Coordinating water policies: necessary but not sufficient. Water Policy and Governance in Canada. 17:231-248. . 2017.
Boundary judgments in water governance: diagnosing internal and external factors that matter in a complex world. Water Resources Management. 32(2):565–581. . 2017.
Incorporating outcomes from collaborative processes into government decision making: a case study from low water response planning in Ontario, Canada. Ecological Economics. 132(2017):169-178. . 2017.
Rethinking water governance: moving beyond water-centric perspectives in a connected and changing world. Natural Resources Journal. 57(1):75-99. . 2017.
The agricultural community as a social network in a collaborative, multi-stakeholder problem-solving process. Water. 9(10) . 2017.
Advancing the state of policy Delphi practice: a systematic review evaluating methodological evolution, innovation, and opportunities. Technological Forecasting & Social Change. (104):78-88. . 2016.
Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada’s Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects. Ecology and Society. 21(1):26. . 2016.
Incorporating Indigenous knowledge systems into collaborative governance for water: challenges and opportunities. Journal of Canadian Studies. 50(1):214-243. . 2016.
Natural resource industry involvement in collaboration for water governance: influence on processes and outcomes in Canada. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 60(5):883-900. . 2016.
Perspectives of natural resource sector firms on collaborative approaches to governance for water. The Journal of Cleaner Production. 135:1117-1128. . 2016.
Policy transfer among regional-level organizations: insights from source water protection in Ontario. Environmental Management. 58(1):31–47. . 2016.
State roles and motivations in collaborative approaches to water governance: a power theory-based analysis. Geoforum. 74:202-212. . 2016.
The changing role of ENGO’s in water governance: institutional entrepreneurs? Environmental Management. 57(1):62–78. . 2016.
Conclusion. Water as a Social Opportunity. . 2015.
Water governance in Canada: challenges and opportunities. Resource and Environmental Management in Canada: Addressing Conflict and Uncertainty. :345-369. . 2015.
Collaborative environmental governance and Indigenous peoples: recommendations for practice. Journal of Environmental Practice. 17(2):133-144. . 2015.
Farmer perspectives on collaborative approaches to governance for water. Journal of Rural Studies. 42:191-205. . 2015.
How knowledge is used in collaborative environmental governance: water classification in New Brunswick, Canada. . 2015.
Power in collaborative approaches to governance for water: a systematic review. Society and Natural Resources. 29(7):775-790. . 2015.
Science-policy processes for transboundary water governance. Ambio. 44:353–366. . 2015.
Vernacular knowledge and water management – towards the integration of expert science and local knowledge in Ontario, Canada. Water Alternatives. 8(3):352-372. . 2015.
Water resilience for human prosperity (book review). Canadian Water Resources Journal. 40(4):424–425. . 2015.
Natural Resource and the State in Collaborative Approaches to Water Governance: a Power-Based Analysis. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2015.
Cooperative transboundary water governance in Canada’s Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects. The Politics of River Basin Organisations: Coalitions, Institutional Design Choices and Consequences. :67-95. . 2014.
North America. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. . 2014.
Transboundary water governance in the Mackenzie River Basin, Canada. Water for the Americas: Challenges and Opportunities. :133-155. . 2014.
A collaborative approach to groundwater protection: the Rural Water Quality Program for Waterloo Region. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 39(2):228-239. . 2014.
How collaborative approaches to environmental problem solving view Indigenous peoples: A systematic review. Society and Natural Resources. 27(10):1040-1056. . 2014.
Water policy reform and Indigenous governance. Water Policy. 16(2):222–243. . 2014.
Watershed governance: transcending boundaries. Water Alternatives. 7(2):367-387. . 2014.
Ontario’s low water response planning: Making decisions for areas most vulnerable to drought and low water conditions. . 2014.
Respecting outcomes in collaborative processes: A low water response case study. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2014.
The agricultural community and its contribution to collaborative environmental problem-solving. Department of Geography and Environmental Management. . 2014.
Contextual considerations shaping the transferability of policies for drinking water source protection: a Canadian case study. Water Governance, Policy and Knowledge Transfer: International Studies on Contextual Water Management. :92-110. . 2013.
Southern Ontario Hydrogeological Region. Canada’s Groundwater Resources. . 2013.
Adaptive co-management and its relationship to environmental governance. Ecology and Society. 18(1):21. . 2013.
An integrative assessment of water vulnerability in First Nation communities in Southern Ontario, Canada. Global Environmental Change. 23:749-763. . 2013.
Collaborative approaches to governance for water and Indigenous peoples: A case study from British Columbia, Canada. GeoForum. 50:149-160. . 2013.
Evaluating knowledge production and use in collaborative water governance. Water Alternatives. 6(1):42-66. . 2013.
Exploring water governance and management in Oneida Nation of the Thames (Ontario, Canada): an application of the Institutional Analysis and Development framework. Indigenous Policy Journal. 23(4) . 2013.
Segmenting the urban and rural populations of southern Alberta for improved understanding of policy preferences for water reallocation. Society and Natural Resources. 26:1330-1350. . 2013.
Water governance and Indigenous governance: towards a synthesis. Indigenous Policy Journal. 23(4) . 2013.
Expert panel on Water and Agriculture in Canada. Sustainable Management of Water in the Agricultural Landscapes of Canada. . 2013.
Information sharing for source water protection in Ontario: Summary of findings. Prepared for Conservation Ontario. . 2013.
Collaborative environmental governance and Indigenous governance: A synthesis. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2013.
Transformations in water governance: An examination of the Lake Simcoe Watershed. Department of Geography and Environmental Management. . 2013.
H2Opinion: make it material. Power players need water risk to be real on their terms. Water Canada. . 2013.
A systematic review of water vulnerability assessment tools. Water Resources Management. 26(15):4327-4346. . 2012.
Canadian Indigenous governance literature: a review. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples. 8(1) . 2012.
Conceptualizations of local knowledge in collaborative environmental governance. GeoForum. 43:1207-1217. . 2012.
Environmental governance and its implications for conservation practice. Conservation Letters. 5(4):245-255. . 2012.
Farmers’ perspectives on collaborative approaches to water governance: Summary of findings. Prepared for Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. . 2012.
Understanding the current and potential role of the natural resources sector in collaborative approaches to water governance: Summary of survey findings. . 2012.
Exploring the influences of institutions on water governance and management: A First Nation case study. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2012.
Mainstreaming climate change in drinking water source protection in Ontario: challenges and opportunities. Climate Change Adaptation in Developed Nations: From Theory to Practice. 42 . 2011.
Water reallocation policies – public perceptions. Water Resources Management 2011, 6th International Conference on Sustainable Water Resources Management, May 23-25, 2011. Riverside, CA. :585-596. . 2011.
Source water protection – achieving a collaborative approach. GeoHydro 2011. . 2011.
Influences on the water testing behaviors of private well owners. Journal of Water and Health. 9(2):241-252. . 2011.
Probing the integration of land use and watershed planning in a shifting governance regime. Water Resources Research. 47(9) . 2011.
Protecting aquatic ecosystems in heavily-allocated river systems: the case of the Oldman River Basin, Alberta. The Canadian Geographer. 55(2):243-261. . 2011.
Sharing water with nature: insights on environmental water allocation from a case study of the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia. Water Alternatives. 4(1):15-34. . 2011.
The importance of context in relation to policy transfer: a case study of environmental water allocation in Australia. Environmental Policy and Governance. 21:58-69. . 2011.
Understanding stewardship behaviour: factors facilitating and constraining private water well stewardship. Journal of Environmental Management. 92:1104-1114. . 2011.
Knowledge engagement in collaborative water governance: A New Brunswick example. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2011.
Knowledge production and use in collaborative environmental governance: A case study of water allocation planning in South Australia. Department of Geography. . 2011.
Climate change, adaptive capacity and governance for drinking water in Canada. Adaptive Capacity and Environmental Governance. :157-178. . 2010.
Governance and the challenges of water and food security. Incentives and Instruments for Sustainable Irrigation. :41-58. . 2010.
Water security: current and emerging challenges. Resource and Environmental Management in Canada: Addressing Conflict and Uncertainty. :207-237. . 2010.
Analysing water institutions in the 21st century: guidelines for water researchers and professionals. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research. 2(3):229-244. . 2010.
Appropriate public involvement in local environmental governance: a framework and case study. Society and Natural Resources. 23(11):1043-1059. . 2010.
Importing notions of governance: two examples from the history of Canadian water policy. American Review of Canadian Studies. 40(4):495-507. . 2010.
The development of new environmental policies and processes in response to a crisis: the case of the multiple barrier approach for safe drinking water. Environmental Science and Policy. 13(6):535-548. . 2010.
Challenges for water governance in Canada: A discussion paper. Governance for Source Water Protection in Canada Report No. 2. . 2010.
Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Private Water Well Stewardship in Ontario. Report on the Findings of the Ontario Household Water Well Owner Survey 2008. :185. . 2010.
Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Private Water Well Stewardship in Ontario. Summary of the Findings of the Ontario Household Water Well Owner Survey 2008. . 2010.
Tools and approaches for source water protection in Canada. Governance for Source Water Protection in Canada, Report No. 1. . 2010.
Water Sustainability and the Future of Canada's Natural Resource Sectors, Exploring the Changing Role of the Natural Resource Sectors in Canadian Water Governance. . 2010.
Collaboration as a governance strategy for integrated water resource management: An evaluation of two watershed partnerships in the SIDS of Jamaica. Department of Geography. . 2010.
Investigating consensus-seeking partnerships in water governance: A case study of southern Alberta. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2010.
The Influence of Stakeholder Values on the Acceptance of Water Reallocation Policy in Southern Alberta. Department of Environment and Resource Studies. . 2010.
Decentralised governance for natural resource management: capacity challenges in Australia and Canada. Contested Country: Local and Regional Natural Resources Management in Australia. :179-197. . 2009.
Incorporating local experiential knowledge and societal values in source water protection through a broader risk analysis. GeoHalifax 2009. 62nd Canadian Geotechnical Conference and 10th Joint CGS/IAH-CNC Groundwater Conference. . 2009.
A Canadian vision and strategy for water in the 21st century. Policy Options. :21-24. . 2009.
A social innovation framework for water demand management policy: practitioners’ capabilities, capacity, collaboration and commitment. Society and Natural Resources. 22(5):474‑483. . 2009.
Distributional impacts of water allocation policies for an agricultural watershed. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 34(3):1-16. . 2009.
Local groundwater management studies in Ontario, Canada: a case for retaining a role for the state in community-based water research. Australian Journal of Water Resources. 13(1):69-80. . 2009.
What’s your story? Practitioners’ tacit knowledge and water demand management policies in Southern Africa and Canada Water Policy. 11:489‑503. . 2009.
From Government to Governance: A State-of-the-Art Review of Environmental Governance. Prepared for Alberta Environment, Environmental Stewardship, Environmental Relations. . 2009.
Managing water shortages for Ontario agriculture. Prepared for Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. . 2009.
Sharing the waters of the Red River Basin: A review of options for transboundary water governance. Prepared for International Red Rivers Board, International Joint Commission. . 2009.
Private water well stewardship in rural southern Ontario. Department of Geography. . 2009.
Irrigation and water security: the role of economic instruments and governance. Sustainable Irrigation Management, Technologies and Policies II. 112:35-42. . 2008.
Canada needs a national water strategy. Invited Commentary. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 33(4):309-314. . 2008.
Capacity, capability, collaboration and commitment: How social networks influence practitioners of municipal water demand management policy in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the National Association of Environmental Professionals. 10(2):42‑52. . 2008.
Factors facilitating and constraining source water protection in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 33(1):39-54. . 2008.
Imagined communities, contested watersheds: challenges to integrated water resources management in agricultural areas. Journal of Rural Studies. 24:304–321. . 2008.
Toward a Canadian National Water Strategy. Prepared for Canadian Water Resources Association. . 2008.
An assessment of the influence of values for water on source water protection governance in eastern Ontario. Department of Geography. . 2008.
Assessing Institutions for Aquatic Ecosystem Protection: A Case Study of the Oldman River Basin, Alberta. Department of Geography. . 2008.
Examining institutional 'fit': A case study of environmental water allocation in New South Wales, Australia. Department of Geography. . 2008.
The transformative capacity of watershed partnerships. Department of Geography. . 2008.
Challenging the status quo: the evolution of water governance in Canada. Eau Canada: The Future of Canadian Water Governance. :85-103. . 2007.
Participatory evaluation of collaborative and integrated water management: insights from the field. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 50(2):271-296. . 2007.
Residents' assessment of an urban outdoor water conservation program. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 43(2):427-439. . 2007.
Source water protection in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia: lessons for building local capacity. Land Use Policy. 24:187-198. . 2007.
An Evaluation of Options for Responding to Agricultural Droughts and Water Shortages in Canada. Prepared for Natural Resources Canada, Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Program. . 2007.
Integrating Land and Water Stewardship and Source Water Protection. Challenges and Opportunities. Report prepared for Conservation Ontario. . 2007.
Participatory SWOT Analysis of Land and Water Stewardship. South Nation Conservation Clean Water Program. Report prepared for Conservation Ontario. . 2007.
Water Allocation and Water Security in Canada: Initiating a Policy Dialogue for the 21st Century. Report prepared for the Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation. . 2007.
A Preliminary Assessment of Factors Affecting the Implementation of Source Protection Planning in Ontario. Department of Geography. . 2007.
An Assessment of Local Involvement and Influence in the Development of a Water Sharing Plan, NSW, Australia. Department of Geography. . 2007.
An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Two Watershed Councils in the Gaspé Peninsula, Québec. Department of Geography. . 2007.
Evaluating Sustainable Water Management in the Context of Irrigated Agriculture in the Bigstick Basin Saskatchewan. Department of Geography. . 2007.
Factors Facilitating and Constraining Source Water Protection in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia: A Political Ecology Perspective. . 2007.
Assessing collaborative and integrated water management in an agricultural watershed of Ontario. 59th Canadian Water Resources Association Annual Conference: Working From the Source towards Sustainable Water Management. . 2006.
Monitoring progress in source water protection: insights from the Maitland Watershed Partnerships. 59th Canadian Water Resources Association Annual Conference: Working From the Source towards Sustainable Water Management. . 2006.
An institutional perspective on local capacity for source water protection. GeoForum. 37:944-957. . 2006.
Planning for source water protection in Ontario. Applied Geography. 26:192-209. . 2006.
Practicality, positionality, and emancipation: reflections on participatory action research with a watershed partnership. Systemic Practice and Action Research. 19(6):577–598. . 2006.
Mainstreaming Climate Change in Drinking Water Source Protection in Ontario. Prepared for Pollution Probe and the Canadian Water Resources Association (Ontario Branch). . 2006.
Collaboration and Commitment: Common Elements in the Southern African and Canadian Water Demand Management Programs. Department of Geography. . 2006.
Developing Collaborative Advantage for Water Quality Protection in Agricultural Watersheds: A Policy Network Approach. Department of Geography. . 2006.
Water Allocation in Ontario: Can Municipalities Assume a Greater Role? Department of Geography. . 2006.
Assessing the vulnerability of a regional water supply system to climate-induced water shortages in Victoria, British Columbia. In Reflections on Our Future: Into a New Century of Water Stewardship. Proceedings of the CWRA 58th Annual Conference, Banff, Alberta, June 14-17, 2005. . 2005.
Linking land use planning and water management to protect source waters. In Reflections on Our Future: Into a New Century of Water Stewardship. Proceedings of the CWRA 58th Annual Conference, Banff, Alberta, June 14-17, 2005. . 2005.
Water governance in Canada: Trends and implications. Proceedings of the CWRA 58th Annual Conference, Banff, Alberta, June 14-17, 2005. . 2005.
Agricultural water use: a methodology and estimates for Ontario (1991, 1996 and 2001). Canadian Water Resources Journal. 30(2):111-128. . 2005.
Closing the circle: linking land use planning and water management at the local level. Land Use Policy. 22(2):115-127. . 2005.
Closing the groundwater protection implementation gap. GeoForum. 36(2):241-256. . 2005.
Empowering communities to carry out drought contingency planning. Water Policy. 7(6):551-567. . 2005.
Local groundwater source protection in Ontario and the Provincial Water Protection Fund. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 30(2):129-144. . 2005.
Measuring financial capacity and the effects of regulatory changes on small water systems in Nova Scotia. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 30(3):197-210. . 2005.
Assessment of Agricultural Water Use/Demand Across Canada. Prepared for Sustainable Water Use Branch, Water Policy and Coordination Directorate, Environment Canada. :65. . 2005.
Standards and Policies for Allocating Water Supplies: Implications for Agriculture. Prepared for Meteorological Service of Canada, Atmospheric and Climate Science Directorate, Environment Canada. :53. . 2005.
Working Together… To Protect Our Source Waters. :56. . 2005.
Assessing the Vulnerability of Greater Victoria's Drinking Water Supply System to Climate-Induced Water Shortages. Department of Geography. . 2005.
Local Involvement in Water Management and Adaptive Capacity in the Oldman River Basin, Alberta. Department of Geography. . 2005.
Social Capacity and Source Water Protection in the Oldman River Basin, Alberta. Department of Geography. . 2005.
Integrated and cumulative threats to water availability. Threats to Freshwater Availability in Canada. :117-127. . 2004.
Water security: from exports to contamination of local water supplies. Resource and Environmental Management in Canada: Addressing Conflict and Uncertainty. :166-194. . 2004.
Adaptive capacity to climate change in the water sector and the role of local involvement in the Oldman River Basin, Alberta. Proceedings of the CWRA 57th Annual Conference. . 2004.
Protecting drinking water sources: a Canadian perspective. In Knowledge for Better Adaptation. Proceedings of the CWRA 57th Annual Conference, Montreal, Quebec, June 16-18, 2004. . 2004.
Community capacity for adaptation to climate-induced water shortages: linking institutional complexity and local actors. Environmental Management. 33(1):36-47. . 2004.
Drought planning and water allocation: an assessment of local capacity in Minnesota. Journal of Environmental Management. 73:25-38. . 2004.
Groundwater protection on Long Island, New York: a study in management capacity. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management. 47(4):517-539. . 2004.
Water allocation and the Permit to Take Water program in Ontario: challenges and opportunities. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 29(2):135-146. . 2004.
Adapting to Climate Change in the Maitland Valley Watershed, Ontario: A Discussion Paper for Watershed Stakeholders. . 2004.
Adapting to Climate Change in the Oldman River Watershed, Alberta: A Discussion Paper for Watershed Stakeholders. . 2004.
Water Use and Sustainability Issues in the Canadian Agriculture Sector. Prepared for Sustainable Water Use Branch, Water Policy and Coordination Directorate, Environment Canada. :58. . 2004.
Residents' Assessment of an Outside Water Conservation Program: The Case of Guelph, Ontario. Department of Geography. . 2004.
Drought contingency planning and implementation at the local level in the Province of Ontario, Canada. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 28(1):21-52. . 2003.
Selecting dispute resolution techniques for water resources disputes in Ontario. Applied Geography. 29:89-113. . 2003.
Interorganizational Issues Prevalent in Ontario Water Allocation and Drought Contingency Planning. Department of Geography. . 2003.
Source Water Protection in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia: Local Capacity in a Watershed Context. Department of Geography. . 2003.
Factors Facilitating and Constraining Local Government Capacity for Drought Planning and Mitigation in Minnesota. In Water Management in a Changing Climate. Proceedings of the CWRA 55th Annual Conference, Winnipeg, Nova Scotia, June 11-14, 2002. . 2002.
Drought sensitivity of municipal water supply systems in Ontario. Great Lakes Geographer. 9(2):59-70. . 2002.
Groundwater management by watershed agencies: an evaluation of the capacity of Ontario's conservation authorities. Journal of Environmental Management. 64(3):311-331. . 2002.
Local capacity for groundwater protection in Ontario. Environmental Management. 29(2):217-233. . 2002.
Municipal capacity to manage water problems and conflicts: the Ontario experience. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 27(1):63-84. . 2002.
An evaluation of municipal capacity for water allocation and drought planning in Minnesota. Department of Geography. . 2002.
Community Capacity to Conduct Drought Contingency Planning: The Case of Ontario, Canada. Department of Geography. . 2002.
Integrated and Sustainable Land Use Planning and Groundwater Management in Ontario Municipalities. Department of Geography. . 2002.
Moving down the foodchain: The increasing importance of local-level water management. Integrated Water Resources Management. :13-18. . 2001.
Adaptation options for the near term: climate change and the Canadian water sector. Global Environmental Change. 11(3):231-245. . 2001.
Agricultural water use in Ontario. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 26(1):17-42. . 2001.
Demand side management of water in Ontario municipalities: status, progress and opportunities. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. 37(1):57-72. . 2001.
Strengthening Rural Community Capacity for Adaptation to Low Water Levels. Report submitted to the Climate Change Action Fund. :46. . 2001.
Limits on rural growth related to water. The Health of our Water - Toward Sustainable Agriculture in Canada. :131-139. . 2000.
Climate variability, climate change and water resource management in the Great Lakes. Climatic Change. 45(1):163-179. . 2000.
Rural water use and conservation in southwestern Ontario. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 55(2):161-171. . 2000.
An Evaluation of Ontario's Water Allocation System: The Perspectives of Water Users. Department of Geography. . 2000.
Evaluating the Groundwater Management Capacity of Conservation Authorities. Department of Geography. . 2000.
Groundwater Management in the State of New York: Initiatives and Influences. Department of Geography. . 2000.
Rural Water Use Decision-Making: Adoption of Water Conservation Practices in Southwestern Ontario. Department of Geography. . 2000.
Examining local governments’ capacity for groundwater protection in southern Ontario. Partnerships in Water Resource Management. Proceedings of the CWRA 52nd Annual Conference, Nova Scotia, June 1999, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. . 1999.
Agricultural and Rural Water Allocation in Ontario. A Report to the National Soil and Water Conservation Program, December 31, 1999. :80. . 1999.
Agricultural and Rural Water Use in Ontario. Revised. :43. . 1999.
An Assessment of Local Capacity for Groundwater Quality Protection. Department of Geography. . 1999.
Integrated Water Management in the Credit River Watershed: The Municipal Role. Department of Geography. . 1999.
The Management of Local Water Disputes in Ontario. Department of Geography. . 1999.
Assessing Local Capacity for Groundwater Management in Ontario. Groundwater in a Watershed Context. Symposium Proceedings. December 2-4, 1998. . 1998.
Conservation of Groundwater Supplies in Rural Southern Ontario. Groundwater in a Watershed Context. Symposium Proceedings. December 2-4, 1998. . 1998.
Findings From a Workshop on Conflict Management: Groundwater and Agriculture. Rural Water Management Group Discussion Paper #3. . 1998.
Municipal capacity to manage water supply conflicts in Ontario. In Mountains to Sea: Human Interaction with the Hydrologic Cycle. CWRA 51st Annual Conference Proceedings. . 1998.
Municipal protection of groundwater supplies in Ontario. Groundwater in a Watershed Context. Symposium Proceedings. December 2-4, 1998. . 1998.
Managing Water Supplies and Water Supply Conflicts: A Survey of Ontario Municipalities. Rural Water Management Group Discussion Paper. :33. . 1998.
Conflict Management Arrangements for Ontario Water Management. Rural Water Management Group Discussion Paper #1. :28. . 1997.
Integrated water management arrangements for Ontario. Rural Water Management Group Discussion Paper #2. :36. . 1997.