|Title||Preliminary Design of an Environment Recognition System for Controlling Robotic Lower-Limb Prostheses and Exoskeletons|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Laschowski, B., W. McNally, A. Wong, and J. McPhee|
|Conference Name||IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics (ICORR)|
|Conference Location||Toronto, Canada|
|Keywords||Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Control, Deep Learning, Exoskeleton, Machine Vision, Prostheses, Robotics|
Drawing inspiration from autonomous vehicles, using future environment information could improve the control of wearable biomechatronic devices for assisting human locomotion. To the authors knowledge, this research represents the first documented investigation using machine vision and deep convolutional neural networks for environment recognition to support the predictive control of robotic lower-limb prostheses and exoskeletons. One participant was instrumented with a battery-powered, chest-mounted RGB camera system. Approximately 10 hours of video footage were experimentally collected while ambulating throughout unknown outdoor and indoor environments. The sampled images were preprocessed and individually labelled. A deep convolutional neural network was developed and trained to automatically recognize three walking environments: level-ground, incline staircases, and decline staircases. The environment recognition system achieved 94.85% overall image classification accuracy. Extending these preliminary findings, future research should incorporate other environment classes (e.g., incline ramps) and integrate the environment recognition system with electromechanical sensors and/or surface electromyography for automated locomotion mode recognition. The challenges associated with implementing deep learning on wearable biomechatronic devices are discussed.