Smelters and refineries: metallurgical capacity and sustainability of metal production

Smelters and refineries are central nodes in both primary and recycled metal value chains. We are developing a database that supports materials flow analysis, business analytics and metallurgical engineering knowledge to characterize metal processing, recycling capacity, and business capability -- in support of a circular economy for metals and more sustainable sourcing of primary materials in the 21st Century.

Funding and support

University of Waterloo