If you asked average Grade 6 students about animals that lived in the geological past the chances are that they would talk about dinosaurs. However, I am sure that following close behind would be some contemplation of those fabulous "Ice Age" mammals the mammoths and the mastodons.
The Niagara Escarpment is the most prominent of several escarpments formed in the bedrock of southern Ontario. It is traceable from the Niagara River to northern Michigan, forming the spine of the Bruce Peninsula and Manitoulin and other islands in northern Lake Huron. It also extends into New York State and Wisconsin, roughly encircling the Michigan structural basin in the bedrock.
The ability of living organisms to form minerals is the fundamental tenet of biomineralogy. Among plants and animals, this process involves the production of cystolith inclusions in leaves and hard mineralized body parts like bones, teeth, and shells. This process, biological mineral precipitation, is not exclusive to higher eukaryotic organisms. Prokaryotic microorganisms, or bacteria, are remarkably potent agents of biomineralization, too.
Staff, D.A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington and Staff, Geophysics Program, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington Reprinted with permission from Washington Geology, Volume 23, No. 4. December 1995.