Functional Two- and Three-Dimensional Architectures of Immobilized Metal Nanoparticles

TitleFunctional Two- and Three-Dimensional Architectures of Immobilized Metal Nanoparticles
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsChen, P., L. Pollit, L. Jones, and F. Gu
Keywordsarray, chiroptical, DNA origami, laser printing, metamaterial, metamolecule, plasmonic, SDG3: Good health and well-being, SDG6: Clean water and sanitation, SDG7: Affordable and clean energy, self-assembly, superlattice, superstructure

Recent methodological advances have led to unprecedented precision in the immobilization of metal nanoparticles. These methodologies come from a broad range of disciplines and organize nanoparticle building blocks into a diverse selection of distinct architectures—from small arrays to ordered superstructures. Because properties can be dictated by assembly, architectures can present enhanced properties of the constituent nanoparticles or generate emergent properties of the collective architecture that are unavailable to their constituent nanoparticles. Functional architectures use these properties to further tailor and optimize performance in myriad applications. This review discusses the methodological advances that enable the immobilization of metal nanoparticles in distinct two- and three-dimensional architectures. Discussion will include their distinctions, properties associated with the assemblies and their applications, and the key challenges and future directions in this growing field. The integration of nanomaterials has transformed key applications in a multitude of scientific fields, such as in energy, environmental technologies, water, medicine, and chemical processing. Metal nanoparticles, the predominant type of nanomaterial, are at the center of many of these applications. Conventionally, the physical properties of metal nanoparticles, such as size and shape, are engineered to alter properties and enhance performance. Recent work has developed a new approach: immobilizing metal nanoparticles in architectures. These structures generate enhanced or emergent properties, which can be used to further improve performance in applications, and promise the next generation of applications of metal nanoparticles in science and society. This review discusses the methods (from a wide range of disciplines) that immobilize nanoparticles in precise two- and three-dimensional architectures. Also discussed are the properties that arise from and the utility of the architectures. Metal nanoparticles present enhanced, or emergent, properties when immobilized in precisely configured two- and three-dimensional architectures. Recent methodological advances in a broad range of fields enable the construction of a diverse selection of such architectures. This review discusses these methodologies, their constructed products, and the properties exhibited by the architectures. It also discusses the distinctions, sometimes subtle, between methodologies that often dictate the types of architectures that they can construct and thus the resultant properties that can be presented. © 2018