpose of this study is to review the evolution process of consumption spaces in postmodern historical streets in Suzhou, China from the perspective of spatial production. Further, an exploration of the profit-driven nature of spatial production in historical streets is conducted and an explanation of the evolution of relations between production and consumption is proffered. This study is based on remote-sensing images of Pingjiang Road and Shantang Street in Suzhou, China from Google Earth and field investigations from 2013-2016. The results show: (1) Shantang Street is in the transition phase of tourism consumption spaces. Its spatial function has changed from low-consumption sightseeing to high-consumption leisure-tourism, during which tourists stay longer and their activities have changed to relaxing and experiencing the local culture and life. In contrast, Pingjiang Road is at the enhancement phase, whereby leisure consumption becomes more closely related to local cultures. For example, Wu Culture such as the Kun Opera, Cheongsam and Song brocade have been incorporated into spatial production, which has enhanced cultural symbolism. (2) The demands of postmodern tourism and capital appreciation trigger the transfer of power over capital from supply to demand and determinate the “representation of space”; capitalization of culture, spatial elements, as well as spatial reorganization act as “spatial practice”; cultural conflicts and consumption inequality are unavoidable in the “space of representation”, while the conflicts between tourists’ demands for space usage and capital appreciation are spontaneously mediated. (3) Spatial evolution in historical streets fits Lefebvre’s (1991) spatial production theory. Capital tends to flow in more standardized commercial forms at the early stage of spatial production. However, confrontation and conflicts described by Lefebvre dissolve in self-adjustment of the market. With the regulation of the capitalization of resources, the commodification of local culture and symbolization of leisure, more commercial forms develop that enrich tourist activities, the representations of local culture become more creative to reflect the heritage of historical streets, and more specialized experiential spaces emerge. Such processes increase the economic value of space, satisfy tourists’ consumer demand, and also preserve the historical culture, which can be used in the planning of historical areas to construct featured and differential consumption spaces and leave a sustainable space legacy.


Benamou, M, et al. (1977). Performance in postmodern culture. The Center for Twentieth Century Studies, University of Wisconsin.

Lefebvre, H. (1976). The survival of capitalism: reproduction of the relations of production. St. Martin's Press.

Lefebvre H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford: Blackwell.

Lefebvre H. selected, translated and introduced by Eleonore Kofman and Elizabeth Lebas, (1996) Writings on cities (1967): Part two: Right to the city. Bodwin, Cornwall: Hartnolls Limited.

Zhang, J.-X., Deng, H.-Y. (2009). On the forming of consumer Space in modern urban historical & cultural areas. Urban Planning International, 24(1), 43-47.

Author contact

Yu Niu
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL, USA

Return to concurrent session 2

Leisure innovation in coping with co morbidities in older adults

Chidinma Osinike, University of Regina
Rebecca Genoe, University of Regina

With age, the likelihood of being diagnosed with more than one chronic condition increases (Broemeling, Watson, & Prebtani, 2008).  Multiple co-morbidities can have a significant impact on quality of life for those who must manage a range of symptoms and treatments (Holman & Lorig, 2004; Labuik, 2010).  Leisure has been shown to be relevant in coping with, adjusting to and adapting to negative life events such as chronic illness (Kleiber & Hutchinson, 2010) and therefore, it may play an important role in accomplishing the tasks of chronic disease self-management for older adults who are living with multiple co-morbidities. However, disability resulting from chronic illness can limit leisure participation. In this study, we drew upon innovation theory of successful aging (Nimrod, 2008; Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007) to provide insight into leisure among older adults living with chronic conditions. Innovation theory states that the adoption of new leisure activities in later life may facilitate healthy aging through personal growth, interest renewal, identity reconstruction and increased sense of meaning in life (Liechty, Yarnal, & Kerstetter, 2012; Nimrod & Kleiber, 2007). The purpose of this presentation is to explore the lived experience of leisure innovation among older adults living with more than one chronic illness.

Utilizing a hermeneutic phenomenological design, four men and two women living with multiple chronic conditions between the ages of 68 and 86 participated in in-depth interviews and a follow-up focus group. The interviews and the focus group were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim.  Field notes and reflexivity were recorded throughout the research process to document thoughts and emotions about the content and process of the study.  The data were analyzed through application of the hermeneutic circle, including reading, reflective writing and interpretation (Kafle, 2011).

Data analysis revealed that the participants limited their leisure activities due to pain and reduced strength and energy, yet they engaged in self-preservation leisure activities (i.e., activities consistent with previous interests) and self-restoration leisure activities (i.e., new activities). Participants added new activities, particularly physically active leisure, that helped them to manage their symptoms.  They also maintained engagement in previous activities such as travel, time with family and friends, and reading).  External factors, such as recommendations from physicians and increased time due to retirement, along with internal factors, such as a desire to preserve health and personal interest, triggered their choice of leisure activities. Participants reported benefits of engaging in leisure innovation such as improved health, social support, emotional well-being, satisfaction and rest. Finally, they reported being better able to cope with their co-morbidities as they adjusted to their chronic conditions.

Our findings support current research regarding leisure innovation by highlighting the advantages of adopting new leisure activities in later life while living with co-morbidities.  Participants drew on leisure innovation in order to reduce symptoms, improve their health functioning (see also Hutchinson & Nimrod, 2012), and self-manage their co-morbidities.  Further research is needed to better understand differences in leisure experiences with progression of co-morbidities.


Broemeling, A., Watson, D.E., & Prebtani, F. (2008). Population patterns of chronic health conditions, co-morbidity and healthcare use in Canada: Implications for policy and practice. Healthcare Quarterly, 11(3), 70-76.

Holman, H., & Lorig, K. (2004); Patient self-management: A key to effectiveness and efficiency in care of chronic disease. Public Health Reports 119, 239-243.

Hutchinson, S. L., & Nimrod, G. (2012). Leisure as a resource for successful aging by

older adults with chronic health conditions. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 74(1), 41-65.

Kafle, N.P. (2011). Hermeneutic phenomenological research method simplified. Bodhi: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 181-200.

Kleiber, D.A., & Hutchinson, S.L. (2010). Making the best of bad situations: The value of leisure in coping with negative life events. In L.L. Payne, B.E. Ainsworth, & G. Godbey, (Eds.), Leisure, health, and wellness: Making the connections (pp. 155-164). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Labuik, J.T. (2010). Personal creative activity, male chronic illness and perceived stress: An exploratory study. (Master’s thesis, University of Saskatchewan). 

Liechty, T., Yarnal, C., & Kerstetter, D. (2012). ‘I want to do everything!’ Leisure innovation among retirement-age women.  Leisure Studies, 31(4), 389-408.

Nimrod, G. (2008). In support of innovation theory: Innovation in activity patterns and life satisfaction among recently retired individuals. Ageing and Society, 28, 831-846.

Nimrod, G., & Kleiber, D. A. (2007). Reconsidering change and continuity in later life:

Toward an innovation theory of successful aging. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65(1), 1-22.

Author contact

Chidinma Osinike
B9, 54 Allanbrooke Drive
Yorkton SK  S3N 3G4

Return to concurrent session 2

Stakeholder engagement in protected areas: A case study of Elk Island National Park, Alberta

Chelsea Parent, University of Alberta
Howie Harshaw, University of Alberta

The combination of enclosure by a 2.2m tall perimeter fence that restricts large ungulate movement and a lack of natural predation has resulted in the inevitable hyperabundance of plains bison, wood bisonand elk in Elk Island National Park (EINP), Alberta. This hyperabundance threatens the ecological integrity of the Park and associated visitor experiences. The issue of ungulate management in EINP is novel, both in terms of the animals involved (i.e., bison), and public perceptions about (and preferences for) active management options to address ungulate population and habitat health. The management options for addressing hyperabundance could include: capture and relocate, culling by park staff, birth control, predator reintroduction hunting by members of the public, and hunting by local Indigenous Peoples. The Park’s management plan identifies the need to incorporate public participation, including Indigenous Peoples to enable park stakeholders to become more involved in park management through an advisory process (Parks Canada Agency, 2011). This study explores the relationship between the community of stakeholders and EINP by asking them about their perspectives about wildlife management methods that could be used in the Park. The study aims to reveal gaps, if any, between community and agency (Miller & McGee, 2001) by seeking representations of values and attitudes surrounding management actions and methods. Stakeholder perceptions and involvement (Chase, Siemer, & Decker, 2002) is integral of successful wildlife management in North America and will be explored in EINP through five focus groups (Morgan, 2004) with key stakeholders: Indigenous Peoples, adjacent land owners, Beaver Hills Initiative, Friends of Elk Island Society, and the Wildlife and Park Management Professionals. This study employs an inductive approach guided by an interpretivist analysis (Crotty, 2012) to uncover themes about the meanings of wildlife, national parks, animal welfare, and visitor experiences, and the juxtaposition of these with Parks Canada’s mandate to ensure ecological integrity and the fiscal realities facing Canada’s national park system. Nvivo software will be used for analysis. Empirical evidence will shed light on values, attitudes, and perceptions key stakeholders and Indigenous Peoples hold toward ungulate management in EINP and more broadly, park and protected area management. Anticipated practical implications are that results will help to guide stakeholder engagement, communication, and education for key stakeholders and the larger Park audience. Scholarly implications will help to start a dialogue for national parks and other protected areas to better understand how to incorporate stakeholders’ concerns, preferences, and ideas, and identify existing gaps in public expectations.


Chase, L. C., Siemer, W. F., & Decker, D. J. (2002). Designing stakeholder involvement strategies to resolve wildlife management controversies. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 30(3), 937-950.

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Sage.

Miller, K. K., & McGee, C. T. K. (2001). Toward incorporating human dimensions information into wildlife management decision-making. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 6(3), 205-221.

Morgan, D. L. (2004). Focus groups. In P. Leavy and S. N. Hesse-Biber (Eds.), Approaches to qualitative research: A reader on theory and practice. New York: Oxford University Press.

Parks Canada Agency. (2011). Elk Island National park of Canada: Management plan 2011 [electronic resource]. (Cat. No.: R63-265/2011E-PDF). Retrieved from Parks Canada Agency website.

Author contact

Chelsea Parent
University of Alberta
116 Street & 85 Avenue
Edmonton AB  T6G 2R3

Return to poster presentations

Advancing a fourth wave of feminism in leisure studies

Diana Parry, University of Waterloo
Corey Johnson, University of Waterloo

Feminist scholarship has been a key contributor to the development of leisure theory, highlighting androcentric biases, correcting omissions/oversights through a gender lens, providing important directions for future research, noting the gendered nature of leisure experiences, and encouraging methodological proliferation (Johnson & Parry, 2015). These critiques and contributions have influenced the leisure literature for over three decades with feminism(s) evolving to reflect various theoretical perspectives, issues, and forms of social activism. Building off these contributions, Parry and Fullagar (2013) assessed the feminist contributions to leisure theory through the lens of a “third wave.” Since then, fueled by the Internet and other technological advances, a fourth wave of feminism has emerged: a feminist community where on-line discussion and activism against every day forms of sexism begin to take shape (Munro, 2013).  Fourth wave feminism takes up the micropolitics of the third wave and combines it with an agenda of political, social, and economic change similar to the second-wave (Maclaran, 2015).  Although emergent and dynamic, the fourth wave is characterized by rapid mobilization in response to immediate forms of sexism (Chamberlain, 2016).  The most common way that action is mobilized is through Twitter and Facebook. Chamberlain (2016) argues women within the fourth wave exercise less forgiveness and are more public about their encounters with gendered ideologies and struggles against patriarchy. The outcome is collective action based on individual incidences of sexism and/or harassment. While questions remain about whether online work associated with this fourth wave results in real life change, the Internet nonetheless enables greater accessibility to the issues and an opportunity to embrace the interconnections that span the feminist movement (Munro, 2013). Clearly, the issues and approach of a fourth wave of feminism have implications for leisure studies. In an effort to remain relevant, it seems timely for leisure scholars to explore the issues posed by fourth wave feminist thinking. The purpose of this presentation will be to advance an integration of fourth wave feminism into leisure scholarship by reviewing the main theoretical tenents associated with fourth wave feminism and the implications for leisure studies – topically, theoretically, substantively, and methodologically. We will conclude with areas for future leisure research that would be particularly appropriate within a fourth wave.


Chamberlain, P. (2016). Affective temporality: towards a fourth wave. Gender and Education, 28(3), 458-464.

Johnson, C. W., & Parry, D. C. (Eds.). (2016). Fostering social justice through qualitative inquiry: A methodological guide. Routledge.

McLaren, M. A. (1997). Foucault and the subject of feminism. Social Theory and Practice, 23(1), 109-128.

Munro, E. (2013). Feminism: A fourth wave?. Political insight, 4(2), 22-25.

Parry, D. C., & Fullagar, S. (2013). Feminist leisure research in the contemporary era. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(5), 571.

Author contact

Diana C. Parry
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext 33468

Return to concurrent session 2

The role of sport in the experience of First Nations, Inuit and Métis residential school survivors: A literature review

Colleen Patterson, Brock University

For over 150 years, the Government of Canada developed and implemented an educational policy of ‘aggressive assimilation’ which forced First Nations, Inuit and some Métis children into church-run, government-funded residential schools. The existing mentality from the 19th century until the last school closed in 1996 was that these federally-run institutions would be the best way to assimilate Aboriginal children into Canadian culture. Attendance was mandatory and government agents and the RCMP were brought in to ensure all Aboriginal children attended school starting at the age of five or six, and sometimes younger, depending on individual circumstances. Many aspects were wrong about residential schools and many of those who survived are still grappling with the trauma they experienced. Through the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) of Canada, testimonial has emerged about some of the lifelines which helped students to become resilient, the role of sport is one example. Through my master’s thesis, I am looking at the various sports played in residential schools and whether survivors believe sport helped them become more resilient. I am also exploring whether sport continued to be an influence in the lives of survivors post residential school, through teaching, coaching, and leading, or in some cases, as Olympic/International or professional athletes. This qualitative study is being conducted within an Indigenous research framework. For my literature review, I am reviewing relevant sections of the TRC Final Report and Calls to Action, as well as the TRC’s public archives to further explore statements provided by survivors. I am searching out relevant evidence on Aboriginal Sport in Canada and conducting a media scan of the stories related to sport and residential school survivors which emerged throughout the duration of the Commission and since the launch of the final report. As a Métis woman, raised with traditional teachings from my Elders and a former staff member of the TRC, I believe I bring a unique lens to this research. Ultimately, it is my hope to help further elucidate the role of Aboriginal athletes in our collective history and possibly inspire opportunities for reconciliation and policy change that would further support the importance of Aboriginal sport in contemporary society. This presentation will situate the role of sport in the experience of residential school survivors, provide a summary of my findings to date, and provide an opportunity to discuss the role of Indigenous sport in developing inclusive communities. This presentation is an opportunity to consider Indigenous histories through knowledge translation and further a dialogue among students, and Canadian and international scholars about the important role of sport and recreation for residential school survivors.


Brown, Leslie and Strega, Susan. (2005). Research as Resistance: critical, indigenous & anti-oppressive approaches. Canadian Scholars Press. Toronto.

Forsyth, Janice and Giles, Audrey R. (2013). Aboriginal Peoples and Sport in Canada: Historical Foundations and Contemporary Issues. UBC Press. Vancouver.

Haig-Brown, Celia and the Secwepemic Cultural Education Society. (1998). Resistance and Renewal: Surviving the Indian Residential School. Arsenal Pulp Press.Vancouver.

Kovach, Margaret. (2009). Indigenous Methodologies: characteristics, conversations and contexts. University of Toronto Press. Toronto.

Mertens, Donna M., Cram, Fiona., and Chilisa, Bagele. (2013). Indigenous Pathways into Social Research: Voices of a New Generation. Left Coast Press Inc. Walnut Creek.

Milloy, John S. (1999). A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System 1979-1986. University of Manitoba Press. Winnipeg.

Sellars, Bev. (2013). They Called Me Number One: Secrets and Survival at an Indian Residential School. Talon Books. Vancouver.

Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. (2012). Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. Otago University Press. Dunedin.

Struckman, Robert. (2004). Winning Ways: Native American athletes have accomplished some of the most impressive feats in sports history. National Museum of the American Indian: Special Commemorative issue. Smithsonian. Washington. Pp 62-63

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2016). A Knock on the Door: The Essential history of residential schools. National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, University of Manitoba. Winnipeg.

Truth and Reconciliation Canada. (2015). Honouring the truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Winnipeg: Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, pp. 20, 74, 110-113, 267, 275, 297-300, 316, 336.

Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. (2015). The Survivors Speak. Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. Winnipeg.

Wilson, Shawn. (2008). Research is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methodologies. Fernwood Publishing. Halifax.

Author contact

Colleen Patterson
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1
905-688-5550, ex 5342

Return to concurrent session 4

The relationship between gender, recreational drug use and young rural women’s positioning

Brittney Patton, Brock University
Erin Sharpe, Brock University

There is currently a gap in research on rural drug use and its relationship with leisure and femininity (Smith, 2014), largely due to the assumption that drug use is primarily an urban issue and a male dominated activity. Although rural communities are commonly believed to be ideal and safe spaces (Gfroerer, Larson & Colliver, 2007), recent research has shown that urban and rural drug use rates are comparable (Council on Drug Abuse, 2011). Recreational drug use in rural communities has been linked to rural issues such as isolation and a lack of leisure opportunities (Council on Drug Abuse, 2011). Leisure opportunities associated with girlhood are particularly limited within rural communities, as most female leisure opportunities are in urban spaces (Kenway, Kraack & Hickey-Moody, 2006). Similarly, recent research that has found that drug use is prevalent among both young males and females has challenged the assumption that drug use is a male issue (Smith, 2014). Measham (2002), who found that drug use is prevalent among both genders, argued that that recreational drug use is one way that individuals perform gender. She asserted that viewing drug use through a post-structural gender performance lens allows researchers to investigate how women both construct and challenge traditional and non- traditional forms of femininity through drug use (Measham, 2002). It is important that post- structural research on rural drug use is completed, to understand how the subjectivities of young rural women are constructed, contested and reproduced through discourse.

Using a post-structural perspective and drawing on positioning theory, this study investigates how rural young women make sense of recreational drug use in relation to discourses of rurality, leisure, and femininity. Specifically, it draws on positioning theory to explore how rural young women are positioned, and position themselves in relation to drugs and drug related practices, and how young rural women negotiate broader discourses about rurality, gender and leisure when positioning young female recreational drug users. Positioning theory is an extension of other identity theories such as ‘role’ and ‘personhood’, which do not fully encompass how subjecthood is constructed (David & Harre, 1990). By analyzing the language used in social interactions, in particular contexts, positioning theory allows researchers to understand how identity is discursively produced (David & Harre, 1990).

This study draws on data collected through semi-structured interviews with six young women (aged 18-30 years), living in the eight rural Townships that comprise the County of ‘Wildlark’, Ontario (total population 54,000). Participants were recruited through the researcher’s personal Facebook network. Data was analyzed using discourse analysis to help further understand how young rural women conceptualize recreational drug use, in relation to broader discourses of femininity and leisure in a rural setting. As described by Salvin-Baden and Major (2013) discourse analysis involves a deep linguistic analysis of conversation or text with the aim of understanding the discourse used. This information comes at a particularly interesting political time, when current debates about the legalization of recreational drug use are occurring across the Canadian landscape.


Council on Drug Abuse (2011) Rural versus urban drug use/misuse, Toronto.

Davis, B & Harre, R. (1990) Positioning: the discursive production of selves, Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour.20, 46-63.

Gfroerer, J. C., Larson, S.L. & Colliver, J.D. (2007) Epidemiology and Etiology of Drug Abuse: Drug use patterns and trends in rural communities, The Journal of Rural Health, 23, 10- 15.

Kenway, J. & Hickey- Moody, A. (2009) Spatialized leisure-pleasure, global flows and masculine identities. Social & Cultural Geography, 10(8), 837-852.

Measham, F. (2002) ‘Doing gender’ – ‘doing drug’: conceptualizing the gendering of drug cultures, Contemporary Drug Problems, 29, 335-373.

Smith, C. (2014) Injecting drug use and the performance of rural femininity: An ethnographic study of female injecting drug users in rural North Wales, Critical Criminology, 22, 511- 525.

Salvin- Baden, M., & Major, C. (2012) Qualitative research: The essential guide to theory and \practice. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge

Author contact

Brittney Patton
1203-181 John Street North
Hamilton Ontario  L8L 7Z7

Return to concurrent session 8

What's for supper? The impact of food on midlife women's leisure experiences

Lisa Petty, Brock University
Joyce Engle, Brock University
Jenn Salfi, Brock University

Perhaps one of the most significant transitions for a woman at midlife involves a changing relationship with a body that is aging (Banister, 1999).  Studies of women's experiences of their bodies at midlife, however, have mainly focused on the biomedical aspects of menopause. Yet, as Parry and Shaw (1999) write, leisure activities promote well-being and the ability to cope with the challenges of midlife, including menopause. Further, body image plays a significant role in how women experience food (Mangweth-Matzek et al., 2014) and leisure (Prichard & Tiggemann, 2008). There is a complex relationship between body image and body changes at midlife (Pearce, Thøgersen-Ntoumanib & Duda, 2014). Studies of midlife women have investigated body image in reference to changes that are visible to others (Liechty, Freeman & Zabriskie, 2006) and often focus on negative body image (McLaren & Kuh, 2004). Less is known about the role of body functionality for midlife women, which is an element of positive body image (Tylka & Wood-Barcalow, 2015) and is expressed as what the body can do and feel (Alleva, Martijn, Van Breukelen, Jansen & Karos, 2015), as well as creative expression and self-care. In their study of older women, Liechty and Yarnal (2010) found that body image in leisure became progressively related to ability rather than appearance as women aged. The authors called for more investigation of the life factors that "influence body image and leisure... how they interact with the aging process" (p. 463), and whether they constrain leisure participation. This study explores how women navigate the physical, emotional and social transformations they experience at midlife. Of particular interest is the meaning that women give to the functional experience of their changing bodies in relation to food, leisure and health. 

Hermeneutic phenomenology involves the use of open-ended questions that allow participants to describe the phenomenon under investigation as they experienced it (Laverty, 2003).  Findings emerged from in-depth, semi-structured research conversations that explored the midlife experience of  7 Canadian women using Van Manen’s (1990) data analysis themes as a guide. A key focus of the analysis was the lifeworld existential of corporeality, which refers to one's bodily presence (Van Manen, 1990). Findings of this study suggest that there is a circular relationship between food and leisure and how these women feel in their bodies daily. Specifically, the women take steps to preserve energy, and they do so through conscious choices and compromises concerning food intake and leisure participation. These findings speak to Liechty and Yarnal's  (2010) call for exploration of the life factors that influence body image and leisure constraints for aging women, and provide a unique perspective on the influence of food. Essential themes will be discussed, with attention to how these women negotiate food and leisure choices in an attempt to influence how their bodies feel daily


Alleva, J. M., Martijn, C., Van Breukelen, G. J., Jansen, A., & Karos, K. (2015). Expand Your Horizon: A programme that improves body image and reduces self-objectification by training women to focus on body functionalityBody Image, 81.

Banister, E. (1999). Women's midlife experience of their changing bodies. Qualitative Health Research9(4), 520-537.

Laverty, S. M. (2003). Hermeneutic phenomenology and phenomenology: A comparison of historical and methodological considerations. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2, 1-29.

Liechty T, Freeman P, Zabriskie R. (2006). Body image and beliefs about appearance: Constraints on the leisure of college-age and middle-age women. Leisure Sciences[serial online]. 28(4), 311-330.

Liechty, T., & Yarnal, C. M. (2010). The role of body image in older women's leisure. Journal of Leisure Research42(3), 443-467.

Mangweth-Matzek, B., Hoek, H. W., Rupp, C. I., Lackner-Seifert, K., Frey, N., Whitworth, A. B., &... Kinzl, J. (2014). Prevalence of eating disorders in middle-aged womenInternational Journal of Eating Disorders47, 320-324.

McLaren, L., & Kuh, D. (2004). Body dissatisfaction in midlife women. Journal of Women & Aging16(1/2), 35-54.

Parry, D. C., & Shaw, S. M. (1999). The role of leisure in women's experiences of menopause and mid-lifeLeisure Sciences21(3), 205-218.

Author contact

Lisa Petty
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2A 3A1 
905-688-5550, ext. 5012

Return to concurrent session 3

Friends with benefits: The relationship between information science and studies of leisure

Angela Pollak, University of Alberta

The purpose of this presentation is to (re)acquaint attendees with the field of library and information science (LIS), which is a complementary discipline to leisure studies, particularly in the space of community engagement and knowledge mobilization. Presenting an historical accounting of the intersection points of the two disciplines, it emphasizes how building collaborative research and publishing relationships now might build a legacy of reciprocal benefit into the future.

Participants will be able to describe what LIS is in general terms; how it intersects with leisure research ideologically, theoretically, thematically, and methodologically; and critically consider, identify or create collaborative opportunities at the intersection of these two disciplines going forward.

In the broadest sense, LIS is concerned with studying how we acquire and use information across a range of contexts, including during leisure time (Savolainen, 2009). Although the disciplines of LIS and leisure studies are distinct in scope and nature, they nevertheless share a number of key attributes, chief among them a concern for co-creating inclusive communities and engagement opportunities that promote and optimize wellbeing. Despite these shared values and a variety of opportunities over the years, uptake on collaboration between these two disciplines has only recently begun to take hold.

Publications in leisure journals rarely refer to information research, focusing instead on information sources used in the context of leisure pursuits. A notable exception to this is Stebbins, who recently described the compatibility of the two disciplines (Stebbins, 2012). LIS researchers have not yet begun to publish in leisure journals. LIS publications on the other hand have seen some work by information researchers in the area of leisure, including ‘pleasure’ reading and beyond. Hartel pioneered a stronger research connection between the disciplines with a study of the information behaviours of hobbyist gourmet cooks (Hartel, 2007), noting that “it is well known that a majority of public library visits occur in the context of a leisure experience” (Hartel, 2008).

Subsequently, more study of leisure activities appeared including those about serial collecting (Case, 2009), photography (Cox, 2013), and backpacking (Chang, 2009). Subsequent to Gallant et al.’s call to move beyond leisure-as-activity (Gallant et al., 2013), Pollak examined leisure experiences in a rural community from an information perspective (Pollak, 2015). To date, Johnson & Smale, who examined the role of libraries in leisure delivery systems (Johnson & Smale, 1988), and Stebbins, who expanded on the compatibility of the two disciplines (Stebbins, 2009), are the only leisure researchers to publish in information studies journals.

According to Robert Stebbins, “the data generated in the [information science] approach has added and will continue to add significantly to our understanding of leisure activities” (Stebbins, 2012). Because of the potential for reciprocal benefit between both disciplines, leisure researchers are encouraged to capitalize on this relationship’s open door to consider their specialties from an information perspective, to forge new connections with LIS researchers, and to consider opportunities for publishing research of mutual interest in LIS journals.


Case, D. O. (2009). Serial collecting as leisure, and coin collecting in particular. Library Trends, 57(4), 729-752.

Chang, S. L. (2009). Information research in leisure: Implications from an empirical study of backpackers. Library Trends, 57(4), 711-728.

Cox, A. (2013). Information in social practice: A practice approach to understanding information activities in personal photography. Journal of Information Science, 39(1), 61-72.

Gallant, K., Arai, S. M., & Smale, B. (2013). Celebrating, challenging and re-envisioning serious leisure. Leisure/Loisir, 37(2), 91-109.

Hartel, J. K. (2007). Information activities, resources, and spaces in the hobby of gourmet cooking. (Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles).

Hartel, J. (2008). The serious leisure perspective: Implications for public libraries. Reference Renaissance Conference, Denver, CO. (conference presentation)

Johnson, R. A., & Smale, B. A. (1988). Libraries and the leisure delivery system. Canadian Library Journal, 45381-383.

Pollak, A. (2015). Words to Live By: How Experience Shapes Our Information World at Work, Play, and in Everyday Life. Ph.D. diss., University of Western Ontario,  accessed September 13, 2016).

Savolainen, R. (2008). Everyday information practices: A social phenomenological perspective.Lanham, Md: Scarecrow Press.

Stebbins, R. A. (2009). Leisure and its relationship to library and information science: Bridging the gap. Library Trends, 57(4), 618-631.

Stebbins, R. A. (2012). Reflections 30: Leisure's growing importance as a research area in library and information science. Leisure Reflections, 37.

Author contact

Angela Pollak
University of Alberta
School of Library and Information Studies
1-17C Rutherford South
Edmonton Alberta T6G 2J4

Return to concurrent session 9

Exploring sense of community in Canadian military communities: Investigating recreation and community services

Hilary Pollock, Brock University

To gain a better understanding on how recreation and community services enhance the sense of community and wellbeing for Canadian Armed Forces members and families.

There is an apparent gap in the literature on sense of community as it relates to recreation and community services across Canadian Forces (CF) communities. Much of the literature is taken from an American military context, which is difficult to adapt to the CF as the two military systems are very distinctive and different from each other. CF documents released by DND (2008; 2010; 2012) have all reported that very little research has been conducted on military families and with the changing context of the military, improvements to existing services needs to occur. Much of the research has also reported that the family needs to be included in research to better understand the demands that go along with being a military member, spouse, and child of a military member (Kohen, 1984; DND 2008; DND, 2010; DND, 2012; Shorcs & Scott, 2005).

The study will be conducted using quantitative research methods utilizing the Sense of Community Scale (SCS) (McMillan & Chavis 1986; Glynn, 1981; Kerwin et al., 2015). The SCS scale will be used to develop a questionnaire that will be distributed to all CF members and their spouses.

Since this is in the proposal stage of my thesis, the goal of my research is to gain a better understanding on how community services and recreation enhance sense of community and wellbeing in military communities. Further, it will also aim to provide recommendations on how to plan and improves programs, policies, and services offered by the CF that focus specifically on building SOC. This will further meet the mandate that military members and families are supported to ensure that the CF member is combat and mission ready (DND 2008; DND, 2010; DND, 2012).


Department of National Defence (2008). Family support in the Canadian forces: An overview of research conducted since 1990 (DRDC CORA TN 2008-24). Ottawa, ON, Canada. DRDC Centre for Operational Research and Analysis.

Department of National Defence (2010). Quality of life among military families: Results from 2008/09 survey of spouses (DGMPRA TM 2010-017). Ottawa, ON, Canada. Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis.

Department of National Defence (2012). Impact of military life and single Canadian armeforces members: Current state and knowledge and research gaps. (DGMPRA TM 2012-008). Ottawa, ON, Canada. Director General Military Personnel Research & Analysis.

Glynn, T.J. (1981). Psychological sense of community: Measurement and application. Human Relations, 34(7), 789-818.

Kerwin, S., Warner, S., Walker, M., & Stevens, J. (2015). Exploring sense of community among small-scale sport events volunteers. European Sport Quarterly, 15(1), 77-92.

Kohen, J. A. (1984). The military career is a family affair. Journal of Family Issues, 5(3), 401-418.

McMillan, D.W., & Chavis, D.M.  (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6-23.

Shorcs, K. A., & Scott, D. (2005). Leisure constraints among military wives. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 23(3), 1-24.

Author contact

Hilary Pollock
322 Pelham Rd
St. Catharines ON  L2S 1Y3

Return to concurrent session 3

A different view on theory and creating awareness

Jackie Prada, University of Waterloo

The purpose of this presentation is to explore the use of theories of disability as related to critical theory ideas. This presentation proposes that a more diverse theory of inclusive leisure would have the potential to dramatically improve social opportunities for people with disabilities. Presented from the perspective of a researcher with a disability provides a unique orientation and starting point for this exploration.

There is limited agreement on theory in disability research, partially due to the complexity of the surrounding issues relevant to the study of disability and its relationship to daily life. People with impairments and disabilities are often times compared to others. The comparison to 'other' explains how disability is understood in the social world.  The social model of disability is presented as key to understanding the issue of disability, as it refers to the balancing of identity when relating to others, with a central focus on the internalized nature of human interaction and experience. Disability studies is looking for an alternative to the better known social and medical theories. Barnes (2003) suggested that,

For disabled people this alternative must be a society in which all human beings regardless of impairment and other aspects of status and background can coexist as equal members of the community, secure in the knowledge that their needs will be accommodated in full and that their views will be recognised, respected and valued. It will be a very different society from the one in which we now live. It will be a society that is truly democratic, characterised by genuine and meaningful equal opportunities and outcomes with enhanced choice and freedom, and with a proper regard for environmental and social interdependence and continuity (p.8).

Leisure has two powerful perspectives for approaching disability research.  On the one side, we are able to see the exclusionary nature of leisure mirroring existing exclusion within society. On the other we can view the ways in which leisure, as a cultural site and process, inclusion and social justice can be pursued. Disability theory is simply finding anything that could be considered not "normal" about impairment and the dependence that may come with it, while also exploring how allowing individuals the freedom to explore independence in different ways, without judgement, can help them reach their full potential.

Issues related to disability theory have both practical and scholarly relevance some mentioned above the following should provide a clear idea of a direction theory could lead to academically. Paulo Freire’s conscientisation method did not only inform him of the meaningful words and concepts of the groups he studied, it also developed literary skills in his subjects and engendered a critical awareness of their social situation.  The idea of conscientisation could be useful to the experience of disability in terms of creating complete awareness of its complexity and how it affects individuals. This would be part of creating an openness that would improve inclusion in different contexts and continue towards disability not being seen a problem.


Aitchison, C. (2009). Exclusive discourses: Leisure studies and disability. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 375-386.

Aitchison, C. (2003). From leisure and disability to disability leisure: Developing data, definitions and discourses. Disability & Society, 18(7), 955-969.

Barnes, C. (2005). Independent living, politics, and policy in the United Kingdom: A social model account. Review of Disability Studies, 1(4).

Crotty, M. (1998). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. (CR)

Whatley, S. (2007). Dance and disability: the dancer, the viewer and the presumption of difference. Research in Dance Education, 8(1), 5-25.

Author contact

Jackie Prada
University of Waterloo

Return to concurrent session 8

Engaging community recreation and sport professionals:  Inclusive recreational sports or exclusive?

Laurene Rehman, Dalhousie University
Shea Balish, Dalhousie University
Mark Bruner, Nipissing University
Melanie Keats, Dalhousie University
Chris Shields, Acadia University

Lifelong participation in recreational sport has been identified as one way of promoting the health benefits associated with physical activity.  This can be considered an “engaging legacy”. Yet, is recreational sport participation truly inclusive?  Research continues to highlight that boys and younger children have higher rates than girls and older youth (Slater & Tiggemann, 2011).  The purpose of this presentation is to explore the recreational sport experiences of one potentially at risk group of youth, those who are overweight.  A mixed methods study was conducted consisting of two phases.  The focus of this paper is on phase two which included semi-structured interviews with youth and their parents (n=24) and youth sport coaches (n=8).  Interviews lasted from 45 to 60 minutes and sought to understand supports and challenges to overweight youth sport participation.  Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using thematic analysis (Bryman, 2012). The primary researcher and two research assistants developed an initial coding structure through re-reading the transcripts which evolved from a process of words and phrases to patterns and finally themes. The thematic analysis revealed three main themes.  These included: youth sports as a context for personal development, the pressure to win, and weightism or athleticism.  Many of the youth and their parents/guardians in the study as well as coaches spoke to the personal developments that could be obtained from participating in a team recreational sport setting.  These included developing independence, self-esteem, wider social networks, team identity, and more physical activity. However, the coaches also identified that the expectation youth would develop such skills was sometimes not realized. Another key theme involved the pressure to win.  Many of the youth, parents, and coaches noted pressures existing within the sport environment to be successful.  For example, the youth placed pressures on themselves, parents pressured coaches, and the coaches felt pressure to succeed.  When athletes and coaches experienced a “win”, they got to enjoy the euphoria that went with it; however, these emotions came at a cost.  The third main theme involved a hidden stigma about weightism and athleticism.  Parents, players, and coaches noted a number of aspects that led to players being identified as “athletes” or not. Several players noted that there was a perception that overweight youth could not be athletes.  As well, small or tight uniforms meant that bodies of varying sizes and shapes stood out as different. With the increasing obesity epidemic, enhanced attention has been directed towards the role of physical activity and sport (Bean, Fortier, Post, & Chima, 2014). Leisure researchers and practitioners need to consider the role of leisure time physical activity with respect to its role in addressing childhood obesity (Public Health Agency of Canada, 2011).  Previous researchers have identified the need to explore youth, especially overweight youth’s experiences (Lee, Pope, & Gao, 2016). The current study found youth recreational sport can contribute both positively but also negatively.  Youth, parents, and coaches identified a need for greater recognition of this complex relationship as well as a need for more inclusivity training.


Bean, C.N., Fortier, M., Post, C., & Chima, K.  (2014). Understanding how organized youth sport may be harming individual players within the family unit:  A literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(10), 10226-10268. 

Bryman, A.  (2012). Social research methods.  Oxford University Press: Don Mills, ON. 

Lee, J.E., Pope, Z., Gao, Z.  (2016). The role of youth sports in promoting children’s physical activity and preventing pediatric obesity.  A systematic review.  Behavioural Medicine, 23, 1-15. 

Slater, A., Tiggemann, M.  (2011). Gender differences in adult sport participation, teasing, self-objectification, and body image concerns.  Journal of Adolescence, 34455-463.

Author contact

Laurene Rehman
School of Health and Human Performance
PO Box 15000, Dalhousie University
Halifax NS  B3H 4R2

Return to concurrent session 2

Contextualizing rural community recreation: Insights from Powassan, Ontario

Kyle Rich, Brock University
Dr. Laura Misener, Western University
Municipality of Powassan Recreation Committee

Recreational pursuits are implicated in the development of several social outcomes such as (various forms of) social capital (Glover, 2006), a sense of community (Arai & Pedlar, 2003), and the social inclusion of marginalized groups (Frisby & Millar, 2002). However, the ways that these social outcomes are fostered in communities are complex and often result in varying experiences for diverse community members. In rural Canadian communities, factors such as metro-adjacency/remoteness, engagement and stability of global/local economies, and levels of capacity shape diverse community contexts (Reimer, 2002) which, in turn, influence the way recreation is managed, delivered, experienced, and understood.

In this paper, we explore rural community members’ understandings of recreation in/and/for their community. Specifically, we unpack some of the contextual factors of one rural community and examine the ways that these factors influenced community members’ engagement with recreation and consequently, their perceptions of the community. Thus, our objectives are as follows: (1) to explore community members’ understandings of the relationship between recreation and their community, and (2) to discuss the ways that contextual factors influenced this relationship.

This research was conducted through a participatory action research project with the Municipality of Powassan Recreation Committee. Data collection for this paper involved semi-structured interviews with 35 community members as well as participant observation (recorded through reflective journaling) in community recreation activities, management, and policy making. These data were then analyzed, first using thematic analysis by the first author, and second through a community forum where community members were able to see the data and provide further comments, discussions, and reflections.

Two contextual factors were prominent in the data: metro-adjacency and community capacity.

While participants noted that resources available in a (nearby) larger centre often motivated people to access other/more convenient recreation options outside of the community, they also noted that the recreational pursuits available in the community fostered a sense of pride as a small town and an awareness of the resources (e.g., open space, affordable programming) that were offered within the community.

(Un)successful recreational pursuits were often attributed to a passionate group of dedicated volunteers (or lack thereof) willing to contribute their time and resources. In instances where recreation was delivered by paid staff, difficulties finding qualified local applicants who were able to deliver programs/activities became apparent. Conversely, an abundance of municipal facilities provided opportunities to create and support partnerships with individuals and groups to offer diverse recreational activities.

In summary, recreation appeared to be implicated in highlighting both community assets as well as shortcomings or perceived deficits. By examining the relationships between specific contextual factors, engagement in community recreation, and perceptions of the community more broadly, we are able to more clearly articulate the processes of recreation delivery and potential community level outcomes in Powassan. Future research may consider specific contextual factors, particularly in rural communities, as a means of interrogating diverse social outcomes of recreation programming.


Arai, S. & Pedlar, A. (2003). Moving beyond individualism in leisure theory: a critical analysis of concepts of community and social engagement. Leisure Studies, 22(3), 185–202.

Frisby, W. & Millar, S. (2002). The actualities of doing community development to promote the inclusion of low income populations in local sport and recreation. European Sport Management Quarterly, 2(3), 209-233.

Glover, T. D. (2006) Towards a critical examination of social capital within leisure contexts: From production and maintenance to distribution, Leisure/Loisir, 30(2), 357-367.

Reimer, B. (2002). A Sample Frame for Rural Canada: Design and Evaluation. Regional Studies, 36(8), 845-859.

Author contact

Kyle Rich
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2A 3A1

Return to concurrent session 9

Developing a legacy of friendship for people with and without disabilities through multi-year camp experiences

Laurel P. Richmond, California State University
Julie Potter, California State University

When we see two people together, one with a visible disability and one without, it is possible to assume that the nature of their relationship is that of caretaker and dependent. Yet, is it possible that these two people are simply friends, who are choosing to spend time with one another, even if one friend might require assistance with certain physical or mental tasks?  A disability does not preclude someone from needing, desiring, or deserving affection. Belonging and acceptance is a basic human desire, regardless of a person’s ability. Friendship is a meaningful and highly significant human leisure activity (Caroline, 1993). The ways in which conditions shape the recreation experience for people with and without disabilities must be explored in an effort to learn more about how friendships develop (Devine & O’Brien, 2007). This research study focused on an inclusive camp based in Lincoln, Vermont called Zeno Mountain Farm (ZMF).  ZMF began in 2008 with the goal of developing extensive friendships between people of diverse abilities.

The purpose of this study was to explore and describe friendships between people with and without disabilities and to learn more about how friendship is fostered at ZMF. Using phenomenological methods to collect and analyze the data, 8 active camp members who had been with ZMF from 4 to 11 years were interviewed about their experiences.  Since friendship matures and occurs over time it is important to speak to individuals who have been consistent with their connections. This study produced a textural and structural description of how friendships were fostered by ZMF.

Results indicated that the culture of ZMF is one of the most important aspects in developing and maintaining friendships between people with and without disabilities.  Following phenomenological methods, the data was organized into textural, structural, and composite results (Moustakas, 1994). In this case, they were characterized by the themes of reciprocity, opportunity, and belonging.  In this presentation, we discuss the structural theme of belonging. The participants’ description of how ZMF worked to create an intentional community and the ways in which friendship development was purposely supported is most impactful for practical implications. By seeing the whole person, not just the disability, ZMF moved past simple inclusion to true comprehensive belonging. 

Friendships form between people regardless of physical or mental capacities and these friendships are of great value to the mental health of all involved (Caroline, 1993). ZMF has successfully cultivated a culture of freedom, support, and inclusiveness for people with and without disabilities by creating intentional space for friendships to grow. Fostering lifelong friendships between people with and without disabilities creates real social change for future generations. People with disabilities must be involved in communities where citizenship, empowerment, full participation, individual and community capacity building, and relationships are present (Hutchinson, 2006). The lessons learned by this study have greater application across recreation settings.


Caroline, A. H. (1993). Explorations of close friendship: A concept analysis. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing,7(4), 236-243.

Devine, M., & M. O’Brien. (2007). The mixed bag of inclusion: An examination of an inclusive camp using contact theory. Therapeutic Recreation Journal 41(3), 201-22.

Hutchison, P. (2006). Leisure and disability. In R. McCarville, & J. MacIntosh (Eds.), Leisure for Canadians (pp. 185-193). State College, PA: Venture Press.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Author contact

Laurel Richmond
California State University, Long Beach
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
1250 Bellflower Blvd.
Long Beach, CA 90840

Return to concurrent session 5

Sources of resistance to organizational change in youth hockey

Spencer Riehl, University of Windsor
Ryan Snelgrove, University of Waterloo

Youth sport is an experience widely accepted as a beneficial part of a child’s life as it provides an opportunity for participants to engage in physical activity, develop identities, have fun, and create and enhance friendships, among other benefits (Torres & Hager, 2007).  However, youth sport programs have been critiqued as focusing too heavily on winning, competition, and the production of elite level athletes (Campbell & Parcels, 2013; Hyman, 2009). Recently, some sport organizations have modified their offerings in an effort to ensure that all youth participants are focused on fun and skill development by reducing the emphasis on winning (e.g., Ontario Soccer Association). However, hockey in Canada has been slow to make similar changes, despite the perceived need to do so to address declining participation rates (First Shift, 2016).

One specific opportunity available to minor hockey associations in Ontario is the use of modified ice surfaces, consisting of cross-ice segments that allow for smaller playing areas, require fewer players, and consequently allow for more touches of the puck by everyone. A recent trend in youth hockey, cross-ice play is not a mandatory initiative, but rather a subset of Hockey Canada’s “Initiation Program,” being adopted sporadically by both provincial and regional hockey associations throughout Canada. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to develop an understanding of the social processes that influence stakeholders’ acceptance or resistance to this potential change to minor hockey in Ontario, Canada.

This study draws on institutional theory with a focus on the factors that work to sustain institutionalized practices (e.g., isomorphism, institutional work) and the sources of deinstitutionalization (e.g., functional, social, political pressures). Data will be collected from stakeholders in minor hockey in Ontario. Specifically, regional association executives (e.g., Ontario Minor Hockey Association), and board members and coaches of two hockey clubs (e.g., Windsor Minor Hockey) will be interviewed using a semi-structured approach. Data will be analyzed in a three-step coding process (initial, focused, theoretical; Charmaz, 2006).

We anticipate that findings will contribute to the literature on organizational change by addressing sources of resistance to change. This area of focus has received limited attention in studies of organizational change in sport and leisure as the majority of work has retrospectively studied implemented change initiatives. Practically, this study will help organizations understand processes that shape resistance to change and help those individuals seeking to make sport more inclusive for a greater number of youth by modifying existing programs and policies.


Campbell, K., & Parcels, J. (2013). Selling the dream: How hockey parents and their kids are paying the price for our national obsession. Penguin: Toronto, ON.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London, UK: Sage Publications.

Cunningham, G. B. (2002). Removing the blinders: Toward an integrative model of organizational change in sport and physical activity. Quest, 54, 276–291.

Hyman, M. (2009). Until it hurts: America’s obsession with youth sports and how it harms our kids. Beacon Press: Boston, MA.

Legg, J., Snelgrove, R., & Wood, L. (2016). Modifying tradition: Understanding organizational change in youth sport. Journal of Sport Management, 30, 369-381.

The First Shift (2016). The First Shift: Helping kids fall in love with hockey

Torres, C. R. & Hager, P. F. (2007). De-emphasizing competition in organized youth sport: Misdirected reforms and misled children. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport, 34, 194- 210.

Author contact

Ryan Snelgrove
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 2

Evaluating CSR within a local sport context through consumer attitudesand behaviour

Kristen Rogalsky, University of Waterloo
Katie Misener, University of Waterloo

Organizations are adopting new socially oriented initiatives in order to differentiate themselves from competing organizations and to improve their reputations within their communities (Porter & Kramer, 2006; Campbell, 2007). These initiatives are often grouped under the umbrella of corporate social responsibility (CSR), which refers to an organization’s ethical and philanthropic activities that go beyond the organization’s mandate and legal requirements (Carroll, 1999). Benefits of CSR include increased image, consumer loyalty, financial savings, and marketability (Porter & Kramer, 2006; Campbell, 2007). Given the benefits that CSR may provide, organizations are committing a significant amount of both human and financial resources to developing CSR programs (Lacey, Kenett-Hensel, & Manolis, 2015). 

This holds true for many leisure-oriented organizations and particularly those in the sport context, where CSR programs have become more prevalent. This highlights the important role of sport organizations in their communities beyond sport provision and skill development (Babiak, Heinze, & Wolfe, 2016). Indeed, sport offers a unique environment for the implementation and evaluation of CSR due to its mass media distribution, youth appeal, social interaction, and the “star appeal” of athletes (Smith & Westerbeek, 2007; Walker & Kent, 2009). These factors encourage fans to identify with their team and cultivate positive fan attitudes towards CSR, which may influence consumers’ behaviour in the ways that they spend their leisure time and income related to game attendance, purchasing, and media consumption (Foxall & Yani-de-Soriano, 2005).

The current study draws on Walker and Heere’s (2011) Consumer Attitudes towards Responsible Entities in Sport (CARES) scale, which measured two dimensions: (1) cognitive awareness of CSR (i.e., whether people know about an organization’s CSR activities) and (2) affect toward CSR initiatives (i.e., how do people feel about an organization’s CSR activities). Their findings supported the two-dimensional structure, suggesting that both awareness and positive perceptions of CSR are needed to elicit behavioural responses (Walker & Heere, 2011).

Our study extends Walker and Heere’s (2011) work by examining the relationships of the two dimensions of CSR perceptions and patronage behaviours in a local, non-professional sport context. Further, the role of team identification as a potential mediator is tested. Fans (N=209) of one Major Junior Hockey team in Ontario, Canada were surveyed during one of three of the team’s home games. Results showed that higher levels of awareness of CSR initiatives were associated with higher levels of team identification and media consumption. The results also showed that higher levels of affective evaluation of CSR initiatives were positively associated with higher levels of team identification, repeat purchase, merchandise consumption, and word of mouth.

The results are expected to make a two-fold contribution by enhancing understanding of (1) the influence of CSR perceptions on consumer behaviour and (2) the effect of team identification in Major Junior Hockey. The presentation will include a discussion of the implications for sport or leisure organizations that wish to leverage CSR initiatives to influence fan support and purchasing. 


Babiak, K., Heinze, K., & Wolfe, R. (2016). Building theoretical foundations for strategic CSR in sport. In G. Cunningham, J. Fink, & A. Doherty (Eds.), Routledge Handbook of Theory in Sport Management (pp. 47-56). New York: Routledge.

Campbell, J. (2007). Why would corporations behave in socially responsible ways? An institutional theory of social responsibility. Academy of Management Review, 32, 946-967.

 Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business & Society, 38, 268–295.

Foxall, G. R., & Yani-de-Soriano, M. M. (2005). Situational influences on consumers’ attitudes and behavior. Journal of Business Research, 58(4), 518–525.

Lacey, R., Kennett-Hensel, P., & Manolis, C. (2015). Is corporate social responsibility a motivator or hygiene factor? Insights into its bivalent nature. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(3), 315-332.

Porter, M., & Kramer, M. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, December, 1–14.

Smith, A.C.T., & Westerbeek, H.M. (2007). Sport as a vehicle for deploying social responsibility. Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 25, 43–54.

Walker, M., & Heere, B. (2011). Consumer attitudes toward responsible entities in sport (CARES): Scale development and model testing. Spot Management Review, 14, 153-166.

Walker, M., & Kent, A. (2009). Assessing the influence of corporate social responsibility on consumer attitudes in the sport industry. Journal of Sport Management, 23(6), 743–769

Author contact

Kristen Rogalsky
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 1

Self, others and place: Insights into the meaning of being for immigrant artists

Mahsa Rouzrokh, George Brown College
Heather Mair, University of Waterloo

In 2013, 232 million people or 3.2 per cent of the world's population lived outside their country of origin (United Nation’s Population Fund [UNPF], 2015). According to the UNPF, the majority of migrants venture into new lands to chase their dreams or to escape oppression, war, poverty, or misfortune. Regardless of their reasons for leaving their countries of origin, immigrants face profound shifts and transformations in their being. Diverse aspects of a humanly being are developed through interactions of mind and body with the physical environment, relationships with others, and practicing and cherishing cultural values and beliefs. These constructed parts of our being then provide the pathways for perceiving, believing, evaluating, communicating, and acting in this world. Physical surroundings or space, and others or encounters, are dramatically influenced by migration. These domains affect the way immigrants make sense of their self and ultimately their being in a new home. This study utilizes Merleau-Ponty’s phenomenological explanations of being in relation to self, others, and space in order to create insights into the experience of migration for seven immigrant artists settling in Greater Toronto Area. The analysis reveals that after migration, participants experienced shifts in the ways they made sense of their being. The transformed being was expressed through a sense of living with two selves, the sorrow of separation from family and relatives, encounters with other individuals who have migrated, new relationships, and navigating through the unfamiliar space. This study also exposes the role art plays in making sense of being in a new setting for these immigrants. Art making not only helped the participants accept the changes, but it also enabled them to explore their metamorphosed self and being in and through new art styles.


United Nation Population Fund [UNPF]. (2015). Migration

Author contact

Mahsa Rouzrokh, PhD
George Brown College
School of Hospitality and Tourism Management
300 Adelaide St. East, Room 318
Toronto ON  M5A 1N1
416-415-5000, ext. 3718 

Return to concurrent session 8

Cashing in on conservation: Capitalism’s legacy in Canadian parks

Sean Ryan, University of Alberta
Maxwell Harrison, University of Alberta

Environmental non-government organizations (ENGOs) originally advocated against capitalist development in parks, seeing it as inimical to conservation. The situation today has, in a sense, reversed. Using a Marxist framework, we chart the effects that the Post-Fordist accumulation regime (Fletcher & Neves, 2012) is having. We have detailed the most recent regime’s (Financialisation) implications for parks (Ryan & Harrison, in press), and here seek to understand the regime prior to Financialisation. In Post-Fordism, new tactics for the accumulation of capital seek to overcome capitalism’s internal contradiction (Harvey, 2010, 2014): extracting infinite profits from finite resources. Büscher and Fletcher (2015) term this accumulation by conservation (AbC). These and others (e.g., Arsel & Büscher, 2012; Castree, 2008; Smith, 2007; West & Brockington, 2012) posit a new era of capital expansion that uses conservation to generate profits. This presentation is based on 20 Canadian ENGO websites (ranging from large ones like Ducks Unlimited to smaller ones like Ontario Nature). Although not exhaustive of all Canadian ENGOs, thousands of blogs, media stories, and press-releases over the past 5 years were examined looking for instances of Post-Fordist tactics in parks. Ours is the first analysis of Canadian parks in terms of Post-Fordism and ENGOs. ENGOs reflect the prevailing view of conservation-minded citizens and thus offer an important look at capitalism’s legacy in parks. One might expect them to oppose capitalist ventures in parks as they have historically done, but nearly all ENGOs studied advocated for the AbC strategy that increases capitalist activity. Two specific tactics will illustrate this. First, ENGOs regularly monetized nature in their argument for further protection. Examples include the WWF arguing in 2015 that rejecting $1 billion in compensation to build a liquefied natural gas terminal made sense in terms of the salmon economy, environmental wealth, and long-term economic health of the region; Ontario Nature in 2012 criticizing the provincial government for cutting funding to conversation because “Investing in the environment creates economic wealth”; and Nature Canada admitting in 2014 that it was easy to persuade the public of the economics of nature, but not its intrinsic value: nature matters when put in dollars. Even CPAWS in 2014 posted a blog titled, ‘The business case for nature is strong.’ Second, industry partnerships are celebrated. Beer, batteries, electronics, financial, apparel, cosmetics, paper, insurance, energy, oil and gas, and telecommunications companies have all partnered with ENGOs to protect our environment. ENGOs and companies are using ‘we save nature’ to make profits. That the ENGOs endorse it but make comparatively little money demonstrates its persuasiveness. AbC is a strategy developed by capitalism to overcome barriers to profit, with protection of nature merely the vehicle to do this. That conservation focused NGOs have now adopted it suggests that capitalism has so colonized our consciousness that it appears to be our only option. The danger of using capitalism to fix the very problems it has created (e.g., wetland loss and ecosystem degradation) seems lost on many of us today.


Arsel, M. & Büscher, B. (2012). Nature™Inc.: changes and continuities in neoliberal conservation and market-based environmental policy. Development and Change, 43, 53-78.

Büscher, B. & Fletcher, R. (2015). Accumulation by conservation. New Political Economy, 20, 273-298.

Castree, N. (2008). Neoliberalising nature: processes, effects, and evaluations. Environment and Planning A, 40, 153-173.

Fletcher, R. & Neves, K. (2012). Contradictions in tourism: the promise and pitfalls of ecotourism as a manifold capitalist fix. Environment and Society: Advances in Research, 3, 60-77.

Harvey, D. (2014). Seventeen contradictions and the end of capitalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Harvey, D. (2010). The enigma of capital and the crises of capitalism. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Ryan, S. & Harrison, M. (in press). Fictitious conservation in Canada’s parks and protected areas. Leisure/Loisir.

Smith, N. (2007). Nature as accumulation strategy. Socialist Register, 43, 16-36.

West, P. & Brockington, D. (2012). Capitalism and the environment. Environment and Society: Advances in Research, 3, 1-3.

Author contact

Sean Ryan
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
3-440 Van Vliet Complex
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 9

Rediscovering the adult play group

David Scott, Texas A&M University

Over the last 50 years, the study of recurring groups of adults involved in common leisure activity is scant. Adult play groups are important to participants, and studying them furthers our understanding of the social basis for intragroup solidarity, the formation of social capital, and the community-building potential of leisure. I begin by arguing that participation in leisure activities contributes to the emergence of play groups.  Borrowing from Huizinga (1950), play spurs participants to establish bonds around the activity. Being part of something compelling or exceptional may well be the spark that draws people together and sustains them over time. Additionally, Huizinga (1950) noted that a key a characteristic of play is that it creates order.  He stated “Into an imperfect world and into the confusion of life it brings a temporary, a limited perfection” (p. 10). While there is little doubt that leisure participation helps individuals escape from difficult circumstances, what is often overlooked is how the healing properties of leisure are experienced and nurtured collectively. I argue that group members strive collectively to facilitate order by creating boundaries that set themselves apart from others. Next I argue that play groups vary in the extent to which friendships are integral to their long-term functioning (Scott & Godbey, 1992). Some play groups are organized around friendship ties; other play groups are structured to facilitate participation in activities at an advanced level. My objective here is to compare the cultures underlying what I call social and serious play groups. I will then discuss how play groups influence participants’ frequency of involvement in leisure activities (Scott, 1991). Unlike solo leisure, participants in group leisure must synchronize their schedules to play. I argue that sustained participation in leisure is accomplished by organizing and belonging to groups that meet at recurring intervals. I also argue that members of play groups operate as gatekeepers and have a controlling impact on non-members’ participation. Finally, I argue that play groups provide participants an important context for resisting dominant ideologies and discourses (Roster, 2007). Following the lead of feminist scholars, I argue that play groups provide women (and others) an important space for deconstructing hegemonic gender roles. Women’s play groups provide members role models and social support to challenge coercing and entrenched gender ideologies and empower them to move beyond them.


Huizinga, J. (1955). Homo ludens: A study of the play element in culture. Boston: Beacon Press.

Roster, C. A. (2007). “Girl power” and participation in macho recreation: The case of female Harley riders. Leisure Sciences, 29, 443-461.

Scott, D. (1991). The problematic nature of participation in contract bridge: A qualitative study of group-related constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13, 321-336.

Scott, D., &  Godbey, G. C. (1992). An analysis of adult play groups: Social versus serious participation in contract bridge. Leisure Sciences, 14, 47-67.

Author contact

David Scott
Texas A&M University
2261 TAMU
600 John Kimbrough Blvd
College Station, TX USA 77843-2261

Return to concurrent session 7

#Family: Exploring why individuals share photos and stories about family leisure on Facebook and Instagram

Charlene Shannon-McCallum, University of New Brunswick

The focus of this study was on exploring the concept of “display” in family leisure. Display is “the process by which individuals, and groups of individuals, convey to each other and to relevant others that certain of their actions do constitute ‘doing family things’ and thereby confirm that these relationships are ‘family’ relationships” (Finch, 2007, p. 67). Photos and stories have been identified as tools of display. Social Networking Sites (SNS) offer a modern tool for sharing photos and narratives and for constructing identity (e.g., as family) and convey it to others (Winston, 2013). The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons why individuals share photos and stories of family leisure experiences through Facebook and Instagram.  This study was part of a larger research project guided on the lived experience of family leisure and the process of capturing and sharing those experiences with others. Phenomenology (van Manen, 1997) guided this study and purposive sampling was used. The study involved 15 participants (13 women, 2 men) ranging in age from 28 to 51. Ten participants had partners and 8 had children. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and a photo elicitation technique (Harper, 2002) was used. Participants were asked to review with the research images and/or narratives of family leisure experiences that they have posted either to Facebook or Instagram and were asked to discuss their reasons for and experiences with sharing these via SNS. Interviews were audio-recorded and snapshots (Davies, 2008) were taken of the digital images that participants shared. Sententious and detailed approaches to analysis were used (van Manen, 1997). Two participants identified photos or narratives that included only their two-parent nuclear family as those representing family leisure. All others discussed posts that included extended family, close friends, and members of groups to which they belonged (e.g., running club described and/or labelled as #family). Each participant had different reasons for sharing particular photos or stories about family leisure and reasons were linked to the intended audience (e.g., family, particular friendship group, all friends or followers). While all participants explained using SNS to share family leisure experiences because of the convenience of archiving and sharing these experiences with others, data analysis resulted in four themes being developed that offered additional reasons for sharing family leisure on SNS: We are family – defining and redefining family and family relationships; We are this kind of family – emphasizing family values and norms or those which an individual hoped to instill; We belong – demonstrating and reinforcing the individual and his/her family, regardless of its composition,  participated alongside other families in community activities or other common family leisure activities; Keeping it real – resisting the notion that family leisure means everyone is happy, having fun, deepening their bond, or engaging in meaningful activities. Discussion will focus on the relationship between SNS and family leisure, how the findings enhance understanding of family leisure beyond traditional two-parent family forms, and how the concept of display may be further applied in family leisure research.


Davies, K. (2008) Informed consent in visual research. Seeking consent for the use of images obtained in photo elicitation: Reflections from the Living Resemblances project. Real Life Methods. Retrieved July 12, 2016.

Finch, J. (2007). Displaying families. Sociology, 41(1), 65-81.

Harper, D. (2002). Talking about pictures: A case for photo elicitation. Visual Studies, 17(1), 13-26.

van Manen, M. (1997). From meaning to method. Qualitative Health Research, 7(3), 345-369.

Winston, J. (2013). Photography in the age of Facebook. Intersect: The Stanford Journal of Science, Technology and Society, 6(2). 

Author contact

Charlene Shannon-McCallum
University of New Brunswick
PO Box 4400
Fredericton NB  E3A 5A3 

Return to concurrent session 4

Identity and emotion in young people’s digital sport and leisure stories: Taking it all back to class

Erin Sharpe, Brock University
Brett Lashua, Leeds Beckett University
Cathy van Ingen, Brock University

Although social class has been described as “always there…all pervasive” (Dorling, 2014, p. 454), scholars have noted that there is a surprising lack of research on social class. Evans and Davies (2008, p. 200) suggested it is a “forbidden research area” in the realm of sport and leisure studies, although some recent research indicates a rejuvenation of scholarly interest (DeLuca, 2013, 2016; Flynn, 2010; Stuij, 2015). An interest in the relationship between sport and leisure and social class has been at the foundation of our current research project, which focuses on the ways that young people draw on sport and leisure in their negotiations of identity and belonging while living in a neighborhood that has been ‘classed’ in problematic ways. For two years, we have conducted ethnographic fieldwork with young people living in two neighbourhoods that, because of the visible presence of social housing, have been marked with a ‘blemish of place’ (Wacquant, 2007). This year we involved 24 different young residents in the production of 38 digital stories about sport, physical activity, and/or neighbourhood. Digital storytelling is a genre of short (3-5 min) audio-visual personal narrative stories consisting of still pictures or video, audio narration, and music/sound. They are traditionally created in a workshop context taking place over three to four days that includes a story circle, script writing, technical instruction and production, and a celebratory screening (Vivienne & Burgess, 2013). We followed this workshop format, adding the parameters that the story young people produced had to be a personal narrative (a story that involved them) that somehow tied to sport or physical activity; however they could position themselves in relation to the topic however they wished.

Digital storytelling is promoted as an opportunity for young people to be agentic authors – to tell their story, rather than being the people whose story is told for them (Erstad & Silseth, 2008), and we agree with this assertion. However, we also find another value in digital stories: because they convey both narrative and emotion, they offer a way to trace the broader power relations that structure young people’s encounters with/in sport and leisure. Like Ahmed (2004), we theorize emotion as a starting point for understanding the process through which we construct the Other. Probyn (2005) uses Bourdieu’s concept of habitus to show how affective responses provide clues as to how bodily, social, and spatial boundaries are being reproduced. Emotional responses such as pride can indicate successful accomplishment of hegemonic norms, whereas visceral responses of guilt or shame may suggest some form of transgression or failed performance of normative expectations. Our analysis of the digital stories draws on these theorizations to identify how engagements with/in organized sport and leisure involved a confrontation and negotiation of White middle-class values, and how class operated to shape and inform decisions to participate (or not) in sport and leisure. Overall, we aim to invigorate the dialogue in leisure studies on social class in ways that move beyond simplistic, and classist, explanations of sport and leisure involvement.      


Ahmed, S. (2004) The Cultural Politics of Emotion. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

DeLuca, J. (2013). Submersed in Social Segregation: The (Re)Production of Social Capital Through Swim Club Membership. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 37(4), 340–363.

DeLuca, J. (2016). ‘Like a “fish in water”’: Swim club membership and the construction of the upper-middle-class family habitus. Leisure Studies, 35(3), 259–277.

Dorling, D. (2014). Thinking about Class. Sociology, 48(3) 452– 462.

Erstad, O. & Silseth, K. (2008). Agency in digital storytelling: Challenging the educational context. In K. Lundby (Ed.), Digital Storytelling, Mediatized Stories: Self-Representations in New Media (pp. 213-232). New York: Peter Lang Publishing.

Evans, J., & Davies, B. (2008). The poverty of theory: Class configurations in the discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH). Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(2), 199–213.

Flynn, G. (2010). The business of ‘bettering’ students lives: Physical and health education and the production of social class subjectivities. Sport, Education and Society, 15(4), 431-445.

Probyn, E. (2005) Blush: Faces of Shame. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Stuij, M. (2015). Habitus and social class: A case study on socialisation into sports and exercise. Sport, Education, and Society, 20(6), 780-798.

Wacquant, L. (2007). Territorial stigmatization in the age of advanced marginality. Thesis Eleven, 91, 66–77.

Vivienne, S. & Burgess, J. (2013). The remediation of the personal photograph and the politics of self-representation in digital storytelling. Journal of Material Culture, 18(3), 279– 298.

Author contact

Erin Sharpe
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Brock University
1812 Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 1

Testing our unclipped wings: The politics and personal insights of contemporary qualitative research methods

Sally Shaw, University of Otago
Larena Hoeber, University of Regina

In 2016, Shaw and Hoeber called for innovative and critical approaches to developing qualitative research in sport and leisure management. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight and illustrate some of the personal and political practicalities and challenges of undertaking such research. In particular, we focus on Shaw and Hoeber’s ‘ways forward’ and investigate their aspirational claims. These are changes to: research supervision; editorial decision making; teaching; and research. This presentation will be designed to promote and inspire discussion rather than a traditional presentation format.

In their discussion of research supervision, Shaw and Hoeber (2016) value the potential for qualitative research to raise and articulate consciousness from frequently marginalised groups. They caution, though, that ‘raising consciousness’ can include a strong agenda from the researcher regarding change or improvements for that group. Examples of this can be found in post-colonial critiques of some sport-for-development research, which may tread a fine line between support for development and neo-colonialism. We discuss the need to carefully moderate graduate students’ enthusiasm for change alongside a reflective and respectful approach with participants.

Journal editorial boards often comprise experienced academics alongside novice reviewers. This combination, while providing mentorship, can also lead to gaps in methodological knowledge as some senior academics may be unaware of new contemporary methods and novice reviewers may be unwilling to challenge the status quo, or continue to be schooled in traditional methodological approaches. While experts in quantitative methods may be invited to join editorial boards, it is rare (we believe) for qualitative specialists to be approached for their methodological skills. We encourage editors to reflect on their appointments. We also discuss the use of online and real-time workshops to encourage and support reviewers who may be faced with methodologies that they are not familiar with. Such interactions could be invaluable to the development and sustainability of increasing levels of awareness and acceptance of contemporary methods.

Shaw and Hoeber (2016) also argued that teaching these methods to undergraduate and graduate students is crucial for promoting their use in the recreation and sport management field. In this presentation, we share some of our examples, successes and failures in teaching contemporary methods. Some of the issues we have experienced include building our own awareness and knowledge of contemporary methods, student engagement, perceived legitimacy of these methods, working alongside colleagues who may be distrustful of qualitative methods, and dealing with results that may challenge our students’ concepts of sport and leisure.

Finally, we reflect on our own research and some of the challenges and opportunities that we have faced as we have tried to use and champion contemporary qualitative methods. Particularly, we discuss our efforts to engage sport organisations in alternative methods, our need for self-protection in a research approach that can become ‘confessional’ in nature, and our awareness of the appropriateness of contemporary approaches in different research settings. 


Shaw, S. & Hoeber, L. (2016). Unclipping our wings: Ways forward in qualitative research in sport management. Sport Management Review, 19, 3, 255-265.

Author contact

Dr Sally Shaw
School of Physical Education, Sport and Exercise Sciences
University of Otago
PO Box 56
Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
+64 3 479 5937

Return to concurrent session 5

Author intentionality in Mount Everest mountaineering literature: Analyzing attitudes and purposes

Jesse Sheets, Mount Royal University
Dr. Jeremy Robinett, Western Illinois University
Dr. Michael McGowan, Western Illinois University
Dr. Katharine Pawelko, Western Illinois University

A large number of first-hand accounts of mountaineering on Mount Everest have been published since concerted efforts to climb the mountain began in the early twentieth century. However, there is a lack of research into the themes presented consistently throughout these writings, which span a period of nearly one hundred years. This presentation will address research findings with the goal of highlighting author intentionality in writing about Mount Everest climbs, particularly pertinent after the past three years have resulted in several natural disasters and many deaths of mountaineers on and around Everest.

This study utilized a qualitative content analysis methodology in an effort to identify and describe themes. The research methodology was based on work by Charmaz (2010); Elo & Kyngäs (2008); Hsieh & Shannon (2005); and White & Marsh (2006) into grounded theory and content analysis. Specifically, it sought to address the notion of author intentionality in regard to climbing Mount Everest via an analysis of the author’s attitudes and purposes. A purposive sampling method was used to choose ten specific works for the study. Open coding of the accounts led to the identification of three major phenomena: personal affect, interpersonal relationships, and technical logistics. These were defined through reflexive journaling. Passages fitting these phenomena were then drawn from each of the ten accounts, and were analyzed using axial coding.

Five themes were found to exist across the entire body of work. These included: an interaction between the author and another individual or location significant to the practice of Everest mountaineering; works written in the manner of a technical reference guide; the sense that summiting the mountain was an achievement to be earned; tension between self-fulfillment and group cooperation; and anthropomorphizing of the mountain. During the coding process, these were titled: a brush with fame, talking to themselves, earned achievement, me versus we, and anthropomorphism, respectively. Other significant passages not directly related to the research question were utilized in order to develop suggestions for further research following this study. This presentation is relevant to the program for CCLR15 as it addresses the conference theme of engaging the legacy of professional and recreational mountaineers on Everest and the specific attitudes, purposes, and history of that community.


Bonington, C. (1976). Everest the hard way. New York: Random House.

Burnard, P. (1991). A method of analysing interview transcripts in qualitative research. Nurse Education Today 11, 461–466.

Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of ‘sex.’ New York: Routledge.

Charmaz, K. (2010). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. London: Sage.

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Elo, S. & Kyngäs, H. (2008). The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of Advanced Nursing 62(1), 107-115.

Eng, R. C., & Van Pelt, J. (2010). Mountaineering: The freedom of the hills. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books.

Ewert, A. (1985). Why people climb: The relationship of participant motives and experience level to mountaineering. Journal of Leisure Research 17(3), 241-250.

Gammelgaard, L. (2000). Climbing high: A woman’s account of surviving the Everest tragedy. New York: Harper Collins Perennial.

Gillman, P. (1993). Everest. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine Press.

Habeler, P. (1979). The lonely victory: Mount Everest 1978. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Hillary, E. (1955). High adventure. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.

Hsieh, H.-F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research 55(9), 1277-1288.

Hunt, J. (1954). The conquest of Everest. New York: E. P. Dutton & Company.

Kasischke, L. (2014). After the wind: 1996 Everest tragedy, one survivor’s story. Harbor Springs: Good Hart.

Krippendorff, K. (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Miles, M., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Mitchell, Jr., R. G. (1983). Mountain experience: The psychology and sociology of adventure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Neate, W. R. (1980). Mountaineering and its literature. Seattle: The Mountaineers Books.

Neuendorf, K. A. (2002). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Norenzayan, A., Hansen, I. G., & Cady, J. (2008). An angry volcano? Reminders of death and anthropomorphizing nature. Social Cognition 26, 190-197. 

Norton, E. F. (1925). The fight for Everest 1924. London: Edward Arnold & Company.

Ruttledge, H. (1936). Everest 1933. London: Hodder and Stoughton.

Tasker, J. (1981). Everest the cruel way. In P. Boardman & J. Tasker (Eds.), The Boardman Tasker omnibus (pp. 1-165). Seattle: The Mountaineers Books.

Ullman, J. R. (1964). Americans on Everest. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company.

Unsworth, W. (2000). Everest: The mountaineering history. Bâton Wicks: The Mountaineers.

White, M. D., & Marsh, E. E. (2006). Content analysis: A flexible methodology. Library Trends, 55(1), 22-45.


See the conference proceeding (PD) for the appendices.

Author contact

Jesse Sheets, M.S.
Mount Royal University
MRU Recreation Room U231
4825 Mount Royal Gate SW
CalgaryAB  T3E 6K6

Return to concurrent session 1

Cross-cultural perceptions of crowding at Onondaga Cave State Park, Missouri

Hyojeong Gemma Shim, University of Missouri-Columbia
KangJae Jerry Lee, University of Missouri-Columbia
Mark Morgan, University of Missouri-Columbia

Crowding is one of the most popular topics in the outdoor recreation literature (Manning, 2011). However, limited studies have examined the influence of culture on crowding. Findings from previous studies have been mixed, suggesting that further investigation is needed to draw better conclusions (Sayan, Krymkowski, Manning, Valliere, & Rovelstad, 2013). Since Americans tend to be individualistic and Asians are collectivistic (Hofstede, 2001), it is reasonable to assume that these cultural values would be manifested in their perceptions of crowding. This study examined crowding perceptions of White and Asian visitors on a guided tour at Onondaga Cave State Park (OCSP) in Leasburg, Missouri. 

Data collection was performed from May to October, 2015. An on-site survey was administered to 580 participants who took the guided cave tour at the park. Researchers were able to recruit some Asians in this study through the Asian Affairs Center at the University of Missouri.  The overall response rate was 39%. Approximately 75% of the sample were White, 19% were Asian, and 6% were other. Respondents ranged from 19 to 82 years old (M = 40.3, SD = 14.7) and most (86.7%) had a college degree or some higher education. A regression model was tested to examine the factors which contributed to crowding perception (the dependent variable). Predictors were age, education, gender, race/ethnicity, the total number of people and the number of children on the tours.

The regression analysis showed that age (β = -.012, P < .05), education (β = .255, P < .01), number of people in the tour (β = .075, P < .001), and the number of kids in the tour (β = .057, P < .01) significantly contributed to crowding perception. Gender (β = -.312, P > .05), Asian (β = .153, P > .05), White (β = 0, P > .05) were not significant. The model explained 20.7% of the variance in crowding perception: F (7, 499) = 18.565, P < .001. 

This study found that nationality (Asian or White) did not play a significant role in crowding perception. The result is inconsistent with recent studies (Gills, Richard, & Hagan, 1986; Sayan et al., 2013). One possible explanation for the finding is that other factors, such as tourists’ homogeneity in education and ethnic background, are more critical determinants of crowding than cultural values (Fleishman, Feitelson, & Salomon, 2004). Regrettably, the present study could not examine this possibility since the demographic profile for each of the tours was incomplete due to the number of non-respondents. Another possible explanation is that nationality does not adequately represent cultural values. For example, researchers have noted that significant cultural differences exist across and within Asian countries and many Asians have been exposed to the Western values of individualism (Lee & Stodolska, 2016). Thus, it is possible that cultural values were not adequately operationalized, suggesting that nationality is not a good proxy. Further research is needed to test this hypothesis.


Fleishman, L., Feitelson, E., & Salomon, I. (2004). The role of cultural and demographic diversityin crowding perception: Evidence from nature reserves in Israel. Tourism Analysis, 9, 23-40.

Gillis, A. R., Richard, M. A., & Hagan, J. (1986). Ethnic susceptibility to crowding an empirical analysis. Environment and Behavior, 18, 683-706.

Hofstede, G. H. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions andorganizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication.

Lee, K. J., & Stodolska, M. (2016). Asian North Americans’ leisure: A critical examination of the theoretical frameworks used in research and suggestions for future study. Leisure Sciences.

Manning, R. (2011) Studies in Outdoor Recreation: Search and Research for Satisfaction. 3rd ed. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

Sayan, S., Krymkowski, D. H., Manning, R. E., Valliere, W. A., & Rovelstad, E. L. (2013). Cultural influence on crowding norms in outdoor recreation: A Comparative analysis of visitors to National Parks in Turkey and the United States. Environmental management, 52, 493-502.

Author contact

Hyojeong Gemma Shim
University of Missouri-Columbia
One 3rd Ave. #803
Mineola, NY, 11501

Return to concurrent session 8

Engaging youth rights to the city through DIY skateparks

Ben Shirtcliff, Iowa State University

Concrete is plastic when wet, brittle before it cures, course without polishing or wax, cheap, readily available, easy to mix, and easily demolished. The paper presentation will unveil how a group of skaters and non-skaters, young people and young adults, failed and eventually triumphed to create the first public skate park in the City of New Orleans. Working in a post-Katrina environment, they faced limited resources, communication issues, and an endless amount of free coping from abandoned swimming pools. Extensive photographs and videos, social media posts, kickstarter campaigns, community meetings, fundraising events, weekly site clean-ups, outreach with local universities and researchers, and a relentless push to convince the city of the value of the skate park for the local youth lead to one simple, necessary action: permission.  Such DIY projects have unfortunately been described in academic literature with negative, anarchic connotations, such as guerilla, tactile, and insurgent. However, young people in New Orleans demonstrated the wherewithal to overcome multiple losses and create a great public space from underutilized urban space by just adding water. The case study will review how an award winning DIY project sets a new precedent for inspiring other young people to create positive, youth inclusive environments in cities.


Brown, S. L. (2009) Play: How it shapes the brain, opens the imagination, and invigorates the soul, Penguin.

Douglas, G. (2012) Do-It-Yourself Urban Design In The Help-Yourself City. Architect, 43-50.

Goffman, E. (1963) Behavior in Public Places, New York, Free Press.

Iveson, K. (2013) Cities within the City: Do-It-Yourself Urbanism and the Right to the City. International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 37, 941-956.

Shirtcliff, B. (2015) Sk8ting the Sinking City. Interdisciplinary Environmental Review, 16, 97-122.

Vivoni, F. (2009) Spots of Spatial Desire Skateparks, Skateplazas, and Urban Politics. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 33, 130–149.

Ward, M. (2013) Observations on Contemporary Urbanism and Sustainability. Architecture Australia, SEPT/OCT, 51-52.

Author contact

Ben Shirtcliff, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Landscape Architecture
College of Design, Rm 476
Iowa State University
Ames, IA
Office: 515.294.0797
Cell: 504.919.1850

Return to concurrent session 8

Big data and adolescent play in public space

Ben Shirtcliff, Iowa State University

Significant strides have been made through design and policy on “youth rights to the city” toward improve young people’s health and wellbeing outcomes. However, adolescents, especially minorities, are frequently confronted with institutionalized disparities as they are denied access to participate in urban, public space, through policy (e.g., posted ‘no loitering’ placards), policy implementation (e.g., police profiling and monitoring), and physical barriers (e.g., skate stops). The current situation has led to a lack of adequate data to support design and policy to improve youth outcomes because: 1. only within the past decade have young people been recognized as having positive developmental opportunities associated with activities outside of home and school; 2. young people, especially those facing socio-economic disparities, are aware of their a priori delinquent status in public space and typically move-along in the presence of an unknown adult.  Their status limits current research to known samples, such as focus groups and participatory ethnographic methods. While multiple comparative indices on youth health, well-being, and academic success exist, no similar large data set on young people’s participation in public life is available. A solution to the deficit in information is readily available through publically available channels young people use daily.  The presentation will comprehensively review how social media, primarily YouTube, can contribute to the current lack of data on youth participation in public space.  I propose that another means of exploring how design supports cultural diversity at the individual level is through publically posted videos and other social media. By turning urban environments into a stage to support social performances, people play in local, public place for a global audience.  I contend that such interpretations are an example of the success of public space and urban design to support social and cultural diversity. During the presentation I will show how the assessment of adolescent performance in-place will fill a current void in understanding unstructured adolescent activity in public space. By conducting research using big data—YouTube and online videos—I will identify how landscapes across multiple cities support positive behavioral outcomes for active youth. I suggest that the inclusion of social media as a research method will help researchers interested in addressing inadequate design policy and practice with highly generalizable findings.


Chaskin, R.J., et al., (2013) 'Positive' Gentrification, Social Control and the 'Right to the City' in Mixed-Income Communities: Uses and Expectations of Space and Place. International Journal of Urban & Regional Research, 37(2): p. 480-502.

Cushing, D. R., Allayna (2015) Theme in Landscape Architecture Publishing: Past Trends, Future Needs. Landscape Journal, 34, p. 15-36.

Di Masso, A. (2012) Grounding Citizenship: Toward a Political Psychology of Public Space. Political Psychology, 33(1): p. 123-143.

Dobbins, M.,(2009) Urban design and people, Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.

Duany, A., et al., (2003) The new civic art : elements of town planning, New York: Rizzoli.

Low, S. M. (1981) Social science methods in landscape architecture design. Landscape Planning, 8, p. 137-148.

Francois, S., et al., (2011) Where We Live: The Unexpected Influence of Urban Neighborhoods on the Academic Performance of African American Adolescents. Youth & Society, 44(2): p. 307-328.

Franzini, L., et al., (2010) Neighborhood characteristics favorable to outdoor physical activity: disparities by socioeconomic and racial/ethnic composition. Health Place, 16(2): p. 267-74.

Voorheer, C.Y., Alice; Clifton, Kelly; Wang, Min, (2011) Neighborhood Environment, Self-efficacy, and Physical Activity in Urban Adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 35(6): p. 16.

Weller, S. (2003) "Teach us something useful": contested spaces of teenagers citizenship, in Space and Polity.

Fuller-Rowell, T.E., et al., (2012) Poverty and Health: The Mediating Role of Perceived Discrimination. Psychological Science (Sage Publications Inc.). 23(7): p. 734-739.

Gamez, J.E., et al., (2004) Violent crime and outdoor physical activity among inner-city youth, in Preventive Medicine.

Harden, K.P., et al., (2009) Population density and youth antisocial behavior. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 50(8): p. 999-1008.

Jennings, W.G., et al., (2011) A Multi-Level Approach to Investigating Neighborhood Effects on Physical Aggression among Urban Chicago Youth. American Journal of Criminal Justice. 36(4): p. 392-407.

McGlynn, S., et al. (1994), The politics of urban design. Planning Practice & Research. 9(3): p. 311.

Owens, P.E., (2002) No Teens Allowed: The Exclusion of Adolescents from Public Spaces. Landscape journal. 21(1): p. 156–163.

Rogers, P., Young people’s participation in the renaissance of public space - a case study in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Children, Youth and Environments, 2006. 16(2): p. 105–130.

Travlou, P., et al., (2008) Place mapping with teenagers: locating their territories and documenting their experience of the public realm. Children's Geographies, 2008. 6(3): p. 309–326.

Author contact

Ben Shirtcliff, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Landscape Architecture
College of Design, Rm 476
Iowa State University
Ames, IA
Office: 515-294-0797
Cell: 504-919-1850

Return to concurrent session 7

You are what you study or you study what you are? Identity affirmation through choice of major among emerging adults

Shweta Singh, Kent State University
Andrew Lepp, Kent State University

One of the critical developmental challenges of adolescence and early adulthood is identity development, maintenance and affirmation.  This process continues throughout college when many undergraduate students experience increased independence and are thus free to “try on” new identities, or affirm existing identities which have proven meaningful.  Previous research has established that leisure provides students with an important opportunity for identity development and affirmation.  Leisure activities (e.g., chess, backpacking, gourmet cooking, basketball, guitar, etc.) have discreet sets of identity images which students can freely choose for themselves through regular participation.  Another area of a student’s life where they may have freedom of choice is selection of a college major.  Thus, it may be that selection of a college major is an opportunity for identity development or identity affirmation. Opting for a major is a big leap towards shaping a student’s future and defining their desired adult identities. Additionally, it may be an expression of who they are and who they desire to become. This choice may be the equivalent of a public self-description and a symbolic declaration of, "This is who I am". This study aims to understand the role of this choice in the process of expressing and affirming one’s identity with a particular focus on recreation, park, tourism and hospitality management students. This study tests the hypothesis that selection of a major provides an opportunity to affirm a student’s identity because it denotes certain desirable characteristic traits, or identity images. The study has two parts. Study I is designed to establish whether different majors (e.g., recreation and park management, tourism management, hospitality management, exercise science, fashion design, business management, biology, etc.) symbolize definite and distinct sets of identity images.  Study II investigates whether students would desire the major identity images symbolized by their chosen major more than they would desire identity images symbolized by other majors. In other words, it is hypothesized that students enrolled in a particular major will relate highly to the identity images associated with their chosen major. This research will serve as master’s thesis for the abstract’s lead author and the methods have already been approved by the university IRB.  Data for the study will be collected in the beginning of the spring semester (January/February 2017). Study I will examine the nature of identity images associated with ten different majors including recreation, park, tourism and hospitality management by means of a survey of a convenient sample of randomly selected college students, recruited on campus. Study II will use a separate sample of students, enrolled in these majors and will test the students’ desire for these identity images identified in first study. We hypothesize that students in Study II will desire the identity images identified in Study I which are associated with their given major.  Data will be analyzed for interpretation in the month of April and will be ready for presentation at the conference.


Arnett, J. J. (1998). Learning to stand alone: The contemporary American transition to adulthood in cultural and historical context. Human Development41(5-6), 295-315.

Arnett, J. J. (2006). Emerging adulthood: Understanding the new way of coming of age. Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century22, 3-19.

Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American psychologist55(5), 469.

Eccles, J. S. (1987). Gender roles and women's achievement-related decisions. Psychology of women Quarterly11(2), 135-172.

Haggard, L. M., & Williams, D. R. (1992). Identity affirmation through leisure activities: Leisure symbols of the self. Journal of leisure research24(1), 1.

Holland, J. L. (1959). A theory of vocational choice. Journal of counseling psychology6(1), 35.

Karp, D. A., Holmstrom, L. L., & Gray, P. S. (1998). Leaving home for college: Expectations for selective reconstruction of self. Symbolic Interaction21(3), 253-276.

McGuire, W. J., & Padawer-Singer, A. (1976). Trait salience in the spontaneous self-concept. Journal of personality and social psychology33(6), 743-754.

Perry Jr, W. G. (1999). Forms of Intellectual and Ethical Development in the College Years: A Scheme. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass Publishers, 350 Sansome St., San Francisco, CA 94104.

Schlenker, B. R. (1984). Identities, identifications, and relationships. Communication, intimacy, and close relationships717104.

Schlenker, B. R., & Leary, M. R. (1982). Social anxiety and self-presentation: A conceptualization model. Psychological bulletin92(3), 641.

Steele, C. M. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Advances in experimental social psychology21, 261-302.

Waterman, A. S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review19(4), 591-621.

Author contact

Shweta Singh
1632 East Main St, Apt 203
Kent, OH, 44240, USA

Return to concurrent session 3

Fighting words: Poetry and social justice in leisure research

Sandra Sjollema, Concordia University
Felice Yuen, Concordia University

Over the last number of years, an array of leisure academics and practitioners have begun to identify and call for the inquiry into leisure’s dependence on mainstream activities and ideologies that replicate systemic inequalities (Arai & Kivel, 2009; Fox, 2000; Fox & Lashua, 2010; Hemingway, 1999). Moreover, leisure research and practice have emphasized issues of social justice and of marginalized populations’ collective power and resistance to oppression (Arai & Pedlar, 2010; Hemingway, 1996; Stewart, 2014). These approaches also embrace a community-based perspective that highlights the common good rather than individual gain (Arai & Pedlar).  More specifically, leisure researchers are increasingly incorporating critical theoretical frameworks (Hemingway, 1996; Mair, 2002; Parry, Johnson & Stewart, 2013; Stewart, 2014), emancipatory and alternative forms of representation, and innovative practices into their work (Fox; Mair; Shaw, 2000; Yuen, Arai & Fortune, 2012).  Alternative approaches in leisure research practice have included the use of creative analytic practice – an approach that acknowledges the complexity of lived experiences, and seeks to understand and represent the personal and social meanings attached to these experiences (Arai & Kivel 2009; Parry & Johnson, 2007). The employment of these arts-based approaches reflects the postmodern emphasis on the aesthetics of social justice: that is, as Mair (2002) argues, it not only matters what the message is but what form the message takes.

The purpose of this presentation is to highlight a work-in-progress, namely a doctoral research project, currently being carried out in a low-income neighbourhood in Montréal, which embodies the recent trends towards social justice in leisure research. The project, entitled ‘What is found there: Poetry and emotional resistance in collective struggles for social change’ highlights the role of community poetry as a means for marginalized communities to engage in collective resistance to social injustice and to work for social change. The project situates itself within a community-based, participatory action research paradigm and as such finds itself within critical and feminist/post-structural theoretical frameworks (Denzin, 2000; Ellsworth, 1989; MacGuire, 1987).

The presentation will focus on the project’s pre-research, data collection and preliminary analysis phases and will describe how it used poetic inquiry, or the use of poetry in research (Prendergast, 2009), as a means of counter narrative discourse (Gaylie, 2002), and as a tool for social justice for marginalized populations. Excerpts from a poem written by one of the participants in the project will be presented as a means of showing how the use of community poetry can embody the principles of social-justice based leisure research and practice.


Arai, S., & Kivel, D. B. (2009). Critical Race Theory and Social Justice Perspectives on Whiteness. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(4), 459-471.

Arai, S., & Pedlar (2003). Moving beyond individualism in leisure theory: A critical analysis of concept of community and social engagement. Leisure Studies, 22, 185-202.

Denzin, N. (2000). Aesthetics and the Practice of Qualitative Inquiry. Qualitative Inquiry,6, 256-265.

Ellsworth, E. (1989). Why Doesn`t This Feel Empowering? Working Through the Repressive Myths of Critical Pedagogy. Harvard Educational Revie, 59 (3), pp. 297-325.

Fox, K. M. (2000). Echoes of leisure: Questions, challenges, and potentials. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 32-36.

Fox, K. M. & Lashua, B. D. (2010). Hold gently people who create space on the margins: Urban Aboriginal-Canadian young people and hip-hop rhythms of “leisures”. In D. Reid, H. Mair, & S. Arai (eds.), Decentring work: Critical perspectives on leisure, development and social change (pp. 229-250). Calgary, AB: University of Calgary Press.

Gaylie, V. (2002). Taking (a)part: poetic counternarratives for troubled times. Current Issues in Education [On-line], 5 (6). 

Hemingway, J. L. (1996). Emancipating leisure: The recovery of freedom in leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 28, 27-43.

Hemingway, J. L. (1999). Critique and emancipation: Toward a critical theory of leisure. Leisure studies: Prospects for the twenty-first century, 487-506.

Maguire, P. (1987). Doing Participatory Research: A Feminist Approach. Amherst: Center for International Education, School of Education, University of Massachusetts.

Mair, H. (2002). Civil leisure? Exploring the relationship between leisure, activities, and social change. Leisure/Loisir, 27(3-4), 231-237.

Parry, D. C., & Johnson, C. W. (2007). Contextualizing leisure research to encompass complexity in lived leisure experience: The need for creative analytic practice. Leisure Sciences, 29(2), 119-130.

Parry, D. C., Johnson, C. W., & Stewart, W. (2013). Leisure research for social justice: A  response to Henderson. Leisure Sciences, 35(1), 81-87.

Prendergast, M. (2009). Introduction: The phenomena of poetry in research: ‘Poem is what? Poetic inquiry in social science research. In M. Prendergast, C. Leggo and P. Sameshima (Eds.), Poetic Inquiry: Vibrant Voices in the Social Sciences (pp. xix–xlii). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Shaw, S. M. (2000). If our research is relevant, why is nobody listening? Journal of Leisure Research, 32, 147-151.

Stewart, W. (2014) Leisure research to enhance social justiceLeisure Sciences, 36(4), 325-339.

Yuen, F., Arai, S., & Fortune, D. (2012). Women in prison, community dislocation and reconnection through leisure: A poetic representation of incarcerated women’s experiences of leisure and connection to community. Leisure Sciences, 34(4), 1-17.

Author contact

Sandra Sjollema
Concordia University
7141 Sherbrooke St. West VE 331.04
Montreal QC H4B 1R6
514-848-2424, ext. 2267

Return to concurrent session 6

Exploring corporate social responsibility motivations and practical implications for sustainable development

Joseph Skeete, University of Waterloo
Karla Boluk, University of Waterloo

Most contemporary managers recognize and accept Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a necessary requirement for doing business (Holliday, 2001). Accordingly, a growing number of tourism enterprises are incorporating CSR into their business models; in an effort to enhance the environment, the quality of life for local communities, and the welfare of their employees (Bohdanowicz & Zientara, 2009; Boluk, 2013). Specifically, Bohdanowicz and Zientara (2009) present concrete initiatives from the Swedish hotel chain Scandic Hotels, arguing that CSR indeed influences all corporate decisions, and thus conditions the company’s efforts to improve both the working conditions of employees and the quality of life in local communities. Boluk (2013) explores the implementation of CSR through the Fair Hotels Ireland scheme that primarily focuses on the well-being of front-line staff. Additionally, one of the motivations for getting involved in the Fair Hotels scheme expressed by management was to actively participate in community initiatives.  Despite this increased awareness from tourism practitioners, the tourism literature has still left CSR relatively unexplored, especially as it relates to sustainable development (Holcomb, Upchurch, & Okumus, 2007; Camilleri, 2014; Hughes & Scheyvens, 2016). The lack of research in the area of CSR within the tourism literature is astounding, as it seems reasonable to believe that tourism, a service industry which utilizes peoples and environments at national and international levels, should be held responsible for sustainable development and respect for the environment (Kalisch, 2002). The purpose of this case study will be to explore motivations behind the CSR initiatives of hospitality and tourism enterprises; and their practical implications for sustainable development through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders at an individual Fairmont Hotel and Resort location. Fairmont was the first to initiate a worldwide hotel chain environmental program in North America, making them an industry leader in sustainable and innovative practices (FRHI, 2007). Guided by stakeholder theory from the management field, this study will illuminate the interaction of the enterprise with different stakeholder groups (Khazaei, Elliot & Joppe, 2015). Sustainable development represents a topic which generates great interest and debate within numerous international fora, conferences, seminars and colloquia (Camilleri, 2014). The accommodation sector is one of the integral components of tourism and while discussions on the detrimental impacts of individual locations on the environment is limited, the collective impacts are significant (Tzschentke, Kirk & Lynch, 2008). Promoting growth that respects culture and the environment, and supports the well-being of local communities is a concern for the evolution of contemporary tourism (Manente et al., 2014).


Bohdanowicz, P., & Zientara, P. (2009). Hotel companies' contribution to improving the quality of life of local communities and the well-being of their employees. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 9(2), 147-158.

Boluk, K. (2013). Using CSR as a tool for development: An investigation of the fair hotels scheme in Ireland. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 14(1), 49-65.

Camilleri, M. (2014). Advancing the sustainable tourism agenda Through Strategic CSR Perspectives. Tourism Planning & Development, 11(1), 42-56.

FRHI. (2007). Fairmont Hotels & Resorts gives “green” light to expanded eco-meet program. Retrieved November 30, 2016.

Holcomb, J. L., Upchurch, R. S., & Okumus, F. (2007). Corporate social responsibility: What are top hotel companies reporting? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 461-475.

Holiday, C. (2001). Sustainable growth, the DuPont way. Harvard Business Review. September, 129-134.

Hughes, E., & Scheyvens, R. (2016). Corporate social responsibility in tourism post-2015: A development first approach. Tourism Geographies, 18(5), 469-482.

Kalisch, A. (2002). Corporate futures: Social responsibility in the tourism industry. London: Tourism Concern.

Kang, K. H., Lee, S., & Huh, C. (2010). Impacts of positive and negative corporate social responsibility activities on company performance in the tourism industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(1), 72-82.

Khazaei, A., Elliot, S., & Joppe, M. (2015). An application of stakeholder theory to advance community participation in tourism planning: The case for engaging immigrants as fringe stakeholders. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(7), 1049-1062.

Manente, M., Minghetti, V., & Mingotto, E. (2014). Responsible tourism and CSR: Assessment systems for sustainable development of SMEs in tourism. New York: Springer.

Tzschentke, N. A., Kirk, D., & Lynch, P. A. (2008). Going green: Decisional factors in small hospitality operations. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(1), 126-133.

Author contact

Joseph Skeete
University of Waterloo
200 University Ave W
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to poster presentations

Drag spaces: A critical ethnography of leisure, gender, sexuality and performance in physical and virtual spaces

Gabrielle Skeldon, Leeds Beckett University

In recent years, drag has been brought to the forefront of public debates as a form of leisure, entertainment and gender expression (Barnett & Johnson, 2013). While largely considered a marginalised leisure activity, it can be argued that as a medium it enables the exploration of gender and sexuality from a point of view that is not often considered. Through TV shows such as RuPaul’s Drag Race (2009-present) and social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter, drag culture has become more accessible to wider audiences. As part of a 3-year doctoral study, my ethnographic research locates drag in virtual and physical spaces. This paper draws from fieldwork in a drag showbar in a northern UK city, where my research explores where online spaces and gender performances intersect. While drag can still be considered a marginalized leisure practice, arguably it enables the exploration, contestation and celebration of gender and sexuality within both online and offline environments. These are widely perceived as spaces in which gender can be performed with freedom and acceptance; they are leisure environments where drag performers are thought able to create an ‘authentic’ identity and have the agency to perform gender on their own terms. My research explores the discursive borders of drag spaces. Field notes and photos recorded during regular attendance at drag performances are considered alongside the social media presence of female impersonators (including well-know artists Adore Delano, Courtney Act, Bianca Del Rio, Sharon Needles and RuPaul) and their interactions with fans. My research uses Poststructural feminism and the work of Judith Butler to deconstruct normative views on gender and identity to understand the underlying cultural values that cause inequality between groups. It can be argued that dominant norms have been in place so long, the challenge of poststructural feminism is to subvert the male colonisation of knowledge and theory that informs the way we think about and construct political and social relationships. My work aims to explore these cultural codes so that post-enlightenment grand narratives that “have served to construct the world into dualistic categories of… male-female, work-leisure… self-other” (Aitchison, 2003, p.30) can be called into question. In conjunction with this, my study also uses Queer theory to deconstruct traditional binary categories and trouble normative understandings of gender and sexuality. It can be argued that drag repeats the norm to call into question heteronormative values and is a performance that can be used to call attention to the unrealistic stereotypes society upholds and can be used as a tool to destabilise these norms. Overall, drag performances challenge leisure researchers to consider the wider discourses of gender and sexual identities in both digital and physical leisure spaces. My research explores the way in which  drag as a medium can be used to create greater understanding of gender and sexuality and how, through this understanding, normative views can be deconstructed and difference can be celebrated in all its forms.


Aitchison, C. C. (2003). Gender and Leisure: Social and Cultural Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Barnett, J., and Johnson, C. (2013). We are all royalty: Narrative comparison of a Drag Queen and King. Journal of Leisure Research, 45(5), 677-694.

Author contact

Gabrielle Skeldon
Cavendish 209
Headingley Campus
Leeds Beckett University

Return to concurrent session 3

A spatial analysis of community wellbeing: Mapping indicators from the Canadian Index of Wellbeing

Bryan Smale, University of Waterloo

The circumstances and wellbeing of residents are frequently described using community-based indicator systems designed to report aggregate measures of wellbeing. These approaches, however, typically fail to consider the spatial properties of those measures, and consequently, how wellbeing varies across the community (Gonzalez, Caraba, & Ventura, 2011; Okulicz-Kozaryn, 2011). By adopting a spatial perspective of community wellbeing, we incorporate many of the social and economic factors regarded by researchers as influential in people’s behaviours and preferences (Aneslin, Sridharan, & Gholston, 2007; Timmermans & Golledge, 1990). In fact, in analytical behavioural geography, the spatial context is generally regarded as lying at the root of the choices, perceptions, and ultimately the behavioural patterns expressed by community members (Smiley et al., 2010). Looking at the spatial properties of community wellbeing – and those factors directly related to it – provides insights not readily apparent when we report the overall quality of life for all residents’ or even on selected sub-groups within the community. Using data gathered in the City of Guelph, Ontario (n = 1,400), gathered in the Community Wellbeing Survey and based on the conceptual framework of the Canadian Index of Wellbeing, this study sets out to describe: (1) how taking a spatial perspective visualises important contextual patterns and relationships at the root of community wellbeing; (2) how spatial patterns of wellbeing can be assessed against local demographic patterns in the data to identify sub-groups which might be at greater risk; and (3) how assessing the spatial relationship between indicators of wellbeing and residents’ overall subjective wellbeing serves to identify areas (e.g., neighbourhoods), and hence populations within communities, that are doing well and those that might be falling behind. Examples used in the presentation include measures reflecting our standard of living, the quality of our environment, our health, the way we use our time, the vitality of our communities, our participation in the democratic process, and especially, our leisure and culture (see Figure 1). These indicators are selected to illustrate the potential of mapping ideas rather than just resources or characteristics of the population. Data are aggregated to the neighbourhood level (i.e., census tract) and relationships between overall wellbeing and factors such as sense of belonging to the community, leisure participation, civic engagement, health, and living standards (as well as socio-demographic characteristics) are assessed and visualised spatially. The results of the spatial analysis reveal physical and perceived access factors that are clearly linked to wellbeing – either inhibiting or enhancing it for certain neighbourhoods (see Figure 2). The study shows how communities can gain new insights concerning the role that spatiality plays in the relationships between selected social factors and individual and community wellbeing, and how those insights have implications for innovative social policy and planning (Smale, in press; Talen, 1998). Municipal officials and policy makers thereby gain a better understanding of residents’ concerns and challenges and, hopefully, be more effective in targeting services and programs that align with their goals.


Aneslin, L., Sridharan, S., & Gholston, S. (2007). Using exploratory spatial data analysis to leverage social indicator databases: The discovery of interesting patterns. Social Indicators Research, 82, 287-309.

Gonzalez, E., Caraba, A., & Ventura, J. (2011). The importance of the geographic level of analysis in the assessment of quality of life: The case of Spain. Social Indicators Research, 102, 209-228.

Okulicz-Kozaryn, A. (2011). Geography of European life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 101, 435-445.

Smale, B. (in press). Assessing spatial equity in the provision of community parks. Leisure/Loisir.

Smiley, M.J., Diez Roux, A.V., Brines, S.J., Brown, D.G., Evenson, K.R., & Rodriguez, D.A. (2010). A spatial analysis of health-related resources in three diverse metropolitan areas. Health & Place, 16, 885-892.

Talen, E. (1998). Visualizing fairness: Equity maps for planners. Journal of the American Planning Association, 64(1), 22-38.

Timmermans, H., & Golledge, R.G. (1990). Applications of behavioral research on spatial problems II: Preference and choice. Progress in Human Geography, 14, 311-354.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for the appendices.

Author contact

Bryan Smale
Canadian Index of Wellbeing
Recreation and Leisure Studies
University of Waterloo
Waterloo, ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 35664

Return to concurrent session 9

Leadership impact on employee perceived workplace fulfillment in the Major Games context

Lindsay Smith, Brock University
Dr. Kirsty Spence, Brock University

Individuals’ wellbeing and happiness in sport are typically measured in relation to their participation in sporting activities rather than in relation to their work in sporting events (Littlejohn, Taks, Wood, & Snelgrove, 2016). Employees’ experience of happiness in relation to work is said to influence their orientation towards and interest in work, persistence through difficulties, and productivity levels when compared to employees’ experience of unhappiness. Employee happiness has a positive influence on workplace fulfillment, which in turn has a direct relationship on the degree to which employees expend positive energy toward their work, experience decreased levels of stress and increased levels of both satisfaction and productivity (Davenport, 2015). As a result, the degree to which employees perceive leaders and organizations as fostering fulfillment in the workplace (i.e., employee perceived workplace fulfillment) requires theoretical exploration and practical consideration, given the positive legacy that leaders may impact upon employees through the development of such fulfillment.

While a framework specific to employee perceived workplace fulfillment has yet to be established, workplace spirituality, defined as “the recognition of an inner life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of community” (van der Walt & de Klerk, 2014, 381), connects with the purpose of this research study, which is to explore the impact of Major Games’ leaders on the development of employee perceived workplace fulfillment. As such, workplace spirituality serves as the theoretical framework through which employee perceived workplace fulfillment may be examined. Given organizational leaders who foster workplace spirituality experience increased productivity, creativity, employee fulfillment, and profitability among entire organizational constituencies (Suárez, 2015; van der Walt & de Klerk, 2014), the Major Games environment, characterized uniquely as having short, temporary life spans, and highly susceptible to change, may benefit from leaders implementing principles of workplace spirituality.

Three questions guide this research exploration, including: 1) is perceived workplace fulfillment important to Major Games’ employees?; 2) what role do Major Games’ leaders play in the development of employee perceived workplace fulfillment, if any?; and 3) how may leaders aid in establishing and developing subordinates’ experience with workplace fulfillment? To explore and answer these questions, a qualitative research design and a phenomenographical methodology were applied, inviting participants previously employed in one or more Major Games’ events, from 2010 to the present time. Specifically, purposive, homogeneous sampling was utilized to invite 20 employees of middle manager/coordinator level positions to participate in a semi-structured interview. Primary data were collected through recorded interviews, which were later transcribed verbatim. To analyze these data, the author used open coding and thematic data analyses to discover emergent themes.

In this presentation, the researchers will present preliminary findings from their analysis and follow with a discussion of implications and recommendations for leaders in the Major Games industry. Findings contribute to new theoretical understanding in the field by illuminating research gaps and discussing the value of leaders fostering workplace spirituality towards improving employees’ perceived workplace fulfillment.


Davenport, T. (2015). Thriving at work: How organizational culture affects workplace fulfillment. People & Strategy, 38(3), 38-42.

Littlejohn, M., Taks, M., Wood, L., Snelgrove, R. (2016). Sport events and happiness: Towards the development of a measuring instrument. World Leisure Journal, 58(4), 255-266.

Suárez, S. (2015). Effects of spirituality in the workplace. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 20(1), 9-13.

van der Walt, F., & de Klerk, J. (2014). Workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. International Review of Psychiatry, 26(3), 379-389.

Author contact

Lindsay Smith, MA Candidate
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 4

Event attendance and family quality-of-life: Creating positive memories and enhancing community pride

Raphaela Stadler, University of Hertfordshire, U.K.
Allan Jepson, University of Hertfordshire, U.K.

In today’s rapidly changing world, the concept of quality-of-life (QOL) has become a growing concern for individuals, families, communities and governments, where finding and sustaining satisfaction, happiness and a belief in the future have been identified as key elements of QOL (Eckersley, 1999; Mercer, 1999; Lloyd & Auld, 2002). QOL has more specifically been researched and well documented as a contemporary theme in medicine, psychology, the social sciences (Rapley, 2009) and to a certain extent in leisure studies (see for example, Lloyd & Auld, 2002; Agate et al, 2009; Brajsa-Zganec, Merkas & Sverko, 2011), although it has received very little attention within the field of festival and event studies. Drawing on previous conceptual and empirical research (Jepson & Stadler, 2017; Stadler & Jepson, in press), we explore and discuss how festival and event attendance can improve QOL for families and communities through bonding, socialising and spending time together. We particularly highlight the importance of positive memory creation through event attendance and compare and contrast family expectations and motivations for attending events with the memories shared post event attendance. Our research therefore contributes to the recent discussion and family discourse in leisure studies (Carr & Schänzel, 2015; McCabe, 2015; Schänzel & Carr, 2015; Schwab & Dustin, 2015).

Focus groups with families in Hertfordshire, U.K. were conducted and stories and narratives of family bonding, positive memory creation, family happiness, well-being and QOL identified. These were further tested through questionnaires collected at ten different festivals and events across Hertfordshire, U.K., between May-August 2016. Findings from our study emphasise that regularly attending events as a family is crucial in order to create positive memories that bind the family together, provide short- and long-term meaningful experiences, as well as make the family feel proud of their local community and where they live. In turn, community pride and being connected to the local community improves the family’s QOL. Recommendations for community partners and other stakeholders are proposed, including the provision of a festival and events calendar that offers a range of meaningful experiences for families throughout the year and creates legacies within the community. We argue that special events should thereby be regarded as out-of-the-ordinary experiences which bring the family and community together in different and new ways. Families can also benefit from understanding and appreciating the positive memories created through event attendance, which foster social bonding, family QOL and community pride.


Agate, J. R., Zabriskie, R. B., Agate, S. T., & Poff, R. (2009). Family leisure satisfaction and satisfaction with family life. Journal of Leisure Research, 41(2), 205-223.

Brajša-Žganec, A., Merkaš, M., & Šverko, I. (2011). Quality of life and leisure activities: How do leisure activities contribute to subjective well-being? Social Indicators Research, 102(1), 81-91.

Carr, N., & Schänzel, H. (2015). Special issue on children, families and leisure – second of two issues. Annals of Leisure Research, 18(3), 303-307.

Eckersley, R. (1999). Quality of Life in Australia: An Analysis of Public Perceptions – Discussion Paper Number 23. Lyneham, ACT: The Australia Institute Ltd.

Jepson, A., & Stadler, R. (in press, 2017). Conceptualising the Impact of Festival and Event Attendance upon Family Quality of Life (QOL), Event Management, 21(1)

Lloyd, K.M., & Auld, C.J. (2002). The role of leisure in determining quality of life: Issues of content and measurement. Social Indicators Research, 57(1), 43-71.

McCabe, S. (2015). Family leisure, opening a new window on the meaning of family, Annals of Leisure Research, 18 (2), 175-179.

Mercer, C. (1994). Assessing liveability: From statistical indicators to policy benchmarks. In C. Mercer (Ed.), Urban and Regional Quality of Life Indicators (pp. 3–12). Institute for Cultural Policy Studies, Griffith University, Brisbane.

Rapley, M. (2003). Quality of Life Research - A Critical Introduction. Los Angeles et al: SAGE.

Schänzel, H., & Carr, N. (2015). Special issue on children, families and leisure – first of two issues. Annals of Leisure Research, 18(2), 171-174.

Schwab, K. A., & Dustin, D. L. (2015). Towards a model of optimal family leisure. Annals of Leisure Research, 18(2), 180-204.

Stadler, R. & Jepson, A. (in press). Understanding and valuing festival and event experiences and their impacts upon family quality of life (QOL), in John Armbrecht, Erik Lundberg, Tommy Andersson and Donald Getz (Eds.), “The Value of Events”

Author contact

Raphaela Stadler
Marketing and Enterprise Department
University of Hertfordshire
Hatfield, AL10 9EU
+44 (0) 1707 285877

Return to concurrent session 4

Outcomes of natural play and learning spaces: A collaborative case study with KidActive

Zachary M. Stevens, University of Waterloo
Bryan S. R. Grimwood, University of Waterloo
Carly Meissner, KidActive
Shawna Babcock, KidActive

When considering the many environmental issues of today, it has been often argued that they may be in part attributable to a growing disconnect with the natural world (Liefländer, Fröhlich, Bogner, & Schultz, 2012; Louv, 2008; Nisbet, Zelenski, & Murphy, 2009; Pyle, 2003). Essentially, it is thought that as our connection with the natural world diminishes, we become increasingly negligent towards its preservation (Pyle, 2003). Fortunately there are those such as Richard Louv, who in his renowned book Last Child in the Woods brought marked attention to the increasing divide between children and the natural world, that recognize the need for a human-nature (re)connection. Louv (2008) highlights the need for innovative solutions that cater to an increasingly urbanized and technology-driven society that foster connections to nature, which are critical to the health and wellbeing of our society and planet.

One such solution is a budding international interest focused on greening or naturalizing public playgrounds (Bell & Dyment, 2006). Though the relevant literature has made significant contributions to our understanding of naturalized playgrounds and the developmental outcomes that can be fostered in these spaces (Bell & Dyment, 2006; Moore, 2014; Raffan, 2000), one apparent gap that remains to be addressed is the tendency of current research to fail to acknowledge the potential for naturalized play spaces to promote place meanings and an environmental ethic, which have implications on nature connection and nature relationships in children.

Drawing on a narrative and participatory case study of KidActive, a not-for-profit organization that works collaboratively with students, teachers, parents, and their communities to naturalize school grounds, this research project focuses on identifying, understanding, and evaluating perceptions associated with naturalized playgrounds and the role they play in fostering nature connection, place meanings, and outcomes linked to individual and community wellbeing. Narrative data is analyzed from a social constructivist perspective, which provides a lens from which to interpret and understand the significance of the perceived meanings participants attribute to the spaces and experiences this organization creates. Analysis is guided by narrative analysis (Glover, 2003; Polkinghorne, 1995), which lends itself to providing the creative space necessary to develop a representation of the data that aligns with the intentions of developing a rich and captivating evaluative account of the program. To assist with this, tenets of program theory and logic modeling are drawn on due to the utility of these tools to effectively construct and tell the story of a program (Goertzen, Fahlman, Hampton, & Jeffery, 2003; McLaughlin & Jordan, 1999).

The presentation intends to highlight the progress made thus far in attempting to achieve one of the guiding objectives of the project, which was to provide a program evaluation of KidActive’s NPLS program. By considering such a topic, this research (re)contextualizes the importance of the provision of naturalized play spaces. Importantly, it highlights the perceived benefits of these spaces and the types of play they induce for healthy childhood development.


Bell, A., & Dyment, J. (2006). Grounds for action promoting physical activity through school ground greening in Canada. Toronto, ON: Evergreen.

Glover, T. D. (2003). Taking the Narrative Turn: The Value of Stories in Leisure Research. Loisir et Societe, 26(1), 145–167+9.

Goertzen, J. R., Fahlman, S. A., Hampton, M. R., & Jeffery, B. L. (2003). Creating logic models using grounded theory: A case example demonstrating a unique approach to logic model development. Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 18(2), 115–138.

Liefländer, A. K., Fröhlich, G., Bogner, F. X., & Schultz, P. W. (2012). Promoting connectedness with nature through environmental education. Environmental Education Research, 19(3), 370– 384.

Louv, R. (2008). Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature-deficit disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books.

McLaughlin, J. A., & Jordan, G. B. (1999). Logic models: A tool for telling your programs performance story. Evaluation and Program Planning, 22(1), 65–72.

Moore, R. C. (2014). Nature Play & Learning Places: Creating and managing places where children engage with nature. (1.2 ed.). Raleigh, NC: Natural Learning Initiative.

Nisbet, E. K., Zelenski, J. M., & Murphy, S. A. (2009). The Nature Relatedness Scale: Linking individuals’ connection with nature to environmental concern and behavior. Environment And Behavior, 41(5), 715–740.

Polkinghorne, D. E. (1995). Narrative configuration in qualitative analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 8(1), 5–23.

Pyle, R. M. (2003). Nature matrix: reconnecting people and nature. Oryx, 37(2), 206–214.

Raffan, J. (2000). Nature nurtures: Investigating the Potential of School Grounds. Toronto, ON: Evergreen.

Author contact

Zachary M. Stevens
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1
519-888-4567, ext. 31029

Return to concurrent session 7

Understanding a demonstration effect of 2015 Pan Am Games track cycling competitions: Exploring relationships between pre-event engagement, trait inspiration, positive affect, and participation intention

Georgia Teare, University of Waterloo
Luke R. Potwarka, University of Waterloo

Increases in sport participation are benefits often thought to result from hosting mega sport events (IOC, 2013). In particular, these increases can be attributed to demonstration effects, which occur when spectators of elite sport performances are inspired to participate themselves (Weed et al., 2015). Although there is empirical support for the presence of demonstration effects (Potwarka & Leatherdale, 2015), very little is known about intrapersonal mechanisms that might underpin such effects. Drawing from a stimulus-organism-response theory (Klieber et al., 2011), the purpose of this proposed research project is to identify personal and spectator-related experiential mechanisms that might help explain demonstration effects. Specifically, the relationships between pre-event engagement with track cycling, trait inspiration, positive affect, and intention to participate in track cycling will be explored.

It has been suggested that individuals that are engaged with a sport before attending a sport event are more likely to participate post-event (Funk et al., 2011). In particular, the present study suggests that previous interest, knowledge and fandom related to the sport on display might influence intention to participate after watching a live event. Thus, it is hypothesized that (H1) pre-event engagement with track cycling will be positively associated with intentions to participate in track cycling.

Those with high trait inspiration, as an enduring dimension of personality, have been found to be more action-oriented and more motivated to take action (Thrash & Elliot, 2003). Trait inspiration may determine how inspired an individual is to increase their participation in response to viewing an elite sport event. Therefore, it is hypothesized that (H2) trait inspiration will be positively associated with intentions to participate in track cycling.

While experiencing an event, an individual may experience positive affect (PA). Positive affect (PA) is the feeling of being highly engaged with a stimuli or object (Watson et al., 1988). PA can elicit feelings of enthusiasm, excitement, interest, attentiveness that may lead to a positive intention to participate (Frederickson, 2001). Moreover, we speculate that PA may mediate the relationship between pre-event engagement and participation intention. Indeed, trait inspiration has been found to be closely linked with PA (Thrash & Elliot, 2003). Thus, PA may also mediate the relationship between trait inspiration and intentions to participate in track cycling. Thus, it is hypothesized that (H3a) PA will mediate the relationship between pre-event engagement and intentions to participate in track cycling, (H3b) PA will mediate the relationship between trait inspiration and intention to participate in track cycling, and, (H4) PA will be directly positively associated with intention to participate in track cycling.

To test these hypotheses, an analysis of data collected during 2015 Pan American Games’ track cycling competitions as part of a larger project will be conducted. Specifically, a survey, which assessed each construct of interest in the present investigation using standardized Likert scales were administered to spectators attending these competitions. Participants in this study (N = 364) had never watched a live track cycling event, nor participated in track cycling prior to the study. Results will be presented during the presentation.


Frederickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226. 

Funk, D., Jordan, J., Ridinger, L., & Kaplanidou, K. (2011). Capacity of mass participation sport events for the development of activity commitment and future exercise intention. Leisure Sciences, 33, 250-268.

International Olympic Committee. (2013). Factsheet: Legacies of the games. Lusanne, Switzerland: International Olympic Committee. 

Kleiber, D. A., & Walker, G. J. 8c Mannell, RC (2011). A social psychology of leisure. State College.

Potwarka, L. R., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2015). The Vancouver 2010 Olympics and leisure-time physical activity rates among youth in Canada: Any evidence of a trickle down effect?. Leisure Studies, 1-17.

Thrash, T. M, & Elliot, A. J. (2003). Inspiration as a psychological construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 871-889.

Watson, D., Clark, L. A, & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063-1070.

Weed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D., Mansfiels, L., & Dowse, S. (2015). The Olympic Games and raising sport participation: A systematic review of evidence and an interrogation of policy for a demonstration effect. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(2), 195-226.

Author contact

Georgia Teare
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
BMH 2317
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 4

Physiological restoration: Exploring the cumulative effects of outdoor time on heart rate variability

Sharon Tessneer, Indiana University

There is a growing body of literature to support the belief that physiological changes occur through outdoor restoration and adventure experiences, but little evidence of how the effects of daily excursions accumulate over time. Heart rate variability (HRV), defined as the variation in time between individual beats of our hearts, is a physiological measure of resilience and a growing field of study. As technology improves wearable Bluetooth sensors are becoming more common (Tamura, Maeda, Skine, & Yoshida, 2014). HRV provides a noninvasive measurement of the autonomic nervous system, including sympathetic and parasympathetic responses, and vagal tone (Sztajzel, 2004). In previous research, time spent in a natural environment has been correlated with increases in HF HRV activity (Park et. al., 2010). Because it is commonly correlated with parasympathetic nervous activity, high frequency (HF) activity is considered a beneficial component of HRV (Park, Tsunetsugu, Kasetani, Kagawa, & Miyazaki, 2010; Song et. al., 2015). In addition to other physiological improvements, forest bathing, or spending time immersed in natural environments, has led to a decrease in the ratio of low to high frequency HRV, signaling improvements in parasympathetic activity and tone (Park et. al., 2010). Gains in HF HRV were significant in a forest environment but did not appear in a similar urban walking course (Song et. al., 2015). In addition to the results on forest bathing, “earthing,”or the physical or electrical connection to Earth, has also been studied. In a controlled, blinded study, the effects of electrical grounding to the earth were correlated with improvements in measures of HRV, with significant results occurring within twenty minutes of grounding (Chevalier & Sinatra, 2011).

This study is designed to help us understand the accumulative effects of outdoor experiences on HRV and uses the research question, “what is the effect of daily outdoor activity on HRV over the course of eight weeks?” Outdoor Instructors at a Midwestern outdoor education center will be recruited because of the extensive time they will spend outside over the course of the spring season. Individuals who consent to the study will be assigned and trained on the HeartMath emWave2 sensors. Participants will provide an initial five minute recordings each morning for a week to establish a baseline. Additional recordings will take place while resting in an outdoor environment once a week for the next ten weeks, giving us fifteen total recordings.

Data will be uploaded to Kubios software for further analysis and cleaning. The average of each five minute HeartMath session will be used for regression analysis, along with descriptive statistics of each session. Previous studies have looked at the effects of short term outdoor experiences, (Park et. al., 2010; Davidson, Chang, & Ewert, 2014). The data collected will be analyzed to measure the cumulative effect of outdoor experiences over time. It is expected that HRV will increase over the course of the eight weeks, indicating an overall increase in participant’s health and autonomic regulation.


Chevalier, G., & Sinatra, S., (2011). Emotional Stress, Heart Rate Variability, Grounding, and Improved Autonomic Tone: Clinical Applications. Integrative Medicine 10(3) p. 16-21.

Davidson, C., Chang, Y., & Ewert, A. (2014). Multiple methods for identifying outcomes of a high challenge adventure activity. In Symposium for Experiential Education Research Book of Proceedings (pp. 20-24). Chattanooga, TN, Association for Experiential Education Conference.

Park, B. J., Tsunetsugu, Y., Kasetani, T., Kagawa, T., & Miyazaki, Y. (2010). The physiological effects of Shinrin-yoku (taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing): evidence from field experiments in 24 forests across Japan. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, (1), 18.

Song, C., Ikei, H., Miyazaki, Y., Kobayashi, M., Li, Q., Miura, T., & ... Imai, M. (2015). Effect of forest walking on autonomic nervous system activity in middle-aged hypertensive individuals: A pilot study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(3), 2687-2699.

Sztajzel, J. (2004). Heart rate variability: a noninvasive electrocardiographic method to measure the autonomic nervous system. Swiss Medical Weekly, 134(35-36), 514-522.

Tamura, T., Maeda, Y., Sekine, M., & Yoshida, M., (2014). Wearable Photoplethysmographic Sensors – Past and Present. Electronics, 3, 282-302.

Author contact

Sharon Tessneer
Indiana University
1025 E 7th Street
PH 133A
Bloomington, IN 47405

Return to concurrent session 8

A method to support rural municipalities cooperation critical path/ Méthode de soutien au cheminement critique de coopération inter municipale en milieu rural

André Thibault, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
Jocelyn Garneau, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières

A majority of rural municipalities in Quebec can no longer provide alone leisure services. Lack of critical masses, limited financial capacities, changing demand and aging infrastructures encourage greater cooperation between municipalities. Despite these evidences and significant successes, this co-operation is often constrained. Why? Six discussion workshops involving 250 rural municipal elected representatives and an analysis of three cases (Thibault, Brachet, 2013) found that lack of knowledge and up-to-date references explain these constraints that imprisoned deciders in old schemes where villages relations are more in a competitive mood that a cooperative one. Was observed a lack of vision about how now-a-day citizens relate to and occupy a given common territory larger than municipal limits. Furthermore, many still believe that they have to provide a complete spectrum of services on their own resources. Focus groups showed that a lack of models and frameworks on hierarchy of services and facilities organization from neighbourhood to regional level and a past of competition and mistrust between villages that limits the ability to collaborate. At stake are individual interests and capacity to identify common targets and understand the cost/benefit of cooperation (Olson, 2011) which perception are often influenced by negative past experiences and the quality of social and human capital (Putman, 2001). Inter-municipal co-operation evolves in political, cultural and pragmatic environments.

This applied and methodological research consists in developing and testing four measurement tools (territorial occupation, financial capacity, state of the service offer, state of demand) and a coaching process in 12 sets of rural municipalities (Kilburg, Richard R.2000, Hackman and Wageman, 2005) to evaluate financial and demand capacity, recreational infrastructure and how the population occupies the territory beyond the village. The presentation intends discuss the R&D assumptions and methodology used in the project and expose a few results concerning the first two experimental rural areas.


Auger, D. et Fortier, J. (2011). Déploiement du projet de développement durable de la MRC de l'Érable : en quête de mobilisation. Loisir et Société. Vol. 33(2), p. 273-301.

Fortier, J. (2009). Contribution de la concertation à la démocratisation de la gestion municipale : le cas de la Ville de Trois-Rivières. Thèse de doctorat, Département d'études urbaines et touristiques, Université du Québec à Montréal.

Hackman and Wageman. A Theory of Team Coaching. ACAD MANAGE REV April 1, 2005, 30:2 269-287.

Kilburg, Richard R. Executive coaching: Developing managerial wisdom in a world of chaos, Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association Executive coaching: Developing managerial wisdom in a world of chaos.(2000). xiv 253 pp

Olson  (trad. Mario Levi, préf. Pierre Desmarez), (2011), Logique de l'action collective[« The Logic of Collective Action »], Bruxelles, Éditions de l'Université de Bruxelles,‎

Putnam, Robert, D., (2001) Bowling Alone The Collapse and Revival of American Community, Simon & Schuster, 544p

Thibault, Brachet (2013) Une coopération inter municipale efficace pour la population, Rapport d’étude et recommandations, Ville de Saint-Césaire.

Author contact

André Thibault, Ph.D.
Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
3351, boul. des Forges, C.P. 500,
Trois-Rivières QC  G9A 5H7

Return to concurrent session 9

Border crossing and securitization post 9/11: Exploring experiences of Canadian dual citizens

Pooneh Torabian, University of Waterloo

We live in an era in which security politics are generated and sustained by the ‘war on terror’ (Dunne & Wheeler, 2004; Mueller, 2006). The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and more recently terrorist attacks in Europe have changed the discourse of immigration and international travel worldwide. As a result, security and tourism have become more intertwined with geopolitics and racial discrimination has continued to be a widely-debated feature of the politics of control (Anderson, 2013; Bianchi, 2006). In contrast to neoliberal approach to mobility, the security approach has emphasized more control and exclusionary practices (Lahav, 2013). When governments encounter a crisis, the first thing they do is to control the borders by limiting the movement in order to gain more security (Bach, 2003). Borders are the point at which individuals are subjected to power through their bodies and are being limited to an object of knowledge (Epstein, 2007). Shaped by the security approach to mobilities, this issue speaks to the restrictions of travel that are imposed by governments in intense situations, such as the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security by the United States after September 11, 2001 attacks, which has led to increasing border security and the development of measures to identify high risk travellers (Salter, 2004). Restrictions of movement do not only affect the opportunities to move but also sustains inequalities worldwide (Mau, Brabandt, Laube, & Roos, 2012). To date, not many scholars considered the politics of international travel and access in tourism, with some notable exceptions (cf. Bianchi, 2006; Bianchi & Stephenson, 2013 & 2014; Hall, 2010). In my PhD research, which is underway, I am exploring the border crossing experiences of Canadians who hold dual citizenship and have travelled internationally post 9/11. My research is framed by the intersection of theoretically-informed notions of race, identity, citizenship, the right to travel, and the freedom of movement. The theoretical frameworks I have used in my study are Critical Race Theory (CRT) and intersectionality. I conducted 11 in-depth unstructured interviews with Canadian dual citizens who have travelled internationally post 9/11. My focus in this qualitative research is on the ontological experiences of international travel. In particular, I am seeking to understand what dominant discourses materialize at border crossings and how these discourses become embodied in travellers’ experiences. Through this presentation, I will be sharing part of the analysis of the interviews I have conducted to further illustrate how border crossing experiences of individuals are shaped by race, class, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, religion, and nationality. Furthermore, I will discuss how these fragments of identity affect the border crossing experience of individuals 


Anderson, C. G. (2013). Canadian liberalism and the politics of border control, UBC press. Vancouver, BC: Canada.

Bach, R. L. (2003). Global mobility, inequality and security, Journal of Human Development, 4(2), 227-245.

Bianchi, R. (2006). Tourism and globalisation of fear: Analysing the politics of risk and (insecurity) in global travel, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 7(1), 64-74.

Bianchi, R. V. & Stephenson, M. L. (2013). Deciphering tourism and citizenship in a globalized world, Tourism Management, 39, 10-20.

Bianchi, R. V. & Stephenson, M. L. (2014). Tourism and citizenship: Rights, freedoms and responsibilities in the global order, London: Routledge.

Dunne, T. & Wheeler, N. J. (2004). ‘We the peoples’: Contending discourses of security in human rights theory and practice. International Relations, 18(1), 9-23.

Epstein, C. (2007). Guilty bodies, productive bodies, destructive bodies: Crossing the biometric borders, International Political Sociology, 1(2), 149–164.

Hall, C. M. (2010). Equal access for all? Regulative mechanisms, inequality and tourism mobility, In Cole, S. & Morgan, N (eds.). Tourism and inequality: Problems and prospects, (pp. 34-49). London, UK: CABI.

Lahav, G. (2013). Mobilizing against mobility: Immigration politics in a new security world. In: Söderström, O., Randeria, S., Ruedin D., D’Amato G. and Panese F (Eds). pp. 123-152. Critical mobilities EPFL Press [Routledge].

Mau, S., Brabandt, H., Laube, L. & Roos, C. (2012). Liberal states and the freedom of movement: Selective borders, unequal mobility, New York, NY: Palgrave MacMillan.

Mueller, J. (2006) Overblown: How politicians and the terror industry inflate national security threats and why we believe them. New York, NY: Free Press.

Salter, M. B. (2004). Passports, mobility, and security: How smart can the border be?, International Studies Perspective, 5(1), 71-91.

Author contact

Pooneh Torabian, PhD Candidate
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 6

"That looks awesome! How do we get there?": The journey towards leisure of Millennials in the city of Nanaimo

Lan Le Diem Tran, Vancouver Island University

By 2050, two-thirds of the world’s population are expected to be living in urban areas (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affair, 2015). Thus, those that are poorly designed and managed often pay too high a price for congestion, contamination, and large inequalities (United Nations Human Settlements Programme, 2015). Almost a quarter of a city’s environmental footprint stems from transportation alone (Mathez, Manaugh, Chakour, El-Geneidy, & Hatzopoulou, 2012). Dependence on private motorised vehicles has major negative impacts on the environment, society, and economy. The Millennial generation has been shown to prefer sustainable transportation choices (Sivak & Schoettle, 2013). Besides, an important attribute to a high quality of life is leisure (Witkowski & Kiba-Janiak, 2012). Understanding the needs of highly educated young adults is a priority for many cities, especially mid-sized cities like Nanaimo which is trying to attract and support a younger population. Nevertheless, there is still little focus on the Millennial generation in leisure mobility research. The purpose of this study is to identify the role that transportation plays in accessing leisure opportunities for Millennials (20-32 years old) who have been living in the city of Nanaimo for at least six months. A mixed methods approach will be used including an online survey, a Facebook group discussion, and a focus group. A Facebook page will be created as the recruitment tool, as well as the medium for sharing the result highlights to the public. Using convenience and snowball sampling, the online surveys will be distributed from late January to early March of 2017. The online survey will gather information on Millennials’ leisure repertoire, preferences for transportation, and demographics. Simultaneously, a Facebook group will be created and used as the platform for the two-week virtual discussion through monitoring questions and allowing participants to share their thoughts. The focus group occurs shortly after the end of the Facebook group discussion. Using the city’s Bicycle and Transit Route Map 2015, the focus group will point out the locations of Millennials' most frequently done versus desired leisure activities within Nanaimo, how they navigate to participate in them, and participants' perspectives about transportation in the city. The results will be used to describe and classify the leisure mobility styles of Millennials living in Nanaimo, as well as determine the city’s existing transportation system/infrastructure on the leisure repertoires of these Millennials. This research will contribute to the emerging body of literature focused on leisure mobility (Götz, Loose, Schmied, & Schubert, 2003; Munafò, 2015), as well as to the general understanding of the Millennial generation. It will also help inform the city of Nanaimo of the needs of their young residents and identify opportunities for city development, in which sustainability is the goal.


Götz, K., Loose, W., Schmied, M., & Schubert, M. (2003). Mobilitätsstile in der Freizeit: Minderung der Umweltbelastungen des Freitzeit- und Tourismusvehrkehrs [Mobility styles in leisure time: Reduction of environmental damage caused by leisure and tourism traffic]. Commissioned by the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Erich Schmidt Verlag.

Mathez, A., Manaugh, K., Chakour, V., El-Geneidy, A., & Hatzopoulou, M. (2012). How can we alter our carbon footprint? Estimating GHG emissions based on travel survey information. Transportation, 40(1), 131–149.

Munafò, S. (2015). Cadres de vie, modes de vie et mobilités de loisirs : Les vertus de la ville compacte remises en cause? [Living environments, lifestyles and leisure mobility: Are the virtues of the compact city challenged?] (Unpublished doctoral thesis). EFPL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Sivak, M., & Schoettle, B. (2013). Toward understanding the recent large reductions in the proportion of young persons with a driver’s license: A response to Le Vine et al. (2013). Traffic Injury Prevention, 14(6), 658–659.

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affair. (2015, July 29). World population projected to reach 9.7 billion by 2050

United Nations Human Settlements Programme. (2015). UN-HABITAT global activities report 2015: Increasing synergy for greater national ownership

Witkowski, J., & Kiba-Janiak, M. (2012). Correlation between City Logistics and Quality of Life as an Assumption for Referential Model. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 39, 568–581. 

Author contact

Lan Le Diem Tran
Suite no. 221, Summerhill Place Apartment
1820 Summerhill Place
Nanaimo BC  V9S 0C3

Return to concurrent session 8

LGBTQ parents and navigating community-based youth sport culture

Dawn Trussell, Brock University
Laura Kovac, Brock University
Jennifer Apgar, Community Engagement Facilitator

Numerous studies have documented how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) athletes are marginalized through subtle and overt stigmatization as well as the perceived or real threat of discrimination (e.g., Carless, 2012; Cunningham, 2015). At the same time, there is evidence of improved social attitudes that demonstrate growing inclusivity, greater acceptance of LGBTQ identities, and a sense of decreasing cultural homophobia within the sporting context (e.g., Adams & Anderson, 2013; Norman, 2013). Much of the research, however, on diverse and fluid sexual identities is found in educational based settings rather than community-based contexts, and has primarily examined the experiences of athletes (Norman, 2013). Thus, the purpose of this paper is to understand the complexities of diverse family structures within organized youth sport, notably families of LGBTQ parents. Specifically, this research examines how parents who identify as LGBTQ navigate the community-based youth sport culture to support their children’s involvement.

For this study, general principles of feminism provided the guiding framework. Similar to many North American feminist scholars, we used a critical social constructivist lens (Henderson & Shaw, 2006). Central to this perspective is the idea that social action and social justice “relates to ways in which embedded discriminatory and disempowering beliefs and action can be challenged at the individual or group level” (Freysinger, Shaw, Henderson, Bialeschki, 2013, p. 73). In the first phase of the project, data collection occurred through the use of a social network platform (i.e. Facebook) with a moderated asynchronous online discussion over the course of four weeks, with over 70 parents who identified as LGBTQ. Data collection is currently under way whereby insights gained from phase one of the project are being further investigated through semi-structured interviews. This presentation will focus on phase two of the project and data collection/analysis from the semi-structured interviews (completion January 2017). As outlined by Charmaz (2006) and Levy (2015), the strategies of memoing, coding, and comparative method will provide the guiding principles for analysis.

The findings are expected to uncover the lived-experiences of LGBTQ-identified parents with respect to inclusivity in the youth sport culture. This aligns well with the theme of the conference in “Engaging Legacies” through research and knowledge dissemination within communities. The findings may provide cultural competence (Johnson & Waldron, 2011) for youth sport organizations and educators to reduce stigmas, oppression, and heterosexism for parents who identify as LGBTQ and their children. It will also provide the opportunity to share strategies that parents employ to build accepting and inclusive spaces within their community.


Adams, A., & Anderson, E. (2012). Exploring the relationship between homosexuality and sport among the teammates of a small, midwestern catholic college soccer team. Sport, Education and Society, 17(3), 347-363.

Carless, D. (2012). Negotiating sexuality and masculinity in school sport: An autoethnography. Sport, Education and Society, 17(5), 607-625.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory: A practical guide through qualitative analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cunningham, G. B. (2015). LGBT inclusive athletic departments as agents of social change. Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 8, 43-56.

Freysinger, V. J., Shaw, S. M., Henderson, K. A., Bialeschki, M. D. (2013). Feminist theories: A diversity of contributions and perspectives. In V.J. Freysinger, S.M. Shaw, K.A. Henderson, & M.D. Bialeschki (Eds.) Leisure, women, and gender (pp. 63-82). State College, PA: Venture Publishing.

Henderson, K., & Shaw, S. (2006). Leisure and gender: Challenges and opportunities for feminist research. In C. Rojek, S. Shaw, & A.J. Veal (Eds.), A handbook of leisure studies, (pp. 216-230). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Levy, D. L. (2015). Discovering grounded theories for social justice. In C. W. Johnson & D. C. Parry (Eds.) Fostering Social Justice through Qualitative Inquiry, pp. 71-99. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast.

Johnson, C. W. & Waldron, J. (2011). Are you culturally competent? Understanding the relationship between leisure and the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals. In K. Paisley & D. Dustin (Eds.), Speaking up and speaking out: Working through social and environmental justice through parks, recreation, and leisure (pp. 171-179). Urbana, IL: Sagamore Publishing.

Norman, L. (2013). The concepts underpinning everyday gendered homophobia based upon the experiences of lesbian coaches. Sport in Society, 16(10), 1326-1345.

Author contact

Dawn Trussell
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 5

A panel on family leisure: Critical reflections on the future of family-centred scholarship

Dawn Trussell, Brock University
Shannon Hebblethwaite, Concordia University
Camilla Hodge, Penn State University
Charlene Shannon, University of New Brunswick
Iryna Sharaievska, Appalachian State University

In the mid-1990s, a special issue on “Research on Leisure and Families” (see Journal of Leisure Research, 1997, volume 1) significantly influenced family leisure scholarship in North America through the turn of the century. Since then, the field has developed considerably and a number of thematic elements have played a major role in constraining, enriching, mediating, and altering everyday family interactions and practices. These elements include globalization, economic instability, mass migration, neo-liberal government paradigms, a culture of consumerism, technological advancements, demographic changes, and shifting public policy of what legally defines a family. Further, given the recent dramatic shifts in governance and divisive politics, and considerable debate around issues pertaining to human rights, inclusion, and social justice, there is no better time to understand the impacts of these broader social issues on family life.

The purpose of this panel session for the 2017 Canadian Congress on Leisure Research is to provide a forum for discussing the past, current and future of family leisure scholarship since this special issue. In this panel, scholars will examine the progress made and challenges ahead in research on leisure and families. The panel discussion aligns well with the “Engaging Legacies” theme, through an alternative format, that highlights the families who in part constitute communities, and the potential for research and knowledge mobilization to advance our understanding therein.

Panelists will examine theoretical developments, alternate theorizations of family leisure, perspectives that are represented and/or marginalized within the literature, and some of the major thematic elements (as noted in the first paragraph) that shape what constitutes a family and their lived-experiences.

The structure of the panel is proposed as follows:

  1. Panelists will each give a presentation that reflect their specialized areas of interest within family leisure scholarship that will be used as a springboard for moving discussions forward. (60 minutes)
  2. A moderated series of questions interrogating the topics identified in this abstract as well as an interactive dialogue with the audience. (30 minutes)

Author contact

Dawn Trussell
Brock University
1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way
St. Catharines ON  L2S 3A1

Return to concurrent session 6

Untying the knot: Leisure perspectives on the experiences of young, divorced women

Bronwen Valtchanov, University of Waterloo
Diana Parry, University of Waterloo

Marriage remains one of the most important social institutions organizing the lives of individuals (Eichler, 2012). When marriage ends in divorce, there is a profound personal and social disruption (Caputa, 2014; Catron & Chiriboga, 1991). Given high rates of divorce—about 4 in 10 marriages (Stanton, 2015; Vanier Institute, 2013)—there has been a preponderance of divorce research over the last several decades. However, there remain significant research gaps, including a paucity of current research on the lived experiences of young women—in their 20s and 30s—without children, experiencing divorce.

This group of women may have distinct individual and cultural influences compared to women in their 40s and 50s (or older), with children, experiencing divorce. For instance, the current cultural environment of young women includes powerful gendered ideologies of femininity, coupledom, pronatalism and familism, which promote self-worth and self-definition through women’s heterosexual relationships leading to eventual marriage and motherhood (Cobb, 2011; DePaulo, 2006; Lazar, 2002; Ulrich & Weatherall, 2000). Accordingly, divorce for young women without children represents a significant departure from these deeply gendered cultural norms of couplehood and motherhood. As with other groups of individuals who divert from hegemonic ideologies, young women experiencing divorce report feeling alone, marginalized, and stigmatized (Lunau, 2011; Rothchild, 2010). While there may be unique challenges for young women experiencing divorce, this transition may also be an opportunity for women to rebuild their lives in ways that assert their own identities and potentially resist some of the stultifying ideologies young women encounter (Caputa, 2014). Clearly, there is a fascinating nexus of cultural ideologies shaping the individual experiences of divorce for young women without children.

As with other ideologies, those affecting young, divorced women are often reproduced, maintained, and resisted within leisure contexts (Shaw, 2001). However, despite significant leisure connections, the leisure literature has largely ignored women’s experiences of divorce generally, with the exception of limited research on parental divorce. Furthermore, to my knowledge, no leisure research to date has specifically explored young women’s experiences of divorce to usefully highlight its connections to family, relationships, and popular culture, among other valuable considerations. As such, this dissertation research seeks to add a leisure perspective to exploring young women’s experiences of divorce.

The sociocultural contexts and preliminary ideas surrounding this proposed dissertation research will be discussed. Specifically, I will explore how young, divorced women, without children, are influenced by different gendered ideologies reflecting social, cultural, relational, and personal contexts and pressures. To unpack the complexity of these experiences, this narrative inquiry study will be framed by several conceptual and disciplinary frameworks: a transitions perspective; a third wave feminist conceptual orientation; and a leisure perspective—all of which will be informed by the research as a feminist social justice project that aims to expose the marginalization and stigmatization faced by young, divorced women and to illuminate new understandings of their complex, lived experiences.


Caputa, J. (2014). Trash the dress: Stories of celebrating divorce in your 20s. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace Independent Publishing.

Catron, L. S., & Chiriboga, D. A. (1991). Passage through divorce: A transitions perspective. In D.A. Chiriboga & L. S. Catron (Eds.), Divorce: Crisis, challenge or relief? (pp. 97-124). New York, NY: New York University Press. 

Cobb, M. (2011). Single: Arguments for the uncoupled. New York: New York University Press.

DePaulo, B. (2006). Singled out: How singles are stereotyped, stigmatized, and ignored, and still live happily ever after. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Eichler, M. (2012). Marriage and divorce. In The Canadian Encyclopedia

Lazar, M. M. (2002). Consuming personal relationships: The achievement of feminine self-identity through other-centredness. In L. Litosseliti & J. Sunderland (Eds.), Gender identity and discourse analysis (pp. 111-128). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.

Lunau, K. (2011, November). Young, divorced and stigmatized. Maclean’s.  

Rothchild, S. (2010). How to get divorced by 30: My misguided attempt at a starter marriage. New York: Penguin Group.

Shaw, S. M. (2001). Conceptualizing resistance: Women’s leisure as political practice. Journal of Leisure Research, 33(2), 186-201.

Stanton, G. (2015, December). What is the actual US divorce rate and risk? The Witherspoon Institute.

Vanier Institute of the Family (2013). Separation and divorce in Canada.

Ulrich, M., & Weatherall, A. (2000). Motherhood and infertility: Viewing motherhood through the lens of infertility. Feminism & Psychology10(3), 323-336.

Author contact

Bronwen Valtchanov
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 5

Exploring free-choice learning in agritourism contexts

Christine M. Van Winkle, University of Manitoba
Amanda Cairns, University of Manitoba
Corrie Lynn McDougall, University of Winnipeg

The purpose of this research was to examine the free-choice learning experiences of visitors to agritourism attractions. The Contextual Model of Learning (CML) was used as a framework to understand learning about agriculture in leisure and tourism contexts. Existing research examining the CML has typically focused on structured settings like museums, with fewer studies examining learning in unstructured leisure contexts like many agritourism attractions (Falk, Ballantyne, & Packer, 2012). This project has the potential to impact visitor researchers, farmers, the agriculture industry, the tourism industry, and agritourists.

This research took place at five agritourism sites in Manitoba, including: Boonstra Farms, Integrity Foods, Deer Meadow Farms, St. Norbert Farmers’ Market, and the Harvest Moon Festival. These sites were selected based on an existing typology for defining agritourism that delineates locations into five categories (Flanigan, Blackstock, & Hunter, 2014). Personal meaning maps (PMMs) were used as a method to understand visitors’ learning about agriculture during their visit to the agritourism sites (Falk & Dierking, 2000). This involved visitors brainstorming about a prompt word: “agriculture”. Visitors to each of the five sites were systematically invited to participate in the study. Participants completed PMMs at the beginning of their visit and made revisions at the end of their visit. In total, 147 individuals participated in the research. The PMMs were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The qualitative content analysis found eight different categories related to agricultural content including: economic impacts, farming culture, agricultural practices and infrastructure, environmental considerations, agricultural commodities, scale and setting of agriculture, ways of knowing, and health. The quantitative analysis of the PMMs involved scores for extent, depth, breadth, and mastery. This revealed that most visitors demonstrated an increase in their extent and breadth of knowledge but few showed any change in their depth or mastery from pre-to-post visit at the agritourism destinations. This research found that visitors to agritourism sites arrive knowing about diverse aspects of agriculture including factors affecting agriculture, agricultural practices, and the outcomes of agriculture. Agricultural commodities such as products and livestock were the most commonly referenced elements of agriculture. Prior to the visit, health related concepts were least commonly discussed. Post-visit, farming culture was the most elaborated upon whereas agricultural practices were the least elaborated upon concept. The extent and breadth of agricultural knowledge are the areas where visitors experienced the greatest changes. Depth and mastery did not show major change from pre-to-post visit. This study demonstrated that individuals are learning about agriculture at these destinations but the ideas and connections made to other concepts are not deep and do not lead to mastery. This project has enhanced practice by providing agritourism operators with needed insight into their visitor’s experience. By understanding what and how people learn about agriculture through agritourism, visitor experiences can potentially be improved to facilitate learning during these visits. This research informs our understanding about how leisure experiences in agricultural settings can contribute to agricultural literacy and life long learning about where products and food are produced.


Falk, J. & Dierking, L, (2000). Learning From Museums: Visitor Experiences and the Making of Meaning. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.

Falk, J.H., Ballantyne, R., Packer, J., & Benckendorff, P. (2012). Travel and learning: A neglected tourism research area. Annals of Tourism Research 39 (2), 908-927

Flanigan, S., Blackstock, K., & Hunter, C. J. (2014). Agritourism from the perspective of providers and visitors: a typology-based study. Tourism Management, 40, 394-405

Author contact

Christine Van Winkle
University of Manitoba
110 Frank Kennedy Centre
University of Manitoba
Winnipeg Manitoba  R3T 2N2

Return to concurrent session 9

Connecting leisure and small city downtown areas through cultural mapping

Nicole Vaugeois, Vancouver Island University
Alanna Williams, Vancouver Island University
Sharon Karsten, Simon Fraser University
Pam Shaw, Vancouver Island University

One of the most visible avenues used by small cities to retain competitiveness can be seen in their attempts to revitalize downtown areas to create places enjoyed and valued by residents and visitors. While efforts to address downtown revitalization are evident, there remains a need to understand if and why residents feel connected to their downtown areas, and what role leisure plays in their attachment to place.  Small cities are increasingly turning to cultural mapping as a way to identify the assets and values associated to the places and spaces within their boundaries (Duxbury, Garrett-Petts and MacLennan, 2015). Deep mapping is “an inherently interdisciplinary practice, [facilitated by] digital technology [that enables mapping to] get beyond the brochure and provide rich content across disciplines, cultures and time” (Scherf, 2015; 341). Deep mapping presents “as a geographical map” but utilizes “rich content to ‘volatize’ and convey the spirit of place” (ibid).

Despite the fact that place is a “pervasive component of leisure and tourism” (Crouch, 2006:63), there has been a call for leisure researchers to more actively pursue investigation into the spatial dimensions of leisure (Smale, 2006), particularly in urban public spaces (Johnson and Glover, 2013), and downtown areas as sits of “everyday leisure” (Johnson, Glover & Stewart, 2014).  Leisure researchers may play a critical role in supporting small city place making initiatives by uncovering and mapping how residents engage with places during their leisure.  Cultural mapping may provide a tool to leisure researchers to aid in these investigations.

This case study highlights a cultural mapping project in three small cities on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The cultural mapping process included the active participation of local citizens, business owners, municipal development leaders, arts and culture associations, and Aboriginal groups. Three public engagement events or “walk abouts” were coordinated where 85 videos were captured of residents speaking to the places that they felt most connected to in their downtown core.  These videos were then uploaded to Arc GIS resulting in the first layer of a dynamic map for each community.  The videos were shared widely in digital form on the project website and collectively, uncovered deep layers of meaning associated to a variety of downtown places. 

Leisure emerged as a central theme in the connect spots shared both in terms of the venues profiled and the experiences of residents. Further analysis of these spots highlighted the embedded role of leisure in place attachment and the range of settings where attachment to community forms.  The findings support the argument that a more nuanced and fluid typology of public space be used to frame leisure research and that we “continually adjust our eyes, constructs and concepts to see the contemporary moment in all its variations and formations” (Cook, 2006 as cited in Johnson and Glover, 2013; 194). Similarly, the results align with the perspective shared by Johnson, Glover & Stewart (2014) that downtown areas interested in place making would benefit by seeking resident input and by providing places conducive to social interactions and everyday leisure.


Cook, D.T. (2006).Problematizing consumption, community, and leisure: Some thoughts on moving beyond essentialist thinking, Leisure/Loisir, 30:2, 455-466.

Crouch, D. (2006). Geographies of leisure.In C. Rojeck, S.M. Shaw, & A.J. Veal (eds)., A handbook of leisure studies (125-139). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Duxbury, N., Garrett-Petts, W., MacLennan, D. (2015). Introduction to an Emerging Field of Practice, Cultural Mapping as Cultural Inquiry. Duxbury, N., Garrett-Petts, W. & MacLennan, D. (Eds). New York: Routledge.

Johnson, A.J., and Glover, T.D. (2013). Understanding urban public space in a leisure context, Leisure Sciences, 35:2, 190-197.

Johnson, A.J., Glover, T.G., & Stewart, W.P. (2014). Attracting locals downtown: Everyday leisure as place-making initiative, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 32:2, 28-42.

Scherf, K. (2015). Beyond the Brochure: An Unmapped Journey into Deep Mapping. Cultural Mapping as Cultural Inquiry. MacLennan, D.; Garrett-Petts, W.F. & Duxbury, N. (Eds.). New York: Routledge.

Smale, B. (2006). Critical perspectives on place in leisure research, Leisure/Loisir, 30:2, 369-382.

Author contact

Nicole Vaugeois
Vancouver Island University
900 Fifth Street
Nanaimo BC  V9R 5S5

Return to concurrent session 8

The subtlety of difference: Sexism on and off the soccer field

Faith-Anne Wagler, University of Waterloo
Lisbeth A. Berbary, University of Waterloo

Existing research suggests that co-ed sport is a format that can encourage men and women to learn from each other, but also that it can be place where gendered ideologies are reinforced (Anderson, 2008; Henry & Comeaux, 1999; Wachs, 2002; Wachs, 2005).  The purpose of this paper is to illuminate some of the more subtle forms of sexism that occur on and off the co-ed soccer field.  The proposed presentation will discuss results, in the form of screenplay excerpts, from a study on experiences of co-ed soccer.  The screenplay was constructed from conversational interviews with co-ed soccer players, and much of the dialogue within the screenplay comes directly from the participants.  By hearing a ‘performance’ of the research conversations in a different context and setting, new ways of understanding can be formed.   The screenplay, a form of creative analytic practice, can also help show the contextualized complexities of leisure and sport experiences, instead of simply telling them (Berbary & Johnson, 2012; Parry & Johnson, 2007).  The focus of the screenplay excerpts will be ways that women and men, in their conversations and actions as co-ed soccer players, reinforce and resist gendered ideologies.  This screenplay will also explore experiences of sexism and the associated thoughts and feelings by co-ed soccer players.

This research was conducted with a feminist lens, seeking to explore gendered sport experiences for the purpose of social justice and change.  Research participants were viewed as the experts of their own experiences, and the research process was viewed as equally important as the outcome (Campbell & Wasco, 2000).  With this approach, the research was co-created by the researcher and participants and “knowledge building [became] a relational process rather than an objective product, a process that demands critical self-reflection, dialogue, and interaction” (Hesse-Biber & Piatelli, 2012, p. 177).  As a researcher, my role became one of a facilitator and participant that listened and talked about each unique story. 

The current research ties in to the theme of this conference in that the goal of the research is to work with participants to create knowledge, and to use that knowledge to work towards more inclusive co-ed sport experiences.  Based on the experiences shared in the conversational interviews, I wrote recommendations to encourage more gender equitable sport experiences.  These recommendations were then sent to the soccer league that participants played in, so the league could make changes that could reduce sexism and improve playing experiences.  While organizational changes could lead to change, this research also suggests that what largely impacts leisure experiences in co-ed sport are the attitudes and behaviours of individual team members.  Therefore, it is my hope that by hearing this research, leisure scholars can learn something new about sexism, sport, and leisure and apply it to the other roles they occupy (e.g. parent, family member, partner, sport participant, administrator, coach, etc.).  In this way knowledge can result in change which will help create more equitable and enjoyable leisure experiences. 


Anderson, E.  (2008).  “I used to think women were weak”: Orthodox masculinity, gender segregation, and sport.  Sociological Forum, 23(2), 257-280.

Berbary, L.A., & Johnson, C. W.  (2012).  The American sorority girl recast: An ethnographic screenplay of leisure in context.  Leisure/Loisir, 36(3/4), 243-268.

Campbell, R., & Wasco, S. M.  (2000).  Feminist approaches to social science: Epistemological and methodological tenets.  American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(6), 773-791.

Henry, J. M., & Comeaux, H. P.  (1999).  Gender egalitarianism in coed sport: A case study of American soccer.  International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 34(3), 277-290.

Hesse-Biber, S. N., & Piatelli, D.  (2012b).  The synergistic practice of theory and method.  In S. Hesse-Biber (Ed.), The handbook of feminist research: Theory and praxis (2nd ed.) (pp. 176-186).  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Parry, D. C., & Johnson, C. W.  (2007).  Contextualizing leisure research to encompass complexity in lived leisure experience: The need for creative analytic practice.  Leisure Sciences, 29(2), 119-130.

Wachs, F. L.  (2002).  Leveling the playing field: Negotiating gendered rules in coed softball.  Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 20(3), 300-316.

Wachs, F. L.  (2005).  The boundaries of difference: Negotiating gender in recreational sport.  Sociological Inquiry, 75(4), 527-547.

Author contact

Faith-Anne Wagler
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1 

Return to concurrent session 2

Social class and intrinsic motivation during leisure and paid work

Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta

Blackshaw (2010) posited that paid work has become more “leisure-like” and leisure has become more “work-like”. Florida (2012) concurred, adding that this “de-differentiation” was most apt for members of the “creative class”. The creative class spans “…science and technology, arts, media, and culture, traditional knowledge workers, and the professions” (Florida, 2012, p. vii); and can be subdivided into the super-creative core (e.g., professors) and creative professionals (e.g., lawyers). According to Florida, two other classes exist: working (e.g., plumbers) and service (e.g., salespeople). Empirical research on how leisure and work are similar and different across classes is rare. Walker (2016) examined how well basic psychological needs were satisfied in these two domains across Florida’s classes. Although he found support for de-differentiation by super-creative core members in terms of autonomy, he also found support for de-differentiation by working and service class members in terms of competence. Given these mixed results, it seems worthwhile to examine these same domains and classes using another psychological concept—one often associated with leisure, work, and creativity: intrinsic motivation.

Data were obtained, using computer-assisted telephone interviewing, from Albertans who worked at least twenty hours per week. Intrinsic motivation was measured using two, 5-point Likert scale items (i.e., “I do the activities I do during leisure [my paid job] because they are interesting [enjoyable]”; Gagne et al., 2010). For comparative purposes, four other motivations—integrated, identified, introjected, and external (Deci & Ryan, 2000)—were measured in the same manner. Detailed occupational information was also collected, thus allowing assignment to one of Florida’s (2012) four classes. Participants were primarily female (53.0%), 35 to 64 years old (77.6%), and worked 39.1 hours per week. Two series of dependent t-tests (see Table 1) indicated that participants were primarily: (a) intrinsically motivated during leisure; and (b) integrated and identified motivated during work. A third series of dependent t-tests (see Table 2) indicated that intrinsic motivation was greater during leisure than work overall, t(337)=12.47, p<.0001, as well as across classes: super-creative: t(76)=4.73, p<.0001; creative professional: t(105)=7.55, p<.0001; working: t(54)=5.35, p<.0001; service: t(93)=7.35, p<.0001). An ANOVA indicated that intrinsic motivation during leisure did not differ across classes, F(3,334)=0.58, p>.05. A second ANOVA was significant, F(3,334)=3.53, p<.05 R2=.03; with a follow-up Tukey’s test indicating that intrinsic motivation during work was greater for the super-creative class than the service class.

Blackshaw (2010) proposed that leisure and paid work were becoming de-differentiated, with Florida (2012) holding that this was especially true for the creative class. My findings do not support either proposition as: (a) overall, the effect size difference in intrinsic motivation was large (Cohen, 1992); and (b) for the two creative classes, the differences in this motive were medium to large. Noteworthy, too, is that intrinsic motivation during leisure was constant across classes, whereas during work it differed—slightly—between only two classes. These findings suggest that intrinsic motivation is a “quintessential” (Unger & Kernan, 1983) attribute of most workers’ leisure.     


Blackshaw, T. (2010). Leisure. London and New York: Routledge.

Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The  “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Florida, R. (2012). The rise of the creative class—Revisited: 10th anniversary edition. (2012). New York: Basic Books.

Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M. H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The Motivation at Work Scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70, 628-646.

Ryan, R. M. (1982). Control and information in the intrapersonal sphere: An extension of cognitive evaluation theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 450-461.

Unger, L. S., & Kernan, J. B. (1983). On the meaning of leisure: An investigation of some determinants of the subjective experience. Journal of Consumer research, 9, 381-392.

Walker, G. J. (2016). Social class and basic psychological need satisfaction during leisure and paid work. Journal of Leisure Research, 48, 228-244.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for appendices.

Author contact

Gordon Walker
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
2-158T VVC (University Hall)
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 6

Exploring best practices of positive youth development: Perceptions of frontline and senior staff of recreational youth programs

Evan Webb, University of Ottawa
George Karlis, University of Ottawa

Positive youth development (PYD) has gained much popularity over the past two decades as a topic of research arising out of the field of behavioural psychology. This replaces the traditional deficit reduction ideology of targeting undesirable youth behaviours and discouraging these through intervention with an approach that focuses on building upon youth’s strengths, skills and qualities that propel them on a healthy developmental trajectory into adulthood (Lerner et al., 2000; Small & Memmo, 2004). Ironically, while PYD interventions heavily utilize recreational contexts aimed at youth, the presence of this theoretical framework within the leisure literature is sparse. However, the leisure field places substantial importance on practitioners’ day-to-day use of theoretical knowledge. Therefore, PYD’s relevance within this body of knowledge would be contingent on the identification of how recreational contexts can support the onset of PYD outcomes in youth participants as these do not occur naturally without proper planning and structure. Some research in PYD has suggested several contextual/environmental factors needed (Eccles & Gootman, 2002) though support for these through empirical evidence is lacking. Also, with PYD experiencing growing popularity in the field of sport and exercise psychology, much of that recent research has been exploring what contextual factors (Fraser-Thomas et al., 2005; Petitpas et al., 2005) and actions taken by those delivering the activity (mostly coaches and physical education teachers; Gould & Carson, 2008; Hellison; 1995) can encourage the onset of PYD outcomes within sport and physical activity. Nevertheless, research examining how PYD can be achieved within contexts outside of sport and exercise are lacking, though many programs offering a wide spectrum of recreational pursuits for youth exist in organizations working within communities attempting to address their at-risk youth populations. The current research is a multiple case study of three non-profit organizations that each have a mandate in place for PYD and a reputation for encouraging such outcomes in youth in their respective communities. Data were collected from both frontline and senior staff in charge of delivering various types of programs including art, leadership training, debate clubs, cooking, recreational sports, and community outreach. One-on-one qualitative, audio recorded, interviews with these individuals were conducted to determine, not only what PYD outcomes they noticed and sought out within youth participants but what processes and mechanisms were in place to help ensure their program’s success. Results of thematic analyses of participant transcripts show that a variety of environmental factors (e.g., safe environment, supportive leaders) and activities (e.g., role modeling, rewards/incentives) are utilized among the three organizations that help encourage the onset of PYD outcomes in their youth participants. Moreover, there is data that reveals various unique factors (e.g., active pursuit) in place in each of the three programs and across their various activities contributing to their success. These findings are presented in a way that encourages the practical use of the theoretical knowledge reported in this study explaining how these factors can be utilized in the design and implementation of recreational programs aimed at PYD.


Eccles, J. S., & Gootman, J. A. (Eds.). (2002). Community programs to promote youth development. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Fraser-Thomas, J. L., Coté, J., & Deakin, J. (2005). Youth sport programs: An avenue to foster positive youth development. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 10(1), 19-40.

Gould, D., & Carson, S. (2008). Life skills development through sport: Current status and future directions. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1(1), 58-78.

Hellison, D. (1995). Teaching responsibility through physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20.

Small, S., & Memmo, M. (2004). Contemporary models of youth development and problem prevention: Toward an integration of terms, concepts and models. Family Relations, 53(1), 3-11.

Author contact

Evan Webb
University of Ottawa
10 Fogerty Street
Brampton ON  L6Y 5K3

Return to concurrent session 9

Positive youth development and volunteering: Youth’s transition from member to volunteer

Evan Webb, University of Ottawa
George Karlis, University of Ottawa

Research in leisure studies has long examined leisure volunteering approaching the topic from various angles (e.g., psychological, sociological, economic) and exploring it within a diverse set of contexts (e.g., sport events, museums, firefighting). Within the past two decades much attention has been brought towards leisure volunteering as a mode of community development (CD). Volunteering is tied to increased social capital (i.e., enhanced social networks and social support) and building skills necessary for empowering individuals towards social action and community contribution (Arai, 1996; 2000; Arai & Pedlar, 1997; Pedlar, 1996; Wilson, 2000). Another area of study which discusses building upon citizens’ capacity to give back constructively to their communities is positive youth development (PYD). Theorists in PYD suggest that by providing youth with the opportunities to build necessarily skills (e.g., interpersonal skills) and develop various positive qualities (e.g., confidence, compassion, character) they can experience healthy growth into an ideal adult with the ability and propensity to contribute to their communities (Benson et al., 1998; Lerner et al., 2000). Both the CD and PYD frameworks appear to have a similar overarching goal of helping communities thrive even though the approaches taken are vastly different. Nonetheless, there is some compatibility between the two frameworks and research utilizing concepts from both may provide substantial findings. Specifically, it is worth exploring whether the implementation of volunteering and community outreach components in youth programs can instill in its participants the values of contribution. At the moment such aspects are missing in most PYD programs (Coakley, 2011). This current research is a multiple case study of two particular PYD organisations that contain volunteering and community outreach components for its youth participants. One-on-one, audio recorded interviews were utilized to collect qualitative data from some of the youth volunteers, staff who use to be youth volunteers, and senior programming staff from these two organizations. The results suggest that there is potential for youth to develop the skills (e.g., leadership, teamwork, communication), qualities (e.g., confidence, compassion, character), and social connections (e.g., peers, program staff, community leaders) necessary to instill in them a capacity and propensity to contribute to their communities when opportunities for volunteering and community outreach are provided in PYD programming. Moreover, interviews with participants revealed several examples of youth donating their time and efforts towards goodwill (e.g., volunteering at a homeless shelter, helping to build a playground). Theoretical implications of these findings help demonstrate the potential of combining both the PYD and CD frameworks in future leisure research while also justifying the need for volunteer and community outreach components in youth programs aimed at positive development.


Arai, S. M. (1996). Benefits of citizen participation in a healthy communities initiative: Linking community development and empowerment. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 21, 25-44.

Arai, S. M. (2000). Typology of volunteers for a changing sociopolitical context: The impact on Social capital, citizenship, and civil society. Loisir et societe/ Society and Leisure, 23(2), 327-352.

Arai, S. M., & Pedlar, A. (1997). Building communities through leisure: Citizen involvement in a healthy communities initiative. Journal of Leisure Research, 22, 167-182.

Benson, P. L., Leffert, N., Scales, P. C., & Blyth, D. A. (1998). Beyond the ‘village’ rhetoric:Creating healthy communities for children and adolescents, Applied Developmental Science, 2(3), 138–159.

Coakley, J. (2011). Youth sports: What counts as positive development? Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 35(3), 306-324.

Lerner, R. M., Fisher, C. B., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). Toward a science for and of the people: Promoting civil society through the application of developmental science. Child Development, 71(1), 11-20.

Pedlar, A. (1996). Community development: What does it mean for recreation and leisure? Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 21, 5-23.

Wilson, J. (2000).Volunteering. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 215-240.

Author contact

Evan Webb
University of Ottawa
10 Fogerty Street
Brampton ON  L6Y 5K3

Return to concurrent session 9

Can ‘time’ be stopped? Exploring the impact of criminal records on community-based leisure recreation

Brittany Weisgarber, Dalhousie University
Dr. Barbara-Ann Hamilton-Hinch, Dalhousie University
Dr. Catherine White, Dalhousie University

Individuals released from prison, many of whom experience mental health (MH) challenges, re-enter communities with a criminal record and face limitations on their capacity to reintegrate into meaningful activities (Hassan et al., 2012). Existing literature suggests MH services are inadequate in prison and community settings, and offenders released into the community without consistent treatment are more likely to reoffend (Chang et al., 2015). Having a criminal record exacerbates challenges by contributing to social exclusion both in the workplace and in recreation/ leisure settings.

Participation in community leisure has been “largely neglected (and perhaps undervalued)” (Iwasaki et al., 2014) in support of MH and social inclusion. Link and Williams (2015) report a positive correlation between leisure functioning and rehabilitation/ successful re-entry to the community. Stumbo and colleagues (2015) report that therapeutic recreation (TR) services provide opportunities for positive social interaction and social inclusion, which are essential for recovery from mental illness. Additionally, recreation programs analyzed by Pedlar, Yuen, and Fortune (2008) and Fortune and Yuen (2015) were found to connect females with criminal records with women in the community, as well as address barriers to social inclusion. Gender differences are anticipated, and findings from studies of females cannot necessarily be generalized to males.

This study was created with the intention of taking action to create inclusive communities that facilitate successful reintegration of individuals with criminal records. Minimizing barriers to accessing leisure/recreation opportunities has the potential to foster community connections, enhance MH and quality of life, and ultimately reduce rates of recidivism within the criminal justice system.

This study explored challenges and opportunities for males with criminal records during community reintegration (CRI). It focused on how and if these males access meaningful recreation/ leisure and the resulting impact on MH. These preliminary findings may be relevant for the development of further studies and services for males with criminal records with and without MH challenges.

This pilot project used qualitative individual telephone interviews to collect data from males with criminal records who have been released from a correctional facility. This data provides preliminary information on barriers to community based recreation/ leisure, and what TR services could assist this population during CRI. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide and data was coded using the six phase practical approach to thematic analysis (Gray, 2014).

Research data yielded 3 themes. Theme 1, ‘Becoming the Other’ describes challenges experienced to participation in community recreation and to success with CRI. Theme 2, ‘Becoming me Again’ discusses participant’s opportunities to actively participate in their community, and how participation contributed to their CRI process. Theme 3, ‘Creating a New Cycle’ outlines participant suggestions for TR interventions should they be developed for this population.


Chang, Z., Larsson, H., Lichtenstein, P & Fazel, S. (2015).  Psychiatric disorders and  violent reoffending: a national cohort study of convicted prisoners in Sweden. Lancet Psychiatry, 2(10). 

Fortune, D & Yuen, F. (2015).  Transitions in identity, belonging, and citizenship and the possibilities of inclusion for women leaving prison: Implications for therapeutic recreation. Journal of the Canadian Association for Leisure Studies, 39, 253-276.

Gray, D. E. (2014). Doing research in the real world. London, United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Hassan, L., Rahman, M. S., King, C., Senior, J., & Shaw, J. (2012). Level of mental health intervention with clinical need among inmates with mental illness in five English jails. Psychiatric Services, 63(12), 1218-1224. 

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C., Shank, J., Messina, E., Porter, H., Salzer, M., . . . Koons, G. (2014).  Role of leisure in recovery from mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 17(2), 147-165.

Link, A. J., & Williams, D. J. (2015). Leisure functioning and offender rehabilitation: A correlational exploration into factors affecting successful reentry. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 

Pedlar, A., Yuen, F., & Fortune, D. (2008). Incarcerated women and leisure: Making good girls out of bad?. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 42(1), 24-36.

Stumbo, N. J., Wilder, A., Zahl, M., DeVries, D., Pegg, S., Greenwood, J., & Ross, J. (2015). Community Integration: Showcasing the Evidence for Therapeutic Recreation Services. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 49(1), 35-60

Author contact

Brittany Weisgarber
Dalhousie University
6131 Charles Street
Halifax NS  B3K 1L2

Return to concurrent session 1

Resistance is futile? Activist burnout and the (un)sustainable future of radical civil leisure

Kathryn M. Wettlaufer, University of Waterloo
Lisbeth Berbary, University of Waterloo

Social and environmental justice activism is familiar within our field as a form of civil leisure, itself a valuable counterpoint to the institutionalization and commodification of leisure, especially in this neoliberal era (Erickson, 2011). Moreover, contemporary radical social movements constitute a dedicated leisure context in which participants profess, and strive to practice, direct resistance to hegemony, injustice, and oppression (Shaw, 2006). This also comes with unique and complex constraints (Mair, 2002/2003), and in particular, activist burnout is widely accepted by activists and academics alike (Cox, 2009; Plyler, 2006) as a critical threat to the success and sustainability of social and environmental justice efforts. However, its basis in personal decisions “versus” collective norms is often disputed. This presentation, and the research behind it, takes up Althusser’s (1970) theory of the ideological state apparatus to explore relationships between the two: building on the results of a narrative inquiry with activists from across Southern Ontario, it will explore the roots of burnout in how the region’s social movements have (re)produced uncanny and intersecting “ideologies” of activism that echo neoliberal capitalism and foster unsupportively “radical” spaces. This ideological social movement apparatus, then, is more than a painful irony; rather, the difficulty of extricating ourselves from layers of oppressive enculturation is by social design, requiring more explicit and collective challenge. While waking to the harsh reality of structural oppression can, for many activists and scholars, catalyze a sense of collective identity and inspire action (Cuomo & Massaro, 2014; Ingalsbee, 1996), it takes more than awareness to unlearn the ways that structural oppressions operate through us in our everyday life—even in our most oppositional work. This presentation will make a case for such focused unlearning as an activist and leisure studies priority, if our social movements and the civil leisure they support are to be sustainable well into the (better?) future we strive so valiantly to create.  


Althusser, L. (1970). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (Notes towards an investigation). La Pensée, 1970. Translated from the French by Ben Brewster.

Cox, L. 2009. ‘Hearts with one purpose alone’? Thinking personal sustainability in social movements. Emotion, Space and Society, 2, 52-61.

Cuomo, D., & Massaro, V.A. (2014). Boundary-making in feminist research: New methodologies for ‘intimate insiders’. Gender, Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 23(1), 94-106.

Erickson, B. (2011). Recreational activism: Politics, nature, and the rise of neoliberalism. Leisure Studies, 30(4), 477-494.

Ingalsbee, T. (1996). Earth First! Activism: Ecological Postmodern Praxis in Radical Environmentalist Identities. Sociological Perspectives, 39(2), 263-276.

Mair, H. (2002/2003). Civil leisure? Exploring the relationship between leisure, activism and social change. Leisure/Loisir, 27(3-4), 213-237.

Plyler, J. (2006). How to keep on keeping on: Sustaining ourselves in community organizing and social justice struggles. Upping the Anti, 3, 123-134.

Shaw, S. M. (2006). Resistance. In C. Rojek, S. M. Shaw, & A. J. Veal (Eds.), A handbook of leisure studies (pp. 533-545). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Author contact

Kathryn M. Wettlaufer
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 9

Contributions of intergenerational service-learning in challenging student assumptions of aging

Colleen Whyte, Brock University

Service-learning is a unique form of experiential learning that combines academic study, community involvement and critical reflection. A growing body of literature has documented the benefits of incorporating service-learning into post-secondary pedagogy including increased student engagement, improved rates of knowledge retention and stronger academic outcomes (Hewson, Danbrook, & Sieppert, 2015; Kalisch, Coughlin, Ballard, & Lamson, 2013; Tam 2014). Within the area of leisure and aging, past service-learning opportunities have prompted  students to critique existing personal assumptions of aging and explore aging in a more positive light (Dupuis, 2002; Genoe, Crosbie, Johnson, Sutherland, & Goldberg, 2013). This paper adds to the current literature by describing shifts in knowledge based on reflections of pre- and post-visit papers submitted by undergraduate students engaged in an arts-based service-learning opportunity as part of a course on leisure and aging. Partnering with a long-term care home, 50 students gathered first-hand life stories of 25 residents between the ages of 65 and 94. In pairs, students considered course content in relation to stories of life transitions they had yet to experience and reflect on generational similarities and differences. The overall project incorporated biography and photo-voice assignments with the goal of creating individual narratives for each resident. Supplementary coursework enabled students to develop skills related to creative representation of the stories (i.e., lessons on photography and biography-writing). The project concluded with an exhibit of students’ work, attended by residents (“storytellers), family and friends, as well as staff at the home. Pre-visit reflection papers prompted students to share their perceptions or beliefs about the older adults with whom they would be visiting, any personal thoughts or impressions they may have had about long-term care homes and their role in society, what they hoped to gain from this experience, as well as what they hoped older adults would gain from this experience. Post-visit reflections encouraged students to share ways in which their initial thoughts/expectations may have changed and why, describe what they learned about themselves as a result of this project, and whether anything about their community involvement surprised them. Document analysis entailed an interpretation and pattern analysis described by Wood and Kroger (2000) and revealed deep shifts in students’ perceptions of aging and older adults. In particular, students wrote about how unexpected connections that ranged from shared hometowns to similar interests in golf, fishing, knitting and photography disrupted stereotypical assumptions held about older adults and LTC/retirement homes. As a result of the relationship established over the course of the term, students described how they took life lessons to heart. The findings of this research demonstrate that the enduring meaning of service-learning is the connection to personal experiences of impact, suggesting that students not only want to relate experiences to their academic learning but more importantly, they crave the personal connections cultivated when learning from and about others (Kalisch et al., 2013).


Dupuis, S. L. (2002). Intergenerational education programs in leisure and aging courses: Older adult and student experiences. Schole, 17, 73-86.

Genoe, M. R., Crosbie, C., Johnson, B., Sutherland, V., & Goldberg, M. J. (2013). Educating for an aging population: Intergenerational learning within the therapeutic recreation classroom. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 47(4), 276-290.

Hewson, J., Danbrook, C., & Sieppert, J. (2015). Engaging post-secondary students and older adults in an intergenerational digital storytelling course. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 8, 135-142.

Jacoby, B.  (1996). Service-learning in higher education: Concepts and practices. San Francisco, CA:  Jossey-Bass.

Kalisch, H.R., Coughlin, D.R., Ballard, S.M., & Lamson, A. (2013). Old age is a part of living: Student reflections on intergenerational service-learning. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 34, 99-113.

Tam, M. (2014). Intergenerational service learning between the old and young: What, why and how. Educational Gerontology, 40, 401-413.

Wood, L.A., & Kroger, R.O. (2000). Doing discourse analysis: Methods for studying action in talk and text. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Author contact

Colleen Whyte, PhD
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
Brock University
St.Catharines ON  L2S 3A1
905-688-5550, ext. 3124

Return to concurrent session 1

L.E.A.P.S. Leisure Education & Active Participation for Persons with Schizophrenia & Schizoaffective disorder

Shawn Wilkinson, Concordia University
William Harvey, McGill University, Douglas Mental Health University Institute

Mental health problems (MHP) affect the lives of a significant number of North Americans each year (Kessler, Chiu, Demler, & Walters, 2005). Leisure engagement may play an important role in promoting mental health recovery (Iwasaki et al., 2014) and have a positive impact on the health and well being of persons with MHP (Authors, 2010). Specifically, leisure engagement may help to enhance community living (Lloyd, King, McCarthy, & Scanlan, 2007) and create meaningful lives for persons with schizophrenia (SCZ) and schizoaffective disorder (SAD) (Iwasaki, Messina, Shank, & Coyle, 2015). However, it seems there may be many barriers that can prevent the engagement of people with either SCZ or SAD in community leisure activities (Nagle, Valiant Cook, & Polatajko, 2002). Appropriate leisure engagement may be dependent on the acquisition and development of leisure-related knowledge and skills (Stumbo & Peterson, 2009). Leisure education programs may provide an opportunity for persons with SCZ or SAD to acquire leisure-related skills, attitudes, and knowledge (Heasman & Atwal, 2004). However, persons with SCZ or SAD often have difficulty adhering to similar active leisure and exercise programs (Archie et al., 2003). A within and between case study design was used to explore the leisure knowledge of persons with SCZ or SAD and what factors impact their participation in a leisure education program. The central research question, which guided this exploratory study, was: How do persons with SCZ or SAD start to engage in a leisure program? Ten participants took part in a 5-week exploratory leisure program consisting of leisure education and recreation participation in the community. Participants engaged in three leisure education sessions that focused on leisure awareness, social skill development, and community leisure resources. Participants also took part in three community leisure activities of their choosing with the principal investigator. Three semi-structured audiotaped interviews were used to construct an in-depth picture of each participant’s leisure knowledge and the factors impacting their initial program participation. Thematic analysis of the data suggest that participants possessed a fundamental understanding of leisure, felt positive towards leisure and the role it played in their recovery, experienced significant challenges associated with forming healthy relationships in their lives, were less motivated to engage in social leisure activities in their community, and felt that their participation in the L.E.A.P.S. program was positive and enjoyable (Braun & Clark, 2006). This study offers a unique qualitative perspective of what factors potentially impact engagement in community-based leisure for persons with SCZ or SAD.


Archie, S. M., Hamilton Wilson, J., Osborne, S., Hobbs, H., & McNiven, J. (2003). Pilot study: Access to fitness facility and exercise levels in olanzapine-treated patients. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 628-632.

Braun,V. & Clark, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77-101.

Heasman, D., & Atwal, A. (2004). The active advice pilot project: Leisure enhancement and social inclusion for people with severe mental health problems. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67, 511-514.

Iwasaki, Y., Coyle, C.P., Shank, J.W. Messina, E., Porter, H., Salzer, M., Baron, D., Kishbauch, G., Naveiras-Cabello, R., Mitchell, L., Ryan, A., & Koons, K. (2014). Role of Leisure in Recovery From Mental Illness. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, 17, 147-165.

Iwasaki, Y., Messina, E., Shank, J., & Coyle, C. (2015). Role of leisure in meaning-making for community-dwelling adults with mental illness. Journal of Leisure Research, 47, 538-555.

Lloyd, C., King, R., McCarthy, M., & Scanlan, M. (2007). The association between leisure motivation and recovery: A pilot study. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 54, 33-41.

Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walter, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617-627.

Nagle, S., Valiant Cook, J., & Polatajko, H. J. (2002). I’m doing as much as I can: Occupational choices of persons with a severe and persistent mental illness. Journal of Occupational Science, 9, 72-81.

Stumbo, N. J., & Peterson, C. A. (2009). Therapeutic recreation program design: Principles and procedures. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

Author contact

Shawn Wilkinson
Concordia University
Department of Applied Human Sciences
1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd. West,
Montreal QC  H3G 1M8
514-848-2424, ext. 2282

Return to concurrent session 7

Tourism and leisure in China – a revisit of their relationships and implications

Honggen Xiao, Hong Kong Polytechnic University

This discussion departs from a prior study (Xiao 1997), and reflects upon the changing/changed relationships between tourism and leisure over the course of China’s economic and social-cultural development (Xiao, 2006, 2013). The discussion is informed by a combination of empirical observations, review of leisure studies (Su and Xiao, 2008), and the author’s involvement through participant observation over the years from attending events in leisure and tourism communities and from serving in the committee of China National Tourism Administration and China Tourism Academy. The reflections are hoped to lead to (re-)considerations of tourism and leisure as a symbiotic relationship in the social economic development practices as well as in its related education, research and scholarship. Viewed historically and in a comparative lens, the dynamic and changing relationships between tourism and leisure in China can be seen as completing a circle of growth for the wellbeing or quality of life of its people. In a welfare state such as Canada, recreation and parks were developed before tourism in education/research and practice. Tourism in China however has exactly experienced the opposite pattern of development. It began with inbound tourism in the 1970s, which was strongly driven by an economic impetus of earning foreign currency. It was not until the turn of the 21st century when domestic/outbound tourism started to boom (which was accompanied by a strong growth in its GDP and national economy) that China began to embrace (and consequently shift its focus on) domestic tourism, leisure and recreation. Such a pattern of growth is clearly reflected in its history of education, research, policy, and business/industry practices. Notably, the boom of domestic/outbound tourism has marked the emergence of a leisure economy in China, which has attracted interest from academics and practitioners. The boundaries between/amongst tourism, leisure and cultural industries, outdoor recreation and sports, and wellness and health industries are getting blurred; so are the marketing/management of products and services in relation to these related industries. Current policy and development trends call for a need to research into and re-establish the boundaries of innovative industry practices in the era of new development. These include, amongst other things, medical tourism, wellness tourism and the spa industry, which are booming in the broad context of health promotion as a societal trend for healthy lifestyles. Such dynamics and changing relationships pose fundamental questions such as what tourism is developed for, and what ultimate goal(s) its development is to serve. In addition to conventional perspectives on economic, sociocultural and environmental impacts, the benefits of developing tourism can be translated into alternative livelihood, beautification of rural villages, poverty alleviation, community development initiatives, as well as vacation/pleasure travel as indicators of quality of life and well-being for different social classes or groups in this developing economy.


Su, D., & Xiao, H. (2008). Major areas and research directions for leisure studies. Tourism Tribune, 23(4), 19-23.

Xiao, H. (2013). Dynamics of China tourism and challenges for destination marketing and management. Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, 2, 1-3.

Xiao, H. (2006). Tourism research and leisure studies: A North American perspective. Tourism Tribune, 21(10), 7-8.

Xiao, H. (1997). Tourism and leisure in China: A tale of two cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 24, 357-370.

Author contact

Honggen Xiao
School of Hotel and Tourism Management
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
17 Science Museum Road, TST East, Kowloon
Hong Kong SAR, China
T. +852 3400 2250; F. +852 2362 9362

Return to concurrent session 3

The effects of basic psychological need satisfaction on autonomous motivations during leisure

Nanxi Yan, University of Alberta
Gordon J. Walker, University of Alberta
Shintaro Kono, University of Alberta

Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) is composed of six sub-theories, one of which focuses on motivations whereas another focuses on basic psychological needs. Understanding autonomous motivations (i.e., intrinsic, integrated, and identified) is worthwhile, as many studies suggest these motives improve people’s commitment, satisfaction, and well-being levels (Edmunds, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2006). Satisfaction of three basic needs—autonomy, competence, and relatedness—has been found to positively impact autonomous motivations in the education (Ntoumanis, 2001) and paid work (Gagné et al., 2010) domains. However, the only similar study in the leisure domain was conducted before relatedness was recognized as a basic need. Pelletier et al. (1996) found, as then theorized, that both autonomy and competence positively impacted intrinsic motivation during leisure. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and/or relatedness positively affect autonomous motivations during leisure, after taking age and sex into account (cf. Iso-Ahola, 1979).

A random-digit-dialing telephone survey was conducted in Edmonton, Alberta in 2012. Participants reported: (a) how well their needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness were satisfied during leisure (each assessed using three items); (b) their levels of intrinsic, integrated, and identified motivation during leisure (each assessed using two items); and (c) their socio-demographic background. After data were collected and cleaned, descriptive statistics were calculated and hierarchical regressions were conducted to examine the effects of age and sex alone (Step 1), and in conjunction with need satisfaction (Step 2), on each autonomous motivation.

Participants (N =385) were slightly more likely to be female (51.2%); were largely 35 to 64 years old (80.6%); and worked on average 38.9 hours per week. They reported that, during leisure, their need for autonomy was satisfied the most (M=4.20, SD=0.53), followed by competence (M=4.07, SD=0.61), and then relatedness (M=3.86, SD=0.74). Participants also reported relatively high levels of intrinsic (M=4.37, SD=0.56), integrated (M=4.17, SD=0.71), and identified (M=3.91, SD=0.77) motivations during their leisure. Hierarchical regressions (see Table 1) revealed that: (a) being younger, and satisfaction of the needs for autonomy and competence, positively influenced intrinsic motivation; (b) being female, and satisfaction of all three needs, positively impacted integrated motivation; and (c) being female, and satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness, positively influenced identified motivation. All three effects are medium in size (Cohen, 1992).

In conclusion, our findings suggest that basic psychological need satisfaction does affect people’s autonomous motivations during leisure, although how exactly this occurs varies to some degree. In the case of intrinsic motivation, satisfaction of the need for relatedness may not always be pertinent if, for example, a person choses to hike alone (Deci & Ryan, 2000). In the case of identified motivation, satisfaction of the need for autonomy may not always be relevant if, for example, a person highly values intense physical activity (Schneider & Kwan, 2013). Our study provides strong evidence for SDT’s value in understanding people’s leisure behaviour, and it can also inform practitioners of how to motivate their customers by satisfying their basic needs.


Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin112(1), 155-159.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.

Edmunds, J., Ntoumanis, N., & Duda, J. L. (2006). A test of self-determination theory in the exercise domain. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(9), 2240–2265.

Gagné, M., Forest, J., Gilbert, M.-H., Aubé, C., Morin, E., & Malorni, A. (2010). The Motivation at Work Scale: Validation evidence in two languages. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(4), 628–646.

Iso‐Ahola, S. E. (1979). Some social psychological determinants of perceptions of leisure: Preliminary evidence. Leisure Sciences2(3-4), 305-314.

Ntoumanis, N. (2001), A self-determination approach to the understanding of motivation in physical education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(2) 225–242.

Schneider, M. L., & Kwan, B. M. (2013). Psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and affective response to exercise in adolescents. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(5), 776–785.


See the conference proceedings (PDF) for the appendices.

Author contact

Nanxi Yan
Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
3-156 Van Vliet Complex
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB  T6G 2H9

Return to concurrent session 6

Social entrepreneurship, reporting performance, and organizational ambidexterity in the case of parent charities in B.C., Canada

Yufan Yang, Vancouver Island University
Nicole L. Vaugeois, Vancouver Island University
John Predyk, Vancouver Island University

Despite being crucial stakeholders in communities (Hall, Barr, Easwaramoorthy, Sokolowski & Salamon, 2005), non-profit organizations are encountering increased difficulties in soliciting financial support for mission-related programs and for the overall survival (Ryan, 1999). In order to continue and deepen the legacies they have been set up to develop, non-profits are exploring innovative approaches to strengthen their social impacts by facilitating the benefits of leisure (Pedlar, 1996; Stebbins, 2009), and at the same time, to achieve organizational sustainability through entrepreneurial practices (Dees & Anderson, 2003; Massarsky, 2005). This attempt to be exploitative in utilizing existing resources and explorative in seeking new opportunities in the changing environment (Lubatkin, Simsek, Ling & Veiga, 2006) is described as ambidexterity. From the perspective of the non-profits, the levels of organizational ambidexterity reflect whether non-profits are able to manage the  resources to achieve social missions (exploitation) while chasing new opportunities to achieve financial sustainability (exploration) (Madden, 2012). In response to the little consideration of variables important to the measure of social impacts (Gordon, Knock & Neely, 2009; Liket & Maas, 2015) and the lack of evaluation for non-profit organizational ambidexterity (Madden, 2012) in the current rating methodologies for reporting performance from charity watchdog organizations, this proposed presentation will present results of a study in the purpose of examining parent charities operating a social enterprise in the leisure & recreation field in British Columbia, Canada, to determine if current proliferation on social entrepreneurial practices among non-profits contributes to improved reporting performance and higher levels of organizational ambidexterity. The criterion sampling strategy was used to identify 20 parent charities as research sample. A concurrent mixed methods approach (Creswell, 2008) was adopted where both qualitative and quantitative data were used, including financial data from CRA T3010 forms from 2003 to 2013 and qualitative content from charities’ websites. A revised rating instrument combining the strengths of two relatively well-developed charity rating systems was developed and utilized, in response to the lack of variables for social impact measurement in the existing rating systems. Study findings show that operating a social enterprise did not contribute to better financial reporting performance or higher levels of organizational ambidexterity over time. In terms of the rating system, pilot tests on the utility of the revised rating instrument show it worked well to simultaneously examine financial & social results reporting performance and organizational ambidexterity. The proposed presentation has the potential to contribute to the knowledge of social entrepreneurship, organizational ambidexterity, and organizational performance evaluation, which may contribute to non-profits in strengthening their legacies.


Creswell, J. W. (2008). Mixed methods research. In L. M. Given (Ed.), The sage encyclopedia of qualitative research methods (Vol.2) (pp. 526-529). Los Angeles, Calif: Sage Publications.

Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2003). Sector-bending: Blurring lines between nonprofit and for-profit. Society, 40(4), 16-27.

Gordon, T. P., Knock, C. L., & Neely, D. G. (2009). The role of rating agencies in the market for charitable contributions: An empirical test. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 28(6), 469-484.

Hall, M., Barr, C., Easwaramoorthy, M., Sokolowski, S. W., & Solomon, L. M. (2005). The Canadian Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector in Comparative Perspective. Toronto: Imagine Canada. 

Liket, K. C., & Maas, K. (2015). Nonprofit organizational effectiveness: Analysis of best practices. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 44(2), 268.

Lubatkin, M. H., Simsek, Z., Ling, Y., & Veiga, J. F. (2006). Ambidexterity and performance in small-to medium-sized firms: The pivotal role of top management team behavioral integration. Journal of management, 32(5), 646-672.

Madden, T. M. (2012). Organizational Ambidexterity and Not-for-profit Financial Performance (Doctoral Dissertation)

Massarsky, C. W. (2005). Enterprise Strategies for Generating Revenue. In R. D. Herman (2nd Eds.), The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management (pp. 436-465). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Pedlar, A. M. (1996). Community development: What does it mean for recreation and leisure?. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 21(1), 5-23.

Ryan, W. P. (1999). The new landscape for nonprofits. Harvard business review, 77(1), 127-136.

Stebbins, R. A. (2009). The leisure industry and positive living: A neglected path to community development. International Journal of Tourism Sciences, 9(3), 73-92.

Author contact

Yufan Yang
Vancouver Island University
6714 Dickinson Road
Nanaimo BC  V9V 1A3

Return to concurrent session 1

The mediating role of sense of environmental responsibility on the association between sense of community and pro-environmental behaviour

Jibin Yu, University of Waterloo
Bryan Smale, University of Waterloo

The extant literature on sense of community (SoC) has shown numerous significant links with place attachment, social capital (Recker, 2013), civic engagement (Han, Kim, & Lee, 2013), and both individual and community subjective wellbeing. Less well understood is how SoC strengthens connections to the natural environment (Bow & Buys, 2003). Building on the evidence of relationships with place attachment, SoC may lead people to take greater steps protect the environment in their community (Barr, 2003). For example, people with a stronger SoC may take more personal responsibility for protecting the environment in their communities and by thereby developing a greater sense of environmental responsibility (SER), they would be more likely to adopt more pro-environmental behaviours (PEB) (Hines, Hungerford, & Tomera, 1987). However, the mechanism through which these tendencies are manifested remain unclear. Using data collected with the Canadian Index of Wellbeing’s Community Wellbeing Survey in Victoria, BC, (n = 2,242), the mediating effect of SER on the association between SoC and PEB was examined. Resident’s SoC was measured based on three dimensions drawn from the Multidimensional Sense of Community Scale for Local Communities (MTSOC) developed by Prezza et al. (2009) – “Help in case of need”, “Social climate and bonds”, and “Needs fulfilment”. SER was reflected in measures associated with beliefs to provide personal stewardship over the environment and the extent to which residents engaged in PEB, such as recycling, re-using, and conserving energy and water, was assessed. The results showed that SER accounts for 51.2% of the association between “Help in case of need” and PEB (b = .08, BCa CI [.07, .10]); SER accounts for 44.9% of the association between “Social climate and bonds” and PEB (b = .08, BCa CI [.07, .10]); and SER accounts for 52.2% of the association between “Needs fulfilment” and PEB (b = .09, BCa CI [.07, .11]). The study provides an explanation of how people having a stronger SoC do tend to engage in PEB to a greater extent. Implications for promoting such behaviours among residents in their community are offered.


Barr, S. (2003). Strategies for sustainability: citizens and responsible environmental behaviour. Area, 35(3), 227-240.

Bow, V., & Buys, L. (2003, November). Sense of community and place attachment: The natural environment plays a vital role in developing sense of community. Paper presented at Social Change in 21st Century Conference, Queensland University of Technology, AUS.

de Vries, S., Verheij, R.A., Groenewegen, P.P., & Spreeuwenberg, P. (2003). Natural environments-heal thy environments? An exploratory analysis of the relationship between greenspace and health. Environment and Planning A, 35, 1717-1731.

Francis, J., Giles-Corti, B., Wood, L., & Knuiman, M. (2012). Creating sense of community: The role of public space. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 32, 401-409.

Halpenny, E.A. (2010). Pro-environmental behaviours and park visitors: The effect of place attachment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 409-421.

Han, S., Kim, H., & Lee, H.-S. (2013). A multi-level analysis of the compositional and contextual association of social capital and subjective well-being in Seoul, South Korea. Social Indicators Research, 111, 185-202.

Hines, J. M., Hungerford, H. R., & Tomera, A. N. (1987). Analysis and synthesis of research on responsible environmental behavior: A meta-analysis. The Journal of Environmental Education, 18(2), 1-8.

Prezza, M., Pacilla, M.G., Barbaranelli, C., & Zampatti, E. (2009). The MTSOCS: A Multidimensional Sense of Community Scale for Local Communities. Journal of Community Psychology, 37(3), 305-326.

Raymond, C.M., Brown, G., & Weber, D. (2010). The measurement of place attachment: Personal, community, and environmental connections. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 422-434.

Recker, N. (2012). Bonds, bridges, and quality of life in small towns. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 8, 63-75.

Author contact

Jibin Yu
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 8

Leisure, art, and advocacy

Felice Yuen, Concordia University
Darla Fortune, Concordia University

Leisure has been recognized a political experience (Hemingway, 2007) that can result in experiences of social change (Mair, 2002/03; Glover 2003; Yuen, 2013) and social justice (Fortune & McKeown, 2016; Yuen & Pedlar, 2009). For the past two decades, leisure scholars have encouraged a social justice perspective on leisure research (Allison 2000; Stewart, 2014). However, little is known about how marginalized populations, such as female offenders, experience leisure as a political act.  Stigma and fear experienced by female offenders limit their opportunities to engage as active citizens (Yuen, Arai, & Fortune, 2012). As McCorkel (2003) argues, female offenders are not only deviant as criminals, but also deviant as women who do not fit the “responsible, clean, and self-restrained” caregivers they are supposed to be (p. 70). Negative public sentiment has resulted in roadblocks for formally incarcerated women when they attempt to gain access to social and economic facets of civic life such as housing, employment, and leisure (Pedlar, Arai, Yuen & Fortune, 2008; Pollack, 2007).

The purpose of this presentation is to explore how leisure can be used as a vehicle for citizen engagement and advocacy with marginalized populations. More specifically, the presentation will present findings based on a project that examined the experiences of nine formally incarcerated women’s experiences in a community arts program. The six-month program, called Donner Une Deuxième Chance (Give a Second Chance), was created in collaboration with la Société Elizabeth Fry du Quebec (SEFQ) and Engrenage Noir / LEVIER. Participants of the program were women who had been previously incarcerated. The purpose of the program was to provide a safe environment for the development of personal empowerment and sense of worth, to create opportunities for self-expression, socialization, and the discovery and use of new and old talents. The program concluded with a public exhibit to highlight the reintegration efforts of women who have been in conflict with the law and to remind the community that they also contribute to their reintegration by giving them a second chance.       

The presentation will illustrate how arts-based leisure can open up space for contributing to society, beyond the traditional means (i.e., paid employment). As one participant stated, “I have a certain artistic side…It’s hard to find a job, an apartment etc. with a criminal record…it was important for me to participate in something that contributes to society, and especially to the women [who were incarcerated]”. Art can be an empowering experience that offers opportunities for the freedom of expression— an elusive experience for women who carry the stigma of offender (Yuen, Arai, & Fortune, 2012). The presentation will also discuss how, as one participant described, “Art is a creative and pacifistic way to reach people and educate them”. Arts-based leisure offers a political arena for a group of individuals, who generally are shamed and silenced as a result of their marginalized status, to resist the status quo and participate in social change as they educate the general public about the injustices they have experienced.


Allison, M. T. (2000). Leisure, diversity and social justice. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(1), 2-6.

Arai, S. M., & Pedlar, A. M. (1997). Building communities through leisure: Citizen participation in a healthy communities initiative. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(2), 167-183. 

Fortune, D., & Mckeown, J. (2016). Sharing the Journey: Exploring a Social Leisure Program for Persons with Dementia and Their Spouses. Leisure Sciences, 38(4), 373- 387.

Hemingway, J. L. (1999). Leisure, social capital, and democratic citizenship. Journal of Leisure Research, 31(2), 150-165.

Mair, H. (2002/2003). Civil leisure? Exploring the relationship between leisure, activities, and social change. Leisure/Loisir, 27(3-4), 231-237.

McCorkel, J. (2003). Embodied surveillance and the gendering of punishment. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 32(1), 41-76.

Pedlar A., Arai, S., & Yuen, F. (2007).  Media representation of federally sentenced women and leisure opportunities: Ramifications of social inclusion. Leisure/Loisir, 31(1), 255-276.

Pedlar, A., Arai, S., Yuen, F., & Fortune, D. (2008). Uncertain futures: Women leaving prison and re-entering community. Retrieved August 15, 2008.

Pollack, S. (2007). “I’m just not good in relationships”: Victimization discourses and the gendered regulation of criminalized women. Feminist Criminology, 2 (2), 158-173.

Stewart, W. (2014). Leisure research to enhance social justice. Leisure Sciences, 36(4), 325-339.

Yuen, F., Arai, S., & Fortune, D. (2012). Women in prison, community dislocation and reconnection through leisure: A poetic representation of incarcerated women’s experiences of leisure and connection to community. Leisure Sciences, 34(4), 1-17.

Yuen, F. (2013). Building Juniper: Chinese Canadian motivations for volunteering and experiences of community development.  Leisure/Loisir, 37(2), 159-178.

Author contact

Felice Yuen
Concordia University
Department of Applied Human Sciences
7141 Sherbrooke St. West
Montreal QC  H4B 1R6
514-848-2424, ext. 2267

Return to concurrent session 6

Leisure, decolonization, and social justice

Felice Yuen, Concordia University
Patti Ranahan, Concordia University
Warren Linds, Concordia University

Indigenous peoples experience a soul-wound that has continued through generations of pressure to acculturate into settler society (Duran & Duran, 1995). One of the outcomes of this soul-wound is the mounting suicide epidemics that plague Indigenous communities across Canada (Puxley, 2016; Rutherford 2016). The response of Indigenous peoples is straightforward: access to mental-health workers, therapists, physicians, a hospital, and recreational facilities for their youth (Puxley; Laumann, 2016; Mas, 2016). While the request for recreational services is simple, the process of creating meaningful experiences that have the potential to contribute to life promotion is not.

This presentation will emphasize the need for leisure researchers and practitioners to adopt a decolonizing framework of practice, which is linked to processes of social justice. As argued by Fox and Lashua (2010), “dominant leisure practices and programs are imbricated in Euro-North American values related to capitalism, excellence, people as expendable resources, and profit lines that ignore the well-being and flourishing of human and non-human communities” (p. 5238). Applying these Western notions of leisure upon Indigenous populations has resulted in our field’s contributions to the colonization of Indigenous peoples. In the attempt to help First Nations communities develop recreational services, leisure professionals have inadvertently contributed to colonization by imposing certain administrative styles and promoting certain activities over others (Cole, 1993; Henhawk, 1993). 

The purpose of this presentation is to examine how leisure can contribute to the well-being of Indigenous youth— specifically in the realm of life promotion. The findings are based on a study grounded in Indigenous methodologies, which explored and promoted wellness and life promotion with Indigenous youth living on a reserve in Saskatchewan. This research is part of a larger project on suicide prevention, which was guided by an Elder and several community members. Participants consisted of fourteen youth from three schools. There were nine girls and five boys between fourteen and eighteen years old. Data collection occurred through an arts-based workshop over the course of two days. Using photography, theatre, video and collage, youth engaged collectively creating of stories about healing, life, relationships, hope, and ceremony.

Linking to the recommendations made by the Truth and Reconciliation Council (2015), the discussion will emphasize using leisure as a space for youth to actively engage in connecting the past, present, and future by holding on to traditions, learning from Elders, and belonging healthy relationships passed down through the generations. As one of the participants aptly states, “Practicing our culture together helps us see a future.” We posit working with Indigenous communities to create such leisure spaces will enable our field to enter a decolonizing practice, as we empower and support Indigenous peoples to be agents of their own lives and of healing.


Cole, D. (1993). Recreation practice of the Stoney of Alberta and Mohawks of the Six Nations Confederacy. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(2), 103-114.

Duran, E., & Duran, B. (1995). Native American postcolonial psychology. Albany: SUNY Press, 1995.

Henhawk, C. (1993). Recreation development in First Nation communities: A Six Nations perspective. Journal of Applied Recreation Research, 18(2), 82-86.

Laumann, S. (2016, April 14). The Youth Of Attawapiskat Have Solutions To Fighting Suicide Crisis, Huffington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2016.

Mas, S. (2016, June 6). Justin Trudeau to meet with Attawapiskat chief, First Nations youth in Ottawa June 13, CBC News. Retrieved June 3, 2016. 

Puxley, C. (2016, March 9). Manitoba First Nation declares state of emergency over suicide epidemic, The Globe and Mail. Retrieved June 13, 2016.

Rutherford, K. (2016, April 9). Attawapiskat declares state of emergency over spate of suicide attempts, CBC News. Retrieved June 13, 2016. 

Truth and reconciliation of Canada (2015). Truth and reconciliation commission of Canada: Calls to action. Retrieved October 14, 2015. 

Author contact

Felice Yuen
Concordia University
Department of Applied Human Sciences
7141 Sherbrooke St. West
Montreal QC  H4B 1R6
514-848-2424, ext. 2267

Return to concurrent session 5

Tourism as orientalism

Tao Zhou, University of Waterloo

Nash (1989) argues tourism is a form of imperialism, which means a metropolitan center exercises a power over the nature of tourism and its development of an alien region, essentially an imperialistic process of systematically expanding domination to and strengthening control over local people. Tourism represents the interests of metropolitan centers and therefore it is the tourists rather than local people benefit from “economic, political, or military power of the metropolitan center he (the tourist) represents” (Nash, 1989, p. 46). However, economic and political forms of imperialism turn out to be indirect and concealed for an independent Oriental tourist destination, while values and ideologies in the form of orientalism take more significant roles to shape tourist destinations and local people. 

Broadly speaking, orientalism is a dominant discourse of othering, making the dominated easier to be controlled and manipulated via imagination. Tourists coming from developed regions mainly aim to experience and embody the preconceived ideas towards the oriental places, which are shaped by orientalism. The asymmetrical power relationship between tourists and hosts make hosts internalize, cater to, and reproduce tourists’ imagination towards them during the process of touristization. Tourists are generally more interested in preconceived authenticity rather than the truth they learn from local people. They are in fact excluded from local voices not only because of their travel purpose but also “unreliable” relationship between tourists and local people. Their travel to an oriental place is to consume rather than to rebut orientalism. Their descriptions towards this place functions to enforce and reproduce orientalism, and their reflexivity is oppressed by orientalism. Smith argues tourists are “physically ‘in’ a foreign culture while socially ‘outside’ the culture” (1977, p.6).

The purpose of this paper is to shift the paradigm of tourism as imperialism to tourism as orientalism, which will be discussed from a theoretical perspective and grounded on case studies provided by other tourism researchers. These case studies concern tourisms from non-aboriginal to aboriginal regions in the West countries, from majority to minority regions in the Oriental countries, and from the West to the Oriental countries.


Nash, Dennison. (1989). Tourism as a form of imperialism. In Valene L. Smith (Ed.). Hosts and guest: The anthropology of tourism (2nd) (pp. 37-52). University of Pennsylvania Press.

Smith, V.L. (1977). Introduction. In V.L. Smith (ed.), Hosts and guests: The anthropology of tourism (pp. 1-14). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Author contact

Tao Zhou
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 5

Vita activa versus vita contemplativa: The social role of leisure and labor from a historical perspective

Jiri Zuzanek, University of Waterloo

Researchers’ attention to the relationship of work and leisure turned lately to its quantitative dimension. The discussion about the “society of leisure” and the “harried leisure class” (Linder, 1970; Schor, 1991, Veal, 2011) focused mostly on how the amount of time allocated to work and leisure changed over the past decades and its likely future trends. Less attention was paid to the changing social function of work and leisure in modern societies and their effects on social well-being. The proposed paper, following the Congress’s theme of Engaging Legacies, will focus on the history of the controversial debate about the social role of leisure and labor from Ancient Greece, through the Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment to the 19th and 20th centuries.  An argument will be made that in the context of leisure studies the relationship between work and leisure has been often simplified and arguments in support of leisure from the authors of the past were chosen selectively and one-sidedly. Changes in the valuations of work and leisure are sign-posts of major changes in social and intellectual history of humanity and their complexity should not be ignored. Thanks to de Grazia’s seminal “Of Work, Time and Leisure” (1962), we have all been  made aware of the role assigned  to “schole” (leisure) as opposed to ascholia (labor) by Aristotle, but are less aware of the fact that in assessing different types of polis he conceded that the most viable of them was the  oldest, where people lived by agriculture or tending of cattle, had  no leisure to partake in politics, and found their employment more pleasant than the cares of government (Politics, Part 4; Book 6). We are familiar with Joseph Pieper’s praise of Thomas Aquinas’s concept of vita contemplativa but are less aware of the arguments in favor of vita activa found in the writings of the authors of Renaissance and Enlightenment (Leon Alberti, Immanuel Kant, Adam Smith). When quoting Thomas More’s Utopia we sometimes overlook the fact that his pamphlet was not a call for a society of leisure but rather a program of a more even distribution of labor. Little attention has been paid to the “imaginary” over-the-century discussion of Michel Montaigne and Blaise Pascal about the role of diversion, examining the pros and cons of “time off” and entertainment in human life. The same applies to the conflicting assessment of the role of leisure and labor by Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim, as reflected in their analyses of the division of labor, alienation and anomie. From a historical perspective, leisure has been usually viewed not as a panacea but rather as a challenge or an opportunity and its value assessed not as a substitute for labour but rather its complement. Today, such “balanced” approach to the examination of work-leisure relationship can be found, among others, in “positive psychology” studies based on ESM data (see Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter, 2003)


Aristotel (1996), The Politics and The Constitution of Athens, New York: Cambridge University Press

Csikszentmihalyi, M. & Hunter, J. (2003) Happiness in everyday life: The use of experience sampling. Journal of Happiness Studies 4, 185-199

De Grazia, S. (1962) Of Time, Work and Leisure. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund

Linder, S.B. (1970). The Harried Leisure Class. New York: Columbia University Press

More, T. (1965) Utopia. London: Penguin Books 

Pieper, J. (1952) Leisure, the Basis of Culture. New York: Pantheon Books

Schor, J. (1991). The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.

Veal A.J. (2011) The leisure society I: myths and misconceptions. World Leisure Journal 53:3, 205-227

Veal A.J. (2011) The leisure society II: the era of critique. World Leisure Journal 54:2, 99-140

Author contact

Jiri Zuzanek
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Waterloo ON  N2L 3G1

Return to concurrent session 3