Raymond Legge

Professor Emeritus

Contact InformationRaymond Legge

Phone: 519-888-4567 x36728
Location: E6 4006


Biography Summary

Raymond Legge is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Waterloo. His research is very multidisciplinary with numerous collaborations not only with faculty members in the Department of Chemical Engineering, but other departments (e.g. Systems Design), universities and institutes. The same multidisciplinary mix will be found in the researchers and graduate students that work on the described projects.

Electrostatic-based Separation of Agricultural Flours

More recently research in the lab has focused on exploring electrostatic-based separation for the production of protein- and starch-enriched fractions from agricultural flours. This approach offers numerous advantages including retention of native structures of the feed material and sustainability. Research is also being conducted in the area of bioprocess monitoring and applying near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to systems that can be characterised as non-soluble.

Biomimetic Engineering

Significant advances have been made in the use of enzymes in non-conventional media. These advances are ushering in a new age in the application of enzymes to organic syntheses. Efforts in this area have focused on the development of engineering fundamentals using emerging principles from the life sciences. For example, we have concentrated on the development of suitable support materials (e.g., "designer" sol-gels) for biotransformations in non-conventional media. To understand the phenomena that lead to enzyme inactivation in these systems, we have turned to various thermodynamic approaches to characterize the supports and understand fundamental aspects of protein stability and protein/protein interactions.

Drinking Water Treatment & Monitoring

The primary focus of the laboratory is in the study of natural organic matter (NOM). We have been active in a variety of areas related to measurement and monitoring of NOM, particularly through the use of fluorescence excitation emission matrices (FEEM) combined with chemometric methods. These approaches are being applied to better understand water treatment processes that involve filtration or biofiltration and to develop strategies to optimise or better control these processes. It is hoped that this research will lead to the development of novel technologies that can be applied in practice or to more insightful modeling/optimization of these processes.


• Academic Achievement Award, American Water Works Association

• Outstanding Performance Award, University of Waterloo

• Sandford Fleming Foundation Faculty of Engineering Teaching Excellence Award (twice)

• Distinguished Performance Award, Faculty of Engineering (three times)

• Award of Merit from the Canadian Society for Chemistry

• Excellence in Research Award with Dr. C. Barclay from the Research and Technology Branch of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment

• University of Waterloo Alumni Gold Medal

• Lionel Cinq Mars Award from the Canadian Botanical Association

• Invitation Fellowship from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

• NSERC University Research Fellowship

• NATO Postdoctoral Fellowship (University of Texas at Austin)

Prof. Legge is a member of the Waterloo Centre for Microbial Research, Water Institute and the Centre for Bioengineering and Biotechnology.

Research Interests

  • Biochemical Engineering
  • Protein and Biomimetic Engineering
  • Enzyme Immobilization
  • Biotransformation
  • Applied Enzymology
  • Biomaterials
  • Drinking Water Treatment
  • Electrostatic Separation
  • Fluorescence Spectroscopy


  • 1983, Doctorate, Biology, University of Waterloo
  • 1976, Bachelor's, First Class Honors, Plant Biology, University of Calgary


  • CHE 102 - Chemistry for Engineers
    • Taught in 2014, 2015, 2016
  • CHE 161 - Engineering Biology
    • Taught in 2016, 2017, 2018
  • CHE 725 - Research Topics in Analysis of Chemical Processes
    • Taught in 2016
* Only courses taught in the past 5 years are displayed.

Selected/Recent Publications

  • Yang, Y.A., Peleato, N.M., Legge, R.L. and Andrews, R.C., Towards real-time detection of wastewater in surface waters using fluorescence spectroscopy., J. Environ. Sci., 86, 2019, 195 - 202
  • Zavatti, V., Budman, H., Legge, R.L., Tamer, M., Impact of oxidative stress on protein production by Bordetella pertussis for vaccine production, Biochemical Engineering Journal, 151, 2019
  • Zavatti, V., Budman, H., Legge, R.L., Tamer, M., Investigation of the effects of oxidative stress inducing factors on culturing and productivity of Bordetella pertussis, Biotechnology Progress, 2019
  • Assatory, A., Vitelli, M., Rajabzadeh, A.R., Legge, R.L., Dry fractionation methods for plant protein, starch and fiber enrichment: A review, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 86, 2019, 340 - 351
  • Yang, Y.Z., Peleato, N.M., Legge, R.L., Andrews, R.C., Fluorescence excitation emission matrices for rapid detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in surface waters, Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, 5, 2019, 315 - 324
  • Tabtabaei, S., Konakbayeva, D., Rajabzadeh, A.R., Legge, R.L., Functional properties of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) protein concentrates obtained by pneumatic tribo-eletrostatic separation, Food Chemistry, 283, 2019, 101 - 110
  • Hassani, S., Gharechaei, B., Nikfard, S., Fazli, M., Gheibi, N., Hardre, R., Legge, R.L., Haghbeen, K., New insight into the allosteric effect of L-tyrosine on mushroom tyrosinase during L-DOPA production, Int J Biol Macromol, 114, 2018, 821 - 829
  • Peleato, N.M., Legge, R.L., Andrews, R.C., Neural networks for dimensionality reduction of fluorescence spectra and prediction of drinking water disinfection by-products, Water Research, 136, 2018, 84 - 94
  • Peleato, Nicolás M and Sidhu, Balsher Singh and Legge, Raymond L and Andrews, Robert C, Investigation of ozone and peroxone impacts on natural organic matter character and biofiltration performance using fluorescence spectroscopy, Chemosphere, 172, 2017, 225 - 233
  • Peleato, Nicolas M and Legge, Raymond L and Andrews, Robert C, Investigation of fluorescence methods for rapid detection of municipal wastewater impact on drinking water sources, Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 171, 2017, 104 - 111
  • Tabtabaei, Solmaz and Vitelli, Michael and Rajabzadeh, Amin Reza and Legge, Raymond L, Analysis of protein enrichment during single-and multi-stage tribo-electrostatic bioseparation processes for dry fractionation of legume flour, Separation and Purification Technology, 176, 2017, 48 - 58
  • Peleato, Nicolas M and Legge, Raymond L and Andrews, Robert C, Characterization of UF foulants and fouling mechanisms when applying low in-line coagulant pre-treatment, Water Research, 126, 2017, 1 - 11
  • Moshtaghioun, Seyed Mohammad and Dadkhah, Maryam and Bahremandjo, Kamran and Haghbeen, Kamahldin and Aminzadeh, Saeed and Legge, Raymond L, Optimization of simultaneous production of tyrosinase and laccase by Neurospora crassa, Biocatalysis and Biotransformation, 35(1), 2017, 1 - 10