TFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report

TitleTFOS DEWS II Epidemiology Report
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsStapleton, F., M. Alves, V. Bunya, I. Jalbert, K. Lekhanont, F. Malet, K. Na, D. Schaumberg, M. Uchino, J. Vehof, E. Viso, S. Vitale, and L. Jones
JournalOcular Surface
Keywordsage, Asian, Cross-Sectional Studies, cross-sectional study, Diabetes Mellitus, diet supplementation, Dry eye, Dry eye disease, Dry Eye Epidemiology Project, Dry eye questionnaire, Dry Eye Syndromes, environmental exposure, eye disease assessment, female, genetic risk, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, heritability, history, human, Humans, incidence, knowledge, male, McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire, Meibomian gland dysfunction, mental health, meta analysis, mood disorder, morbidity, Natural history, North Carolina Dry Eye Management Scale, Prevalence, quality of life, quality of life assessment, questionnaire, refractive surgery, retinol deficiency, Review, risk factor, Sex, Sjoegren syndrome, Societal cost, somatoform disorder, Standard Patient Evaluation of Eye Dryness, Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, Surveys and Questionnaires, Vision, women's health, Women's Health Study questionnaire

The subcommittee reviewed the prevalence, incidence, risk factors, natural history, morbidity and questionnaires reported in epidemiological studies of dry eye disease (DED). A meta-analysis of published prevalence data estimated the impact of age and sex. Global mapping of prevalence was undertaken. The prevalence of DED ranged from 5 to 50%. The prevalence of signs was higher and more variable than symptoms. There were limited prevalence studies in youth and in populations south of the equator. The meta-analysis confirmed that prevalence increases with age, however signs showed a greater increase per decade than symptoms. Women have a higher prevalence of DED than men, although differences become significant only with age. Risk factors were categorized as modifiable/non-modifiable, and as consistent, probable or inconclusive. Asian ethnicity was a mostly consistent risk factor. The economic burden and impact of DED on vision, quality of life, work productivity, psychological and physical impact of pain, are considerable, particularly costs due to reduced work productivity. Questionnaires used to evaluate DED vary in their utility. Future research should establish the prevalence of disease of varying severity, the incidence in different populations and potential risk factors such as youth and digital device usage. Geospatial mapping might elucidate the impact of climate, environment and socioeconomic factors. Given the limited study of the natural history of treated and untreated DED, this remains an important area for future research. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.