Course subject: Geography (GEOG)

For more detailed course information, click on a course title below.

Geography (GEOG) 600 Foundations in Spatial Data Handling (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001344
This seminar class will provide a foundational analysis and overview of concepts and methodologies in several aspects of spatial data handling: cartography, geographic information systems, remote sensing, spatial statistics, including analysis of spatial data sets. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 601 Environmental Change and Remote (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 009416
Principles and techniques of analyzing environmental change from long time-series of remotely sensed imagery are examined. Case studies include the impacts of climate on sea ice and the role of natural and human-induced stress on tropical coral reefs. Prerequisites: Geography 603 or equivalent. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 602 Remote Sensing of Cold Regions (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001345
This course focuses on the extraction of hydrologically-relevant parameters from remote sensing that are germane to cold regions such as snowfall, snow cover, glaciers & ice caps, lake and river ice, permafrost, and seasonally frozen ground. The determination of hydrological parameters in the liquid and vapour phases such precipitiation, soild moisture, surface water, and evaporation/evapotranspiration from remote sensing, as well as the integration of remote sensing data into hydrological models are also covered. Prerequisites: UW undergraduates: GEOG 271, 371, 471 or undergraduate Geomatics degree. Undergraduate Geography degree with suitable remote sensing experience. Students with no remote sensing experience but strong GIS experience are required to take a 675 Directed Reading course entitled "Remote Sensing Analysis" prior to enrolment in 602. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 603 Remote Sensing and Earth System Science (0.50) SEM,TUT

Course ID: 001346
This course will explore how remote sensing is used and in concert with empirical or physically-based models to help us better understand Earth system processes from the local to global scales. Students will learn how remote sensing measurements are coupled with radiative transfer models, energy and mass balance models and spatial analytical models from different components of the Earth system. Examples will be drawn from the hydrologic and carbon cycles from the human built enviornment. Prerequisites: UW undergraduates: Geog 271, 371, 471 or undergraduate Geomatics degree. Undergraduate degree with suitable remote sensing experience. Students with no remote sensing experience but strong GIS experience are required to take a 675 Directed Reading course entitled "Remote Sensing Analysis" prior to enrolment in 603. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 604 Spatial Statistics (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001347
An overview of spatial statistics and their use in geographic studies. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 605 Spatial Information Technology, Globalization and International Development (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 011818
This course considers the role of GIS and RS technologies for problem solving and planning decision support in developing countries. Topics covered include the globalisation of information technology and its transfer from developed to developing countries and general aspects of the spatial information technology industry and its relationship to society. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 606 Scientific Data Wrangling (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001348
This course covers the data science skills comprising data visualization, data wrangling (cleaning, combining, modelling, etc.), and methodological and statistical design, which are an important part of the scientific method. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 607 Fundamentals of Geographic Information Systems (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001349
Introduces the fundamentals of GIS at a graduate level, including cartographic best practices, map projections and coordinate systems, georeferencing data, quantitative mapping, web mapping, and introductory spatial analysis, including clustering, network, and multicriteria analysis. Intended for students without significant experience in GIS. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 608 Urban Remote Sensing (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 012793
An overview of high-resolution remote sensing systems and advanced study of image segmentation, data fusion, feature extraction, and change detection algorithms. Topics include 3D city modeling, land use/cover classification, urban heat island study, urban sprawl monitoring, and risk mapping. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 609 GIS and Spatial Decision Support for Planning and Resource Management (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 011491
This course introduces students to key theories, concepts and techniques that have been developed recently to improve the design support capabilities of spatial information systems. Topics covered include participatory GIS, group-based spatial decision support systems, and the integration of multi-criteria analysis (MCA) methods with GIS to facilitate decision-making in planning. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 611 Industrial Location Theory and Concepts (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001839
Examination of industrial location theory, and themes concerning the role of manufacturing in the space-economy. Factors of location will be considered as will the way that manufacturing has led to spatial disparity on international, regional and local levels.

Geography (GEOG) 613 Innovation and Economic Development in Cities and Regions (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001841
This course offers a critical examination of the innovation, knowledge creation and circulation, and governance processes that underpin contemporary economic development in cities and regions. Strategies, policies and programs that are intended to support and promote innovation and economic development in urban and regional economies are analyzed.

Geography (GEOG) 615 Community Economic Development (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001842
Community Economic Development is a field of theory, process and practice that is concerned with understanding the forces shaping communities and finding sustainable local solutions to economic needs. This seminar course will examine topics such as capacity-building, asset-based strategies, social capital, poverty-alleviation, social enterprises and co-operatives, and comprehensive community initiatives, using international and local examples and case studies.

Geography (GEOG) 616 Multivariate Statistics (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001360
Theory and application of multivariate statistics, regression and correlation analysis, factor analysis, discriminant analysis and grouping analysis, with emphasis on the use of the computer. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 618 Spatial Analysis (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001362
Presentation of analytical and simulation models useful in analyzing geographic phenomena such as spatial interaction, spatial dependence, spatial equilibria and locational optimization; consideration is given to both theoretical and empirical components. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 619 Analytical Tools for Economic Development (0.50) LEC,RDG,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 002245
The course provides an overview and hands-on application of the quantitative analytical methods regularly used by professionals in economic development and related fields. Emerging analytical tools and techniques are explored.

Geography (GEOG) 620 Foundations in Human Geography (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001364
This seminar class will provide a foundational analysis of the interdisciplinary scope of Human Geography by evaluating key concepts and theoretical approaches that have defined the evolution of the sub-discipline in the contemporary period. Students will assess how their research interests will contribute to ongoing conceptual developments in Human Geography.

Geography (GEOG) 621 Metropolitan Form and Structure in Canada (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 010621
A seminar on selected topics of particular relevance to understanding and planning for contemporary processes of metropolitan change in Canada. Major topics represent an interrelated set of exogenous forces, (globalization, economic restructuring, technological innovation and immigration and demographic shift), and endogenous structural responses, (central city decline, revitalization, dispersed styles of suburban development and new urbanist and ecologically sustainable styles of planned intervention).

Geography (GEOG) 622 The Future of Work (0.50) OLN,SEM

Course ID: 016638
This advanced graduate seminar examines the emergent possibilities associated with work in cities of the future. It theorizes the central role that work plays in everyday urban life, highlighting how work is spatially and socially unevenly distributed and how inequality continues to structure labor markets in cities. It engages with `future of work¿ discourses to examine the complex role of technological change in urban labor market transition, as well as questioning the prominence of technological change in such transition. It focuses both on sectors privileged by mainstream theories of urban development (e.g., high technology and the creative industries) and sectors ignored by such theories but that nevertheless remain essential for the functioning of urban centers, including unpaid, informal, and care work. It questions the role of work in everyday life by highlighting dominant working norms and resistance to them, e.g., in calls for redistributive justice through unionization and collective action, anti-work discourses, and campaigns for a four-day work week.

Geography (GEOG) 624 Human Activity and Travel Behaviour (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001368
An exploration of observed patterns of human activity and travel, underlying decision-making processes, data collection methodologies, and associated impacts on environment and health.

Geography (GEOG) 625 Qualitative Methods in Geography (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001369
This course is designed to investigate the range of qualitative research methods (research tools) employed by human geographers and explore the methodological justifications (philosophical or theoretical underpinnings) for using this type of research approach. Qualitative methods attempt to interpret meaning as opposed to purely measuring phenomena. The focus of qualitative research is not descriptive measurement and prediction of phenomena, as offered by statistical description/analysis, but is more attuned to examining subjective understandings and the interpretation of meaning (hermeneutics). This course will examine and evaluate the range of research tools comprising qualitative methods including: various interviewing methods, participant observation, ethnography, case study methods and dicourse analysis. It will also engage with the theoretical debates and philosophical approaches that underpin qualitative research.

Geography (GEOG) 635 International Development: Theories and Practice (0.50) LEC,RDG,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 001374
This course emphasizes both theoretical and conceptual frameworks, techniques, practices and methods for analysis of development, focusing in particular on the development - environment interface and questions of sustainability.

Geography (GEOG) 637 Cultural Geography (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 013243
This course will engage with the parameters of cultural geography from varying perspectives, which might include origins, evolution, impacts of the cultural turn, and future directions.

Geography (GEOG) 638 Sustainable Tourism (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 010724
This course examines sustainability issues relevant to tourism. Conceptual and practical examples related to economic, environmental, and social/cultural sustainability of tourism are critically appraised, combined with reviews of policy and institutional effects on sustainability practices. The course also focuses on best practices in sustainable tourism within government, non-government and private sector.

Geography (GEOG) 639 Food Systems and Sustainability (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 013394
The course examines emerging and existing sustainable food systems from a North American and EU perspective. Topics may include: technology, nature and society; policy dimensions in North American and the EU; knowledge and power; spaces of consumption; the moral economy; new urbanism and food planning; and, food networks such as commodity chains and fairly traded food.

Geography (GEOG) 640 Foundations in Environmental Science (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001375
This seminar course examines basic concepts related to temporal and spatial scales together with variability as they directly affect data collection and analysis. Leading-edge research related to Environmental Science will be critically discussed. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 641 Climate Change: Physical Science Basis (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 010625
The course examines the interactive physical, biological and geochemical processes responsible for and resulting from climate change, including anthropogenic influences on these processes. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 642 Micrometeorology (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001376
Advanced study of boundary-layer meteorology. Energy balance regimes for complex surfaces are examined. The theory of turbulent and radiant transfer is studied using field data collected during the course. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 643 Dynamic Geomorphology (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001377
An overview of current issues and methodologies in geomorphology with special emphasis on processes operating in fluvial, glacial, periglacial or coastal environments. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 644 Applied Geomorphology (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001378
An examination of the way in which human activities modify landscapes and the impacts of government policy and planning with respect to landscape change. The role of the geomorphologist in landscape rehabilitation. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 645 Fluvial & Glaciofluvial Sediment Transport (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 009420
Laboratory (hydraulic) models and sediment transport theory are emphasized in the analysis of modern and ancient (Pleistocene) landforms of fluvial and glaciofluvial origin. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 646 Hydrology (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001379
Overview of hydrological processes with emphasis on Canadian examples related to the hydrologic cycle, surface hydrology, groundwater hydrology, and measurement techniques. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 647 Recent Advances in Wetland Studies (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001380
Selected topics on the distribution, classification, functional dynamics, and ecosystem structure of wetlands. A scientific basis for wetlands management is emphasized. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 648 Paleolimnology (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 012794
This course examines the use of stratigraphic records from lakes to reconstruct environmental change. Topics include sediment coring techniques, radiometric dating methods, analysis of physical, geochemical and biological indicators, and case studies demonstrating applications to address scientific and management questions. Practical experience is gained from a lake sediment coring field trip and subsequent laboratory analyses. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 649 Hydrology of Cold Regions (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 012795
This course provides an overview of the hydrology of cold regions. Physical processes are emphasized, but hydrological modeling, and geochemistry are included where appropriate. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 651 Hydroecology for Freshwater Ecosystem Management (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 013757
This course examines the interaction in both space and time between hydrological processes and lacustrine environments. Applications to freshwater ecosystem management are explored.

Geography (GEOG) 652 Climate Prediction, Modeling and Scenarios (0.50) LAB,SEM

Course ID: 014506
Computer models of the physical climate system are essential tools for investigating future climate change. This course will introduce students to the basic formulation of these models, and their strengths and limitations. Inter-linkages between climate modeling and mitigation and adaptation policy agendas is reviewed and critiqued. The types of climate modeling experiments peformed with such models and scenarios will be reviewed. The latest projections of future climate on a variety of temporal and spatial scales will be presented and evaluated. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 653 Land Use and the Carbon Cycle (0.50) LAB,SEM

Course ID: 014510
This course examines contemporary theories, approaches, and technologies used to study coupled natural-human systems at the intersection of land-use and land-cover change, land management, and the carbon cycle. Topics covered include measurement and modelling techniques to improve carbon accounting, the effects of land use and land management on carbon storage and flux, and international and national policy frameworkds influencing carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 654 Applied Biogeochemistry (0.50) LEC,TUT

Course ID: 014735
This course focuses on ecological and biogeochemical processes that are linked to the terrestrial hydrological cycle and how these relate to the management of natural resources. The objectives of this interdisciplinary course are to explore topics that integrate ecosystem processes with physical hydrology and examine the impacts of human activities on ecohydrological and hydrochemical processes within terrestrial systems. This course focusses on the storage and movement of water, solutes and nutrients within selected ecosystems (forests, agricultural, wetlands), considering the biogeochemical consequences of human activity such as climate change, wetland drainage, agriculture and forest harvesting.

Geography (GEOG) 655 Snow Hydrology (0.50) LEC,SEM

Course ID: 015503
This course examines the processes controlling the spatial and temporal changes in snowcover, and the role of snow in Canada's hydrological system. Applications to water resources, hydrological prediction and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be considered.

Geography (GEOG) 656 Eutrophication: From Process to Water Quality Management (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM

Course ID: 016420
Eutrophication, caused by excess nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) entering water bodies, results in nuisance and harmful algal blooms, and is a major global threat to water quality and water security. This course explores eutrophication drivers, pressures and impacts on the quality of freshwater systems, from watershed to global scales. Students will learn about the sources and biogeochemical cycling of nutrients along the aquatic (stream-river-lake) continuum, and ecological responses in receiving water bodies. Environmental thresholds for setting water-quality standards and nutrient criteria will be discussed. Students will learn about agricultural beneficial management practices and wastewater management to reduce nutrient inputs to freshwaters. Students will examine the benefits and challenges of sustainable nutrient stewardship in combatting eutrophication, and learn about how this knowledge is used in water-quality management, through international examples.

Geography (GEOG) 660 Foundations in Resource and Environmental Management (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001210
Current research and practice in resource and environmental management. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 661A Applied Studies in Hydrology and the Environment 1 (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 002264
This applied hydrology course involves defining, designing and conducting research on the hydrology and/or water quality of a specific environmental setting. Drawing on strengths and interests of students, the field and laboratory activities in this course typically involve collection, analysis and reporting of primary data. The Fall-term (661A) focuses on literature review, problem definition, methodological design and data collection; the Winter-term (661B) includes analysis, interpretation and write-up suitable for publication in a refereed journal. Group work is typically involved. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 661B Applied Studies in Hydrology and the Environment 2 (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001389
This course is a continuation of GEOG 661A/PLAN661A. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 664 Political Ecology: Nature, Society and Sustainability (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001392
Readings, discussions and case study analysis draw attention to the intersection of political-economy and ecological analysis, and contested understandings of environmental change, livelihoods and sustainability. Topics may include communities and conservation, knowledge systems and power, ecological change, property rights and institutions, social movements, and methods. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 665 Environmental Planning Theory and Practice (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 002269
An interdisciplinary approach to environmental planning. Focuses on the socio-economic, planning, environmental science, design, and decision-making theories and methods utilized in environmental planning theory and practice. Regional and local case studies and studio projects will be used to demonstrate professional practice issues and techniques. Recommended: A senior level course in ecology, environmental science, landscape architecture or equivalent. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 666 Ecosystem Approach to Park Planning (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 002270
An ecological approach to planning national and provincial parks, focusing on system planning, master planning and park administration. Examination of the theory and practice of parks planning, utilizing ecological concepts. Recommended: a senior undergrad or graduate ecology course. Estimated additional field trip cost to student: $30.00 *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 668 Indigenous Environmental Management Perspectives (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 016202
This course examines Indigenous knowledge-based approaches to environmental management. The first part of the course is dedicated to fostering a better understanding of and appreciation for Indigenous land-based philosophies and ways of knowing from across the Americas. Key differences between Western and Indigenous approaches to environmental management will also be highlighted. The second half of the course deals with finding more effective ways of integrating Indigenous land-use principles and knowledges in the management of Indigenous and non-Indigenous territories in Canada and worldwide.

Geography (GEOG) 669 Energy Sustainability (0.50) LEC,RDG,SEM

Course ID: 012666
Renewable and non-renewable energy supply systems are compared using economic and environmental measures. Consumption trends, conservation options and choices are considered at the household, community and global scales. Projects are used to demonstrate the economic and environmental challenges in the design of sustainable energy systems. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 672 Human Ecology of Stressed Environments (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001401
An examination of socioeconomic-biophysical system interactions emphasizing multi- and transdisciplinary perspectives such as human ecology, health, ecosystems, and complexity. Students normally focus on one particular problem and region to illustrate concepts and methods. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 673 International Perspectives on Resource and Environmental Management (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001402
An overview of issues, problems and concepts in international resource and environmental management. The complex nature of ecological/biophysical, economic, and sociocultural aspects of resource management will be explored, with particular emphasis placed on tracing challenges experienced in developing countries. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 674 Climate Data and Analytics (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 014508
This course examines the scientific and practical challenges of finding and utilizing climate data to derive useful information in order to inform research and decision making processes. Through lectures, readings, videos and assignments, this course will introduce different types of climate data (historical, contemporary measurements and modelled) and discuss how they can be realistically analyzed to derive useful information (both within a research and policy context). From a general discussion on what climate data is and its value, this course will then focus on finding/collected climate data and critically evaluating how it can and should be used. Further, this course will introduce students to the development of data management plans, climate data curation, and effective ways of visualizing and contextualizing climate data to a variety of target audiences. Building upon this foundational knowledge, strategies and methodologies for analyzing climate data to derive useful information related climate risk in a variety of sectors with be explored. This includes areas such as community planning, human health, engineering/infrastructure among others. Students must have access to spreadsheet software for assignments. *eligible for MES.

Geography (GEOG) 675 Selected Topics in Geography (0.50) RDG

Course ID: 001403
Topic(s) to be negotiated on an individual basis with faculty members. An outline for this course, approved by the professor in charge, must be submitted to the Program Director, within three weeks of registration.

Geography (GEOG) 676 Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 009423
This course examines the impacts of changing climate on natural and human systems and focuses on the capacity of societies to adjust to, plan for and cope with changing climate and environmental conditions. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 677 Climate Change, Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 014509
This course explores the complex links between climate change and natural hazards, and related disasters, including disaster risk reduction as an adaptation strategy. Emphasis is placed on examining these concepts in a developing country context. *eligible for

Geography (GEOG) 678 Climate Change Governance: From Global Treaties to Local Innovation (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 014511
This course explores the theories behind, and practical approaches to, the multi-level governance of climate change. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Kyoto Protocol, national climate action plans and local innovation are viewed through the lenses of legitimacy, effectiveness, and participation. Finally, we consider the challenge of transformative change, and the possibility of finding synergies among climate change responses and other pressing social and environmental priorities.

Geography (GEOG) 679 Climate Change Mitigation (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 014507
This course examines the anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas emissions and the range of strategies to reduce these emissions and to enhance carbon sequestration. The policy frameworks governing climate change mitigation are critically appraised from geopolitical, economic and ethics perspectives. This course also considers the potential role of climate remediation strategies. *eligible for MES

Geography (GEOG) 683 Civic Technology and Digital Infrastructures (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 015504
A critical approach to the development, implementation, and evaluation of civic technology and smart cities, with a focus on practical implementation considerations. Topics covered include open data, urban data collection and analysis platforms, digital inequalities, locational privacy, and digital infrastructures. Assignments are used to experiment with course concepts.

Geography (GEOG) 685 Economic Development: Theories and Frameworks (0.50) LEC

Course ID: 001843
This course reviews the evolution and foundations of contemporary economic development. It offers a critical appraisal of approaches and frameworks that are adopted to understand and analyze economic development processes at different geographic scales.

Geography (GEOG) 690 Geographic Thought and Methodology (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 001434
An analysis of changing methods and philosophy of geographic research with emphasis on problem formulation and the design and evaluation of geographic research.

Geography (GEOG) 692 International Study (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 010626
The aim of this course is to provide academic credit for a foreign academic learning experience.This will take one of the following formats: study with a foreign expert, a specialized graduate course taken at a foreign institution, or a research/study project abroad conducted under the guidance of an approved advisor. In all instances the plan of study must be approved before a student leaves and in each case a final approved report must be submitted.

Geography (GEOG) 693 Human Geography Special Topics Course (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 015268
Seminar topics offered one time only, or to introduce a potential permanent course within the designated subject area.

Geography (GEOG) 694 Environmental Management Special Topics Course (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 015269
Seminar topics offered one time only, or to introduce a potential permanent course within the designated subject area.

Geography (GEOG) 695 Geomatics Special Topics Course (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 015263
Seminar topics offered one time only, or to introduce a potential permanent course within the designated subject area.

Geography (GEOG) 696 Environmental Science Special Topics Course (0.50) LAB,LEC,SEM,TUT

Course ID: 015267
Seminar topics offered one time only, or to introduce a potential permanent course within the designated subject area.

Geography (GEOG) 700 Professional Skills Development for Master's Students (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 016203
This course is for Master¿s students and focuses on cohort building and the development of key transferable career-focused skills. Content may include: student and advisor/committee relationships and mutual expectations; concerns such as gender neutrality, Indigenous perspectives, or public accountability; how to communicate your research to diverse audiences and stakeholders. In addition, skills development will prioritize constructing compelling research proposals, funding applications, and presentations. Graded on a credit/no credit basis.

Geography (GEOG) 800 Professional Skills Development for Doctoral Students (0.50) SEM

Course ID: 016201
This course is for doctoral students. PhD students in the graduate program will engage in cohort-building exercises and develop key transferable career-focused skills deemed necessary for success as a professional researcher. This includes effective proposal and grant writing, presentation and instructional skills, professional development in terms of public engagement with diverse stakeholders and community partners (government, indigenous, community, academic). Graded on a credit/no credit basis.