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Steven Spencer

Professor

Steve SpencerAB (Hope), AM, PhD (Michigan)

Contact information

View my profile on ResearchGate

Recipient, Excellence in Graduate Supervision 2008

Recipient, 2005 Outstanding Performance Award

Research interests

I do research on motivation and the self, particularly on how these factors affect stereotyping and prejudice. In examining motivation and the self, I have begun to examine how implicit processes that are outside of people's awareness affect people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. In examining stereotyping and prejudice, I look at how threats to the self-concept can lead to stereotyping and prejudice, and how this stereotyping and prejudice affects subsequent feelings about the self. In the other research, I also examine how being a member of a stereotyped group affects people's self-concept and academic performance.

Selected publications

Books

  • Sedikides, C., & Spencer, S. J. (Eds.). (2011). The self. Psychology Press.
  • Rudman, L. A., & Spencer, S. J. (Eds.). (2007). The implicit self. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Sedikides, C., & Spencer, S. J. (Eds.). (2007). Frontiers in social psychology: The self. New York: Psychology Press.
  • Spencer, S. J., Fein, S., Zanna, M. P., & Olson, J. (Eds.) (2002). Motivated Social Perception: The Ontario Symposium, Vol. 9. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Journal articles

  • Walton, G. M., Logel, C., Peach, J. M., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (in press). Two Brief Interventions to Mitigate a “Chilly Climate” Transform Women’s Experience, Relationships, and Achievement in Engineering.  Journal of Educational Psychology.

  • Walton, G. M., Spencer, S. J., & Erman, S. (2013). Affirmative meritocracy. Social Issues and Policy Review7(1), 1-35.

  • Walton, G. M., Cohen, G. L., Cwir, D., & Spencer, S. J. (2012). Mere belonging: the power of social connections. Journal of personality and social psychology, 102(3), 513-532.
  • Logel, C. R., Walton, G. M., Spencer, S. J., Peach, J., & Mark, Z. P. (2012). Unleashing latent ability: Implications of stereotype threat for college admissions. Educational Psychologist47(1), 42-50.
  • Yoshida, E., Peach, J. M., Zanna, M. P., & Spencer, S. J. (2012). Not all automatic associations are created equal: How implicit normative evaluations are distinct from implicit attitudes and uniquely predict meaningful behavior.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology48(3), 694-706.
  • Cwir, D., Carr, P. B., Walton, G. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2011). Your heart makes my heart move: Cues of social connectedness cause shared emotions and physiological states among strangers. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology47(3), 661-664.
  • Peach, J. M., Yoshida, E., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Steele, J. R. (2011). Recognizing discrimination explicitly while denying it implicitly: Implicit social identity protection. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology47(2), 283-292.
  • Lau, G. P., Kay, A. C., & Spencer, S. J. (2008). Loving those who justify inequality: The effects of system threat on attraction to women who embody benevolent sexist ideals.  Psychological Science, 19, 20-21.
  • Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., & Fong, G. (2005). Establishing a causal chain: Why experiments are often more effective than mediational analyses in examining psychological processes.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 845-851.
  • Jordan, C., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Hoshino-Browne, E., & Correll, J. (2003). Implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem and defensiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 969-978.
  • Kunda, Z., & Spencer, S. J. (2003). When do stereotypes come to mind and when do they color judgment? A goal-based theory of stereotype activation and application. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 522-544.
  • Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). All consuming images: How demeaning commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1615-1628.
  • Kunda, Z., Davies, P. G., Adams, B., & Spencer, S. J. (2002). The dynamic time course of stereotype activation: Activation, dissipation, and resurrection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82, 283-299.
  • Strahan, E., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2002). Subliminal priming and persuasion: Striking while the iron is hot. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 556-568.
  • Blascovich, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., & Steele, C. M. (2001). Stereotype threat and the cardiovascular reactivity of African-Americans. Psychological Science, 12, 225-229.
  • McGregor, I., Zanna, M. P., Holmes, J. G., & Spencer, S. J. (2001). Conviction in the face of uncertainty: Going to extremes and being oneself. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 472-488.
  • Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4-28.
  • Spencer, S. J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C., Fong, C., & Dunn, M (1998). Stereotype activation under cognitive load: The moderating role of self-image threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1139-1152.
  • Fein, S., & Spencer, S. J. (1997). Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through negative evaluations of others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 31-44.

Other publications

  • Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with bias: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 34, pp. 277-341. San Diego: Academic Press.
Affiliation: 
University of Waterloo

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