Predictive value of N95 waveforms of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH)

TitlePredictive value of N95 waveforms of pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMcCulloch, D., P. Garcia-Filion, C. Fink, A. Fisher, A. Eleuteri, and M. Borchert
JournalDocumenta Ophthalmologica
Keywordsabnormalities, accommodation paralysis, age, Article, Bootstrap, child, chloral hydrate, clinical article, Computer-Assisted, electroretinography, Eye Abnormalities, eye fundus, eye malformation, female, human, Humans, Infant, Magnitude-squared coherence (MSC), male, nerve conduction, ophthalmoscopy, optic disk, optic nerve, optic nerve hypoplasia, Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH), pathophysiology, Pattern electroretinogram (PERG), physiology, predictive value, Predictive Value of Tests, Preschool, preschool child, priority journal, procedures, Prospective Studies, prospective study, psychometry, retina, retina ganglion cell, retina macula lutea, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Robust statistics, sedation, sensitivity and specificity, Septo-optic dysplasia, signal processing, Vision, Visual acuity

Purpose: As part of a long-term, prospective study of prenatal and clinical risk factors for optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) at Children’s Hospital Los Angeles, pattern ERGs (PERGs) were evaluated for prognostic value using an automated objective and robust analytical method. Methods: Participants were 33 children with ophthalmoscopically diagnosed ONH [disc diameter-to-disc macula ratio (DD/DM) less than 0.35 in one or both eyes on fundus photographs]. Using cycloplegia and chloral hydrate sedation in one session before 26 months of age, we recorded PERGs to checkerboard reversal using five check sizes. Participants were followed with clinical and psychometric testing until 5 years of age. PERGs were analysed using automated robust statistics based on magnitude-squared coherence and bootstrapping optimized to objectively quantify PERG recovery in the challenging recordings encountered in young patients. PERG measures in the fixating or better-seeing eyes were compared with visual outcome data. Results: PERG recording was complete to at least three check sizes in all eyes and to all five sizes in 79%. Probability of recording a PERG that is significantly different from noise varied with check size from 73% for the largest checks to 30% for the smallest checks (p = 0.002); smaller waveforms were associated with earlier implicit times. The presence of significant PERGs in infancy is associated with better visual outcomes; the strongest association with visual outcome was for the threshold check size with a significant N95 component (ρ = 0.398, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Automated statistically robust signal-processing techniques reliably and objectively detect PERGs in young children with ONH and show that congenital deficits of retinal ganglion cells are associated with diminished or non-detectable PERGs. The later negativity, N95, was the best indicator of visual prognosis and was most useful to identify those with good visual outcomes (≤0.4 LogMAR). Although PERGs reflect function of the inner layers of the central retina, they lack the specificity required to determine prognosis reliably in individual cases. © 2017, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.