Ron Zernicke, PhD, DSc (University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Kinesiology and Department of Biomedical Engineering)
Throughout the life span, marked changes occur in the skeletal system, and these bone adaptations are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. We have investigated and are investigating microstructural, morphological, and mechanical changes in bone as a consequence of diet, exercise and physical activity, or joint injury.
Short-term and long-term ingestion of a high fat and sucrose diet can produce negative effects on both the immature and mature axial and appendicular skeletons. Caloric restriction in rapidly growing animals does not appear to negatively affect long-bone or vertebral mechanical properties. With aging, however, caloric restriction may have a differential effect on the axial and appendicular skeleton.
Specificity of exercise regimens and training extends to bone, as well as skeletal muscle. We have found that high strain rates and high strain frequencies can have potent osteogenic effects. After a significant joint injury, such as knee anterior ligament rupture, bone adaptation can quickly develop. Periarticular bone remodels rapidly after injury, and that remodeling can have a pronounced effect on subsequent bone microarchitecture and joint function.
While investigating the adaptation of bone to diet, mechanical loading, and injury, we are coupling experimental studies with analytical modeling to interrelate intra-osseous fluid flow and localized regions of bone adaptation. Complementing these analytical and mechanistic studies, we are probing the potent differential effects of high versus low aerobic capacity on bone physiology and adaptive responses, and in human clinical and translational studies, we are examining bone adaptation and/or injury mechanisms during sports and physical activity.
This lecture is a part of the KIN@50 conference (celebrating the 50th anniversary of the kinesiology department and kinesiology as a discipline). This lecture is our keynote speaker and part of the Hallman lecture series and is free to attend, but the rest of the conference requires payment.