Visual and binocular status in elementary school children with a reading problem

TitleVisual and binocular status in elementary school children with a reading problem
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsChristian, L., K. Nandakumar, P. Hrynchak, and E. Irving
JournalJournal of Optometry
Keywordsaccommodation, Acquired, adolescent, alexia, Binocular, binocular convergence, binocular vision, child, Convergence, Dyslexia, female, human, Humans, male, Ocular, Ontario, pathophysiology, Pediatrics, physiology, Prevalence, Reading, Reading difficulty, refraction error, Refractive Errors, Retrospective Studies, retrospective study, Vision, Vision and learning, Vision Disorders, Visual acuity, visual disorder

Purpose: This descriptive study provides a summary of the binocular anomalies seen in elementary school children identified with reading problems. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all children identified with reading problems and seen by the University of Waterloo, Optometry Clinic, from September 2012 to June 2013. Results: Files of 121 children (mean age 8.6 years, range 6–14 years) were reviewed. No significant refractive error was found in 81% of children. Five and 8 children were identified as strabismic at distance and near respectively. Phoria test revealed 90% and 65% of patients had normal distance and near phoria. Near point of convergencia (NPC) was <5 cm in 68% of children, and 77% had stereoacuity of ≤40 seconds of arc. More than 50% of the children had normal fusional vergence ranges except for near positive fusional vergencce (base out) break (46%). Tests for accommodation showed 91% of children were normal for binocular facility, and approximately 70% of children had an expected accuracy of accommodation. Conclusion: Findings indicate that some children with an identified reading problem also present with abnormal binocular test results compared to published normal values. Further investigation should be performed to investigate the relationship between binocular vision function and reading performance. © 2017