|Title||Non-contact hematoma damage and healing assessment using reflectance photoplethysmographic imaging|
|Publication Type||Conference Paper|
|Year of Publication||2015|
|Authors||Amelard, R., K. Pfisterer, D. A. Clausi, and A. Wong|
|Conference Name||SPIE Photonics West|
|Keywords||hematoma, non-contact, Photoplethysmographic imaging, Photoplethysmography|
Impact trauma may cause a hematoma, which is the leakage of venous blood into surrounding tissues. Large hematomas can be dangerous as they may inhibit local blood flow. Hematomas are often diagnosed visually, which may be problematic if the hematoma leaks deeper than the visible penetration depth. Furthermore, vascular wound healing is often monitored at home without the aid of a clinician. We therefore investigated the use of near infrared (NIR) reflectance photoplethysmographic imaging (PPGI) to assess vascular damage resulting from a hematoma, and monitor the healing process. In this case study, the participant experienced internal vascular damage in the form of a hematoma. Using a PPGI system with dual-mode temporally coded illumination for ambient-agnostic data acquisition and mounted optical elements, the tissue was illuminated with a spatially uniform irradiance pattern of 850 nm wavelength light for increased tissue penetration and high oxy-to-deoxyhemoglobin absorption ratio. Initial and follow-up PPGI data collection was performed to assess vascular damage and healing. The tissue PPGI sequences were spectrally analyzed, producing spectral maps of the tissue area. Experimental results show that spatial differences in spectral information can be observed around the damaged area. In particular, the damaged site exhibited lower pulsatility than the surrounding healthy tissue. This pulsatility was largely restored in the follow-up data, suggesting that the tissue had undergone vascular healing. These results indicate that hematomas can be assessed and monitored in a non-contact visual manner, and suggests that PPGI can be used for tissue health assessment, with potential extensions to peripheral vascular disease.