Waterloo Forming and Crash Lab
E3-2105, 2106 & 2121G
University of Waterloo
200 University Avenue West
Contact Michael Worswick, Co-director, Waterloo Forming and Crash Lab
Michael Worswick is a Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering of the University of Waterloo and holds a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in “Light Weight Materials Under Extreme Deformation: Forming and Impact”. He leads a research program in automotive stamping, warm forming, hot die stamping and crashworthiness, as well as impact behaviour of materials. His research activities encompass structural crash worthiness, high-strain-rate material behavior and sheet forming for auto weight reduction, within one of the largest academic laboratories for such research. The major thrust of his research is the response of materials and structures under the gross deformation conditions associated with forming and impact.
Professor Worswick has published over 100 papers in refereed journals and has more than 300 conference publications and industrial reports. He has trained/is training more than 95 graduate students, post-doctoral fellows and research associates. He has led more than $100 million in funded research projects and conducts research with companies across the auto-sector supply chain. He is a member of the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Impact Engineering and an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Material Forming. He was the Founding Director of WatCAR, the Waterloo Centre for Automotive Research. He is a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Engineers and was recently made a Fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
- Computational Mechanics
- Automotive Metal Forming & Crash Simulations
- Advanced/Ultra High Strength Steels
- Aluminum Alloys
- Magnesium Alloys
- Warm Forming & Hot Stamping
- Diploma of Technology from Conestoga College (Electronic Technician)
- 35 years work experience in mechanical testing environment and high technology fabrication.
- Strong background in prototyping, and building electrical and mechanical designs
- Experienced in organizing processes.
- Experienced in interfacing and working with people.
- Knowledgeable and experienced with instrumentation, mechanical testing and electrical wiring.
- Good working knowledge of safety standards and procedures.
- Ability to work independently and as a team member.
Metallurgy and phase transformations in aluminum alloys
Aging kinetics of precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys
Metallurgy and phase transformations in UHSS
Thermomechanical simulation (gleeble)
High temperature mechanical testing
Warm forming of precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys
My research is concerned with the development of a die-set to control the microstructure and mechanical properties of a hot-formed part for automotive use. Traditional hot-forming produces a part that is fully martensitic, with very high strength and low ductility, which is very good for intrusion protection in the event of a collision. It has been suggested that by locally softening the material in specific areas, it is possible to improve the overall energy absorption, while still maintaining the structural integrity and intrusion protection.
The goal of this research is to produce a part with tailored mechanical properties, such that we can have very high strength in some areas, and other areas with increased ductility. This is achieved by controlling the die temperature, and therefore the cooling rate of the blank, at specific locations. This is all to be done in a single processing step without post-tempering or other heat treatments. The other side of the research is to model the forming process with LS-Dyna and use it to predict the microstructure and hardness after forming and quenching.
- Sheet metal forming of steel, aluminum and magnesium
- Electromagnetic forming
- High strain rate behaviour of materials
- Impact behaviour
- Finite Element Analysis of sheet metal forming
As the world strives for sustainability, it has become crucial for the automotive industry to improve vehicle emissions. One way to improve the fuel efficiency of the car is to reduce the overall weight of the car. Newly developed high strength aluminum alloys have attractive energy absorption properties and low density for implementation within automotive structural components. As engineers, it is our responsibility to ensure that the new materials used to construct energy absorbing vehicle structure provide driver safety in the event of a crash. My project will involve testing and modelling to evaluate the crashworthiness of high strength aluminum components under impact loading conditions.
- Fracture Characterization of Magnesium Alloys
- Finite Element Modelling of Forming Processes
- High Strain Rate Behaviour of Materials
- Micromechanics and Homogenization of Composite Materials
I am a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Waterloo within the Forming and Crash lab. My research has been focused on the development and characterization of lightweight composite-metal hybrid material systems. I hold a MSc degree in structural engineering with particular interest in structural health monitoring and a BSc degree in Civil engineering from Shiraz University of Iran. I have completed my PhD at Dalhousie University within the Advanced Composite and Materials Engineering Lab. My PhD research was focused on development of a novel hybrid composite material for application in automotive industry. Throughout my PhD research, I introduced a newly developed 3D fiber metal laminate. I have conducted an extensive research (both experimentally and computationally) on the mechanical behaviour of the proposed material under static and impact loading conditions. In particular, the low velocity impact response of the material has been systematically investigated.
- Fiber reinforced composite materials
- Composite-metal hybrid materials
- Mechanical testing experiments
- Nonlinear finite element method
- Failure analysis of materials
- Dynamic and crash behaviour of materials
- High strain rate behaviour of steel, aluminum and magnesium alloys
- Fracture characterization and modelling of lightweight automotive metals
- Warm forming of high-strength aluminum alloy sheet
- Finite element analysis of sheet metal forming and impact processes
- Crashworthiness and lightweight optimization of automotive structural components
- R&D of nonlinear finite element methods for sheet metal forming
- Finite element modelling of forming and impact
- Warm forming process optimization for aluminum alloys
- Mechanical and material characterization of warm forming aluminum alloy candidates
- Resistance spot welding of hot stamping steels
- Mechanical and material characterization of spot welds
- Failure analysis and fracture characterization
- Spot weld performance modeling and simulation
One of the major goals of the automotive industry is to reduce the total weight of its vehicles in order to reduce their fuel consumption and environmental impact. One way to achieve this goal is through using ultra high strength steels (UHSS) such as boron steel, which can be very lightweight. Traditional forming methods are not feasible for boron steel due to its high strength, so instead the hot stamping process is used. My research focuses on the tailored hot stamping process, where a portion of the die is heated to very high temperatures, while other portions are kept cool at room temperature. The advantage to such a process is that it can produce a part containing both stiff and ductile regions. This can be very useful in manufacturing rail components in cars, which need to withstand axial impact during collisions. My research aims to develop numerical models of the manufacturing and crash performance of an axial crush rail with tailored properties, and to perform experiments to verify the numerical model.
High strain rate behaviour of sheet metal alloys
Constitutive and fracture characterization of advanced high strength materials
Finite element modelling of sheet metal forming and impact processes
Khizar Rouf is currently pursuing a Ph.D. degree under the supervision of Professor Michael Worswick and Professor John Montesano. His current research work focuses on high strain rate constitutive modeling and experimentation of fiber reinforced polymer composites. He graduated with MS degree in Aeronautics and Astronautics Engineering from Purdue University, USA, where he was a member of Multiscale Structural Mechanics group led by Professor Wenbin Yu. During his MS degree, he worked on several research projects related to the multiscale structural modeling of slender and thin heterogeneous structures. Prior to joining graduate school, he worked as an R&D lab supervisor of Diamond Fabrics Limited, Pakistan, where his main role was to design and test fabrics for high tech applications.
- High strain rate modeling of heterogeneous materials
- High strain experimentation of composite materials
- Multi-scale structural modeling of heterogeneous materials
- Numerical simulations of crashworthiness
- Non-linear finite element analysis
I have always liked to do research on something that at its end, I could say I succeeded in helping industry to produce better goods for people. When I planned to start my B.Sc. project, my supervisor gave me a list of possible research topics I could work on. When he was giving me a summary of each of them, I got really interested in hot stamping process on sheet metal alloys since in addition to the compelling idea behind it, its practical usage in car industry would motivate me to step into this way. Hot stamping is a thermomechanical process for the fabrication of thinner components with higher strength, which leads to lowering vehicle weight and improving intrusion resistance in accidents. In my B.Sc. research, I investigated the mechanical properties of hot-stamped AISI 4140 steel sheets experimentally and developed this in my M.Sc. research by the prediction of the resultant microstructures after this process based on a coupled thermodynamics-kinetics modelling. I received both of my B.Sc. and M.Sc. degrees in materials engineering from the University of Tehran in Iran. In 2016, I achieved this chance to embark on my PhD research in the mechanical engineering department of the University of Waterloo under Prof. Worswick and Prof. Wells's supervision, two of the outstanding and knowledgeable researchers around the world, and have been working on the fracture characterization and modelling of the hot-stamped, tailor-welded blanks of different steels since then. It rarely happens to anyone whose main research topics in all the academic levels are the same, but I am so lucky to have always had hot stamping with me since I started academic research in university. We should wait to see if there is a separation between us at some point later!
- The formability and crashworthiness of sheet metal alloys
- The finite element modelling of thermomechanical processes
- The analytical and numerical modelling of the deformation behavior of materials in the macro- and micro-scale levels
My research is focused on improved vehicle lightweighting and crashworthiness through hot stamping of multi-alloy tailor-welded blanks (TWBs). The hot stamping process involves heating a steel blank to a high temperature before forming it between cooled dies, causing rapid cooling and the formation of ultra high strength material. Using multi-alloy TWBs, one material in the blank will harden when hot stamped while the other remains ductile, which is favourable for crash performance of an axial rail. The ductile region will collapse to absorb energy, while the ultra high strength region resists intrusion into the passenger compartment. My main research activities include experimental work using forming presses and a crash sled, and numerical simulation using LS-DYNA:
- Forming of components from hot stamped TWBs and finite element simulation of the forming process
- Evaluation of crashworthiness of these TWBs through dynamic crush experiments on a crash sled at up to 10 m/s, quasi-static crush experiments in a hydraulic frame at 0.5 mm/s, and finite element modeling of both experiments
- Applying these hot stamped materials to the front S-rail of a production car. Initially this will be a numerical optimization study, then a simplified representative ‘demonstrator’ structure will be built and tested
- Hot stamping ultra high strength steel alloys for applications in vehicle light weighting
- Numerical simulation of sheet metal forming operations and automotive component crush
- Characterizing crashworthiness of automotive structures through crash sled testing
- Optimization of automotive crush structures through finite element modelling