|Title||Runtime Monitoring of Cyber-Physical Systems Under Timing and Memory Constraints|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Medhat, R., B. Bonakdarpour, D. Kumar, and S. Fischmeister|
|Journal||ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems (TECS)|
The goal of runtime monitoring is to inspect the well-being of a system by employing a monitor process that reads the state of the system during execution and evaluates a set of properties expressed in some specification language. The main challenge in runtime monitoring is dealing with the costs imposed in terms of resource utilization. In the context of cyber-physical systems, it is crucial for a software monitoring solution to be time predictable to improve scheduling, as well as support composition of monitoring solutions with an overall predictable behavior. Moreover, a small memory footprint is often required in components of cyber-physical systems, especially in deeply embedded systems. In this article, we propose a novel control-theoretic software monitoring solution for coordinating time predictability and memory utilization in runtime monitoring of systems that interact with the physical world. The controllers attempt to reduce monitoring jitter and maximize memory utilization while simultaneously ensuring the soundness of evaluation of properties. For systems where multiple properties are required to be monitored simultaneously, we construct a buffer sharing mechanism in which controllers dynamically share the memory space to negate the effect of bursts of environment actions, thus reducing jitter due to transient high loads.
To validate our design choices, we present three case studies: (1) a Bluetooth mobile payment system, which shows a sporadic rate of events during peak hours; (2) a laser beam stabilizer for target tracking, and (3) a monitoring system for air/fuel ratio in a car engine exhaust and the CAM inlet position in the engine’s cylinders. The experimental results of the case studies demonstrate up to 40% improvement in time predictability of the monitoring solution when compared to a basic event-triggered approach. Moreover, memory utilization reaches an average of 90% when using our dynamic buffer resizing mechanism.