Astrocyte-derived lipoxins A 4 and B 4 promote neuroprotection from acute and chronic injury

TitleAstrocyte-derived lipoxins A 4 and B 4 promote neuroprotection from acute and chronic injury
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsLivne-Bar, I., J. Wei, H. - H. Liu, S. Alqawlaq, G. - J. Won, A. Tuccitto, K. Gronert, J. Flanagan, and J. Sivak
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Keywordsacute disease, animal, animal cell, animal experiment, Animals, Article, astrocyte, Astrocytes, controlled study, disease exacerbation, drug effect, drug efficacy, drug potency, enzyme inhibition, Eye, fatty acid synthesis, HT22 cell line, in vitro study, in vivo study, injuries, lipid, lipoxin, lipoxin A, lipoxin B, Lipoxins, male, mediator, metabolism, metabolomics, Mice, mouse, nerve cell culture, nerve cell lesion, nerve degeneration, neuroprotection, neuroprotective agent, Neuroprotective Agents, neurotrophic factor, nonhuman, pathology, priority journal, retina, retina disease, retina ganglion cell, Retinal Diseases, Retinal Ganglion Cells, signal transduction, zileuton

Astrocytes perform critical non–cell autonomous roles following CNS injury that involve either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects. Yet the nature of potential prosurvival cues has remained unclear. In the current study, we utilized the close interaction between astrocytes and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye to characterize a secreted neuroprotective signal present in retinal astrocyte conditioned medium (ACM). Rather than a conventional peptide neurotrophic factor, we identified a prominent lipid component of the neuroprotective signal through metabolomics screening. The lipoxins LXA 4 and LXB 4 are small lipid mediators that act locally to dampen inflammation, but they have not been linked directly to neuronal actions. Here, we determined that LXA 4 and LXB 4 are synthesized in the inner retina, but their levels are reduced following injury. Injection of either lipoxin was sufficient for neuroprotection following acute injury, while inhibition of key lipoxin pathway components exacerbated injury-induced damage. Although LXA 4 signaling has been extensively investigated, LXB 4 , the less studied lipoxin, emerged to be more potent in protection. Moreover, LXB 4 neuroprotection was different from that of established LXA 4 signaling, and therapeutic LXB 4 treatment was efficacious in a chronic model of the common neurodegenerative disease glaucoma. Together, these results identify a potential paracrine mechanism that coordinates neuronal homeostasis and inflammation in the CNS.