Publications

Recording GPS coordinatesPublications listed below are in reverse chronological order. When possible, links to open-access articles are provided.  For other articles, please contact Dr. Rooney for a copy suitable for research applications:

30. Kraft, A.J., Robinson, D.T., Evans, I.S., and ROONEY, R.C. 2019. Concordance in wetland physicochemical conditions, vegetation, and surrounding land cover is robust to data extraction approach. PlosONE.  In Press.

Abstract:

Concordance among wetland physicochemical conditions, vegetation, and surrounding land cover may result from the influence of land cover on the sources of plant propagules, on physicochemical conditions, and their subsequent determination of growing conditions. Alternatively, concordance may result if differences in climate, soils, and species pools are spatially confounded with differences in human population density and land conversion. Further, we expect that land cover within catchment boundaries will be more predictive than land cover in symmetrical buffers if runoff is a major pathway. We measured concordance between land cover, wetland vegetation and physicochemical conditions in 48 prairie pothole wetlands, controlling for inter-wetland distance. We contrasted land-cover data collected over a four-year period by multiple extraction approaches including topographically-delineated catchments and nested 30 m to 5,000 m radius buffers. After factoring out inter-wetland distance, physiochemical conditions were significantly concordant with land cover. Vegetation was not significantly concordant with land cover, though it was strongly and significantly concordant with physicochemical conditions. More, concordance was as strong when land cover was extracted from buffers <500 m in radius as from catchments, indicating the mechanism responsible is not topographically constrained. We conclude that local landscape structure does not directly influence wetland vegetation composition, but rather that vegetation depends on 1) physicochemical conditions in the wetland that are affected by surrounding land cover and on 2) regional factors such as the vegetation species pool and geographic gradients in climate, soil type, and land use.


29. Remmer, C.R., Robichaud, C.D., Polowyk, H., and ROONEY, R.C.  2019. The role of ecological drift in structuring periphytic diatom communities. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. In Press.

Abstract:

Stochastic processes are expected to influence ecological communities but are less frequently studied than other community structuring processes. Here we investigate the influence of ecological drift on periphytic diatom community composition in arctic lakes. If community composition is strongly influenced by drift, we hypothesize that i) alpha diversity will increase with increasing lake size, due to the decreasing influence of drift-mediated local extinction, ii) beta diversity will be greatest among small lakes and lowest in large lakes, and iii) relationships between community size and environmental variables will be strongest in large lakes and weakest in small lakes. Analysis was conducted on periphytic diatoms accrued on artificial samplers in 44 shallow, thermokarst lakes over the growing season of 2009. Limnological and hydrological conditions at each site were described and their influence was removed to minimize the confounding effect of environmental heterogeneity. Alpha diversity was not significantly different among the lake sizes. Total beta diversity was significantly higher in the small lakes than the medium lakes. Beta diversity was primarily attributed to turnover, and small lakes had significantly higher turnover than medium and large lakes, while nestedness was not significantly different between the sizes. Periphytic diatom community composition and environmental variables were not concordant in any of the lake size classes. Our results suggest that drift, as related to habitat size, is not a primary driver of periphytic diatom community composition in shallow, thermokarst arctic lakes 


28. Dresher, M., Epstein, G., Warriner, K., and ROONEY, R.C. 2019. An investigation of the effects of conservation incentive programs on management of invasive species by private landowners. Conservation Science and Practice. DOI:10.1111/csp2.56

Abstract:

Invasive species are a large and growing threat to biodiversity and ecosystem service provisioning globally as well as in southern Ontario, Canada’s most biodiverse region. As in other world regions, most land in southern Ontario is privately owned and therefore conservation programs that aim at invasive species control on private lands are important. Conservation incentive programs that target private lands are increasing in popularity, but little is known about their effectiveness in achieving actual conservation objectives. To address this knowledge gap, we used a large survey of 1,200 Ontario landowners to investigate how successful conservation incentive programs are at motivating landowners to engage in invasive species management. Utilizing a quasiexperimental approach, we surveyed landowners participating in one of two conservation incentive programs, and landowners that were program-eligible but did not participate. Our results demonstrate the differential effects of participation in the two programs on specific landowner conservation behaviors: While one program increased the likelihood of removing invasive species by a factor 2.5 and the planting of native species by a factor 4.3, participants in the other program were no more likely to engage in these behaviors than landowners who did not participate in either program. We suggest that this behavioural disparity is due to differences in program designs: A program that does not require a management plan, favours a short planning horizon, and mainly encourages passive management, essentially breaks the causal chain that reinforces landowners’ environmental awareness and a sense of responsibility for taking conservation actions. Our recommendations include requirements for impact evaluations of private land conservation incentive programs to ensure they achieve stated program outcomes, as well as conservation incentive program designs that oblige landowners toactively manage their land over longer time.


27. Daniel, J., Gleason, J.E., Cottenie, K., and ROONEY, R.C. 2019.  Stochastic and deterministic processes drive wetland community assembly across a gradient of environmental filtering. Oikos. DOI: 10.1111/oik.05987. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/oik.05987.

Abstract:

The role of deterministic and stochastic processes in community assembly is a key question in community ecology. We evaluated the effect of an abiotic filter (hydroperiod) on the partitioned diversity of three taxonomic groups (birds, vegetation, macroinvertebrates) from prairie pothole wetlands in Alberta, Canada, which naturally vary in water permanence. We observed that alpha and gamma diversity were higher in permanent than temporary wetlands (16–25% and 34–47% respectively, depending on the taxon). MORE HERE.


26. Kompanizare, M., Shafii, M., Robinson, D.T. and ROONEY R.C., Petrone, R. 2018. Effect of climate change and mining on hydrological connectivity of surficial layers in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Hydrological Processes. 32: 3698-3716. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.13292 .

Abstract:

This research analyses the impact of climate change and surface mining activities on the hydrologic connectivity of surficial (soil and geological) layers located in a watershed in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. Surface water and groundwater flow are simulated for the period 2014–2080 under four climate scenarios: median (M), double precipitation (DP), no change in precipitation (NP), and double temperature (DT) and with the assumption of no change in the extent of mine activities after 2013. The results demonstrate that the annual growing season duration is longer and snowmelt happens earlier in the year 2080. During the growing season, the daily proportion of connected hydrologic units (DPCUs) remains approximately the same in the future under the different climate scenarios. It appears that around 68% of watershed area, mostly in western and central eastern portions, will be frequently connected (annual proportion of connected days [APCD] ≥ 20%) in the future. MORE HERE.


25. Gleason, J.E., Bortolotti, J. and R.C. ROONEY. 2018. Wetland microhabitats support distinct communities of aquatic macroinvertebrates. Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 33. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02705060.2017.1422560.

Abstract:

The drivers of aquatic macroinvertebrate distribution in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands are not as well understood as in other aquatic ecosystems (e.g. rivers or lakes). We collected aquatic macroinvertebrates from 35 fishless prairie pothole wetlands in Alberta, including two habitat zones: the emergent zone and the open-water zone. Within each zone, we collected a vegetation sample and a water column sample, thus capturing four distinct microhabitats. We tested for community differences among these microhabitats with nested ANOVAs, looking at macroinvertebrate abundance, taxa richness, and evenness. We also visualized trends in community composition among the microhabitats with nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination. Interestingly, we observed no difference in macroinvertebrate communities between the open-water and the emergent habitat zones.  MORE HERE.


24. Gleason, J.E. and R.C. ROONEY. 2018. Pond permanence is a key determinant of aquatic macroinvertebrate community in wetlands. Freshwater Biology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.13057.

Abstract:

  1. Globally, many aquatic ecosystems experience periodic desiccation that imposes stress on biota. The Northern Prairie Pothole Region (NPPR) in Alberta, Canada, contains abundant wetlands that fill with spring snowmelt and then draw down throughout the summer. They are often assigned a pond-permanence class based on the duration of ponded water.
  2. These dynamic wetlands are home to diverse and productive communities of macroinvertebrates. We expected that pond permanence structures macroinvertebrate communities in NPPR wetlands. In addition to exploring the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities, we aimed to characterise these communities by functional groups to test for associations between pond permanence and desiccation strategies, feeding groups or behavioural guilds.
  3. MORE HERE.

23. Evans, I., Robinson, D.T., and R.C. ROONEY. 2017. A methodology for relating wetland configuration to human disturbance in Alberta. Landscape Ecology. 32: 2059-2036. DOI:10.1007/s10980-017-0566-z.

Abstract:

Context: Widespread loss of wetland ecosystems resulting from human land use highlights the need for a reclamation strategy that can sustain wetland ecosystem services. Since wetland function partly depends on landscape structure, reclamation and monitoring can be aided by knowing the differences in wetland configuration between undisturbed and disturbed landscapes. Objective: Identify a parsimonious set of landscape metrics for quantifying wetland configuration and land-cover composition, and quantify how these metrics vary with anthropogenic disturbance.

Full article available for free here.


22. Gleason, J.E. and R.C. ROONEY. 2017. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are poor indicators of agricultural activity in northern prairie pothole wetlands. Ecological Indicators. 81: 333-339. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.06.013.

Abstract:

The Northern Prairie Pothole Region (NPPR) of Alberta, Canada, contains numerous shallow marshes that serve as important habitat for wildlife and provide essential ecosystem services. Many of these wetlands have been destroyed or degraded by human activity and the majority of remaining wetlands occur in landscapes affected by crop and cattle production. Alberta has implemented a conservation policy which requires the creation of wetland assessment tools. Aquatic macroinvertebrates are frequently used as indicators of environmental condition in rivers, but their effectiveness as indicators in prairie pothole wetlands is not clear. MORE HERE.


21. Weber, M., N. Krogman, L. Foote, R.C. ROONEY. 2017. Natural capital and the political economy of wetland governance in Alberta. Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning. 19: 279-292. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1523908X.2017.1308248.

First 50 downloads free at this link

Abstract:

The legitimacy of wetland decisions depends on how science and values are integrated and reflected in wetland management decisions. Natural capital and ecosystem services (ES) have become integral to how we think about ecosystem management however there is no consensus on how these concepts should be applied in management. Through the example of Alberta’s wetland policy, we show how policies designed to mainstream natural capital and ES in decision-making are aligned with liberal governance arrangements that emerged in the nineteenth century. MORE HERE.


20. Robichaud, C.D. and R.C. ROONEY. 2017. Long-term effects of a Phragmites australis invasion on birds in a Lake Erie coastal marsh. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 43: 141-149. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2017.03.018.

Abstract:

On the North shore of Lake Erie, Long Point provides habitat to many thousands of breeding and migrating birds, including marsh-nesting species that are in decline across the Great Lakes. Invasive Phragmites australis threatens the ecological integrity of these marshes. Early concerns prompted a study into the effects of invasion on bird use in 2001–2002 that concluded P. australis was not a major bird conservation issue. We evaluate breeding season bird occupancy in these wetlands after over a decade of P. australis expansion, comparing bird diversity and abundance in P. australis with diversity and abundance in the vegetation communities that P. australis is displacing: cattail, meadow, and open-water marsh. MORE HERE.  


19. ROONEY, R.C., D.T. Robinson and R. Petrone. 2015. Megaproject reclamation and climate change. Nature Climate Change. 5: 963-966. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate2719.

Abstract:

Megaprojects such as oil sands mining require large-scale and long-term closure and reclamation plans. Yet these plans are created and approved without considering future climate and hydrological conditions, jeopardizing the sustainability of reclaimed landscapes. MORE HERE.


18. ROONEY, R.C., L. Foote., N. Krogmanc., J.K. Pattison., M.J. Wilson and S.E. Bayleye. 2015. Replacing natural wetlands with stormwater management facilities: biophysical and perceived social values. Water Research. 73: 17-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.12.035. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.12.035.

Abstract:

Urban expansion replaces wetlands of natural origin with artificial stormwater management facilities. The literature suggests that efforts to mimic natural wetlands in the design of stormwater facilities can expand the provision of ecosystem services. Policy developments seek to capitalize on these improvements, encouraging developers to build stormwater wetlands in place of stormwater ponds; however, few have compared the biophysical values and social perceptions of these created wetlands to those of the natural wetlands they are replacing. We compared four types of wetlands: natural references sites, natural wetlands impacted by agriculture, created stormwater wetlands, and created stormwater ponds. We anticipated that they would exhibit a gradient in biodiversity, ecological integrity, chemical and hydrologic stress. We further anticipated that perceived values would mirror measured biophysical values.  MORE HERE.


17. ROONEY, R.C. and E.T. Azeria. 2014. The strength of cross-taxon congruence in species composition varies with the size of regional species pools and the intensity of human disturbance. Journal of Biogeography. 42: 439-451. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.12400

Abstract:

Our aims were to determine whether cross-taxon congruence of species composition patterns varies across regions and human disturbance levels and to infer whether these patterns relate to the size of the regional species pool and the sorting of species along a gradient of human disturbance. MORE HERE.
 

16. Raab, D., R.C. ROONEY, and S.E. Bayley. 2013. A visual obstruction method to estimate wet meadow aboveground biomass in marshes of the Boreal Plains, Canada. Wetlands. 34: 363-367. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-013-0503-0

Abstract:

Vegetation aboveground biomass, a measure of net primary productivity, is an important indicator of ecosystem health. We sought a rapid but accurate, non-destructive alternative to traditional aboveground biomass dry-weight measurement for natural and constructed wetlands in the Boreal Plains Ecoregion of Alberta. We sampled 16 wetlands in 2008 during the period of peak aboveground biomass, using the classic biomass measurement method of clipping, drying, and weighing standing vegetation, as well as a visual obstruction measurement technique called Robel height. Visual obstruction has been used extensively in grassland assessments; however, its use in wet meadow marshes of the Boreal Plains has not previously been reported. To evaluate the effectiveness of visual obstruction in estimating aboveground biomass we used general linear modeling, and found a strong and highly significant relationship (R2 = 0.68, F 1.94 = 195.5, p < 0.000001). MORE HERE.


15. ROONEY, R.C., C. Carli, and S. E. Bayley. 2013. River connectivity affects submerged and floating aquatic vegetation in floodplain wetlands. Wetlands. 33: 1165-1177.

Abstract:

The submerged and floating plant communities in floodplain wetlands of the Upper Columbia River have never been described. To explore mechanisms behind the influence of the annual flood pulse on vegetation, we investigated how species group into flood response guilds whose distributions vary along a connectivity gradient between 44 floodplain wetlands and the river, how connectivity influences water and sediment, and to what degree the effect of connectivity on vegetation is mediated by its effects on these environmental variables. We characterised assemblages with cluster and indicator species analysis, as well as non-metric scaling ordination and tested a structural equation model, which defined the relationship between assemblage composition, sediment and water quality, and connectivity to the river. This paper is available as open access online.


14. Wilson, M.J., S. E. Bayley, and R. C. ROONEY. 2013. A plant-based index of biological integrity in permanent marsh wetlands yields consistent scores in dry and wet years. Aquatic Conservation. 23: 698-709.

Abstract:
 
Plant-based assessments can contribute to wetland conservation and management by providing a standardized method to monitor biological communities in relation to human activity. One major challenge, however, is that their measurements must be fairly insensitive to temporal variation in community composition, which can be difficult since marsh plant communities are known to be influenced by natural climatic cycles. Variation in the scores for an index of biological integrity (IBI) was evaluated in relation to plant community changes that occurred between years with differing precipitation inputs throughout the growing season (dry: 240mm in 2008, 198mm in 2009; wet: 324mm in 2010, 329mm in 2011). Species composition and IBI scores were measured by sampling macrophytes in the centre of the wet meadow zone at 47 semi-permanent to permanent natural and constructed marshes. MORE HERE.

13. Orihel, D. M. et al. 2012. High microcystin concentrations occur only at low nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios in nutrient-rich Canadian lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 69: 1457-1462. – recognized as most read paper of 2012

Abstract:

Although the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin has been detected in Canadian fresh waters, little is known about its prevalence on a national scale. Here, we report for the first time on microcystin in 246 water bodies across Canada based on 3474 analyses. MORE HERE.


12. ROONEY, R. C., S. E. Bayley, I. F. Creed, and M. J. Wilson. 2012. The accuracy of land-cover based wetland assessments is influenced by landscape extent.  Landscape Ecology.  27: 1321-1335.

Abstract:

Widespread degradation of wetlands has motivated the development of tools to evaluate wetland condition. The application of field-based tools over large regions can be prohibitively expensive; however, land cover data may provide a surrogate for intensive assessments, enabling rapid and cost-effective evaluation of wetlands throughout whole regions. Our goal was to determine if land cover data could be used to estimate the biotic integrity of wetlands in Alberta's Beaverhills watershed. MORE HERE (PDF).


11. ROONEY, R. C., S. E. Bayley, and D. W. Schindler. 2012. Oil sands mining and reclamation cause massive loss of peatland and stored carbon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109: 4933-4937.

Abstract:

We quantified the wholesale transformation of the boreal landscape by open-pit oil sands mining in Alberta, Canada to evaluate its effect on carbon storage and sequestration. Contrary to claims made in the media, peatland destroyed by open-pit mining will not be restored. MORE HERE.


10. ROONEY, R. C., and S. E. Bayley. 2012. Community congruence of plants, invertebrates and birds in natural and constructed shallow open-water wetlands: do we need to monitor multiple assemblages? Ecological Indicators 20: 42-50.

Abstract:

Biomonitoring is a common means of evaluating wetlands. It is based on the premise that the community composition of one taxonomic group is indicative of overall biology and the underlying environmental conditions at a wetland. To be a good bioindicator, there must be adequate concordance between the indicator group and other biotic assemblages. Otherwise, multi-assemblage monitoring is necessary to glean a complete picture of wetland condition. MORE HERE.


9. Orihel, D. M. and R. C. ROONEY. 2012. A field-based technique for sediment incubation experiments. Journal of Limnology 71: 233-235.

Abstract:

Sediment incubation experiments have been a cornerstone in limnology for improving our understanding of sediment processes in aquatic ecosystems. Experiments are usually performed in the laboratory, which has several limitations, including: additional handling that may disturb the integrity of the sediments, the financial expense of purchasing and maintaining growth chambers and anaerobic gloveboxes, and the inability to exactly recreate the ambient environmental conditions experienced by sediments in natural ecosystems. MORE HERE.


8. ROONEY, R. C. and S. E. Bayley. 2012. Development and testing of an index of biotic integrity based on submersed and floating vegetation and its application to assess reclamation wetlands in Alberta's oil sands area, Canada. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 184: 749-761

Abstract:

We developed and tested a plant-based index of biological integrity (IBI) and used it to evaluate the existing reclamation wetlands in Alberta’s oil sands mining region. Reclamation plans call for >15,000 ha of wetlands to be constructed, but currently, only about 25 wetlands are of suitable age for evaluation. Reclamation wetlands are typically of the shallow open water type and range from fresh to sub-saline. MORE HERE.


7. ROONEY, R. C. and S. E. Bayley. 2011. Plant community, environmental, and land-use data from oil sands reclamation and reference wetlands, Alberta, 2007-2009 (data paper). Ecology 92: 2003

Abstract:

Our goal was to evaluate the success of wetland reclamation efforts on oil sands mining company lease-holdings in Alberta, Canada. Already, 60 200 ha of land have been disturbed by mining, and an additional 419 800 ha will be mined in the future. Wetland reclamation efforts have been underway for 35 years, and current mine closure plans call for the construction of 15 840 ha of wetland habitat. MORE HERE.


6. ROONEY, R. C. and S. E. Bayley. 2011. Relative influence of local- and landscape-level habitat quality on aquatic plant diversity in shallow open-water wetlands in Alberta’s boreal zone: direct and indirect effects.  Landscape Ecology 26: 1023-1034

Abstract:

Reclamation usually involves modification of the local environment to achieve some biotic target, but if the influence of Landscape Condition on that target is great, we may fail to meet it despite efforts at the local-level. We sought to determine the relative influence of local- and landscape-level habitat on aquatic plant diversity in shallow open-water wetlands. Furthermore, we asked whether the influence of Landscape Condition should be attributed to direct (dispersal-related) effects, or to the indirect effect of landscape variables that influence local habitat quality. Finally, we asked if spatial scale (300–2000 m) would affect conclusions about the relative influence of local- and landscape-level effects. MORE HERE.


5. ROONEY, R. C. and S. E. Bayley. 2011. Setting appropriate reclamation targets and evaluating success: aquatic vegetation in natural and post-oil-sands mining wetlands in Alberta, Canada. Ecological Engineering 37: 569-579

Abstract:

Oil sands mining disturbs thousands of hectares of boreal landscape, about 65% of which is wetland. Its reclamation will constitute the largest wetland reclamation project in Canadian history. We developed a unified analytical framework that we used to set reclamation targets and evaluate reclamation progress using submersed aquatic vegetation (SAV). We sampled SAV in 38 minimally disturbed wetlands to establish a reference condition and compared this to SAV in 25 reclamation wetlands. We observed 26 taxa: all were native and five are regionally rare. Using a combination of ordination, clustering, and indicator species analysis, we identified seven SAV assemblages, distinguishable based on 10 indicator species. The assemblages found in wetlands contaminated by tailings had significantly fewer taxa. Using joint plots, we demonstrate that they differ in terms of environmental variables reflecting depth, slope, salinity, transparency, water and sediment nutrient levels, and alkalinity. MORE HERE.


4. ROONEY, R. C. and S. E. Bayley. 2010. Quantifying a stress gradient: an objective approach to variable selection, standardization and weighing in ecosystem assessment. Ecological Indicators 10: 1174-1183

Abstract:

Quantifying relative habitat quality is an important means of ecosystem assessment, and an essential step in the development and validation of indices of biotic integrity (IBI). Variables included in multi-metric IBIs are selected on the basis of their correlation with a human disturbance gradient, and the IBI is tested by examining correlation between IBI scores and rankings on the human disturbance gradient for an independent suite of sites. MORE HERE.


3. ROONEY, R. C. and C. L. Podemski. 2010. Freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming affects sediment and pore-water chemistry. Marine and Freshwater Research 61: 513-526

Abstract:

Marine aquaculture has come under scrutiny, whereas little is known about the nature and extent of the effects of cage aquaculture in freshwater. We describe the development of changes in sediment and pore-water chemistry caused by an experimental Oncorhynchus mykiss farm located in freshwater Lake 375 (Experimental Lakes Area, north-western Ontario, Canada) during its first two production cycles along a distance transect from the cage. MORE HERE.


2. ROONEY, R. C. and C. L. Podemski 2009. Effects of an experimental rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farm on invertebrate community composition. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66: 1949-1964

Abstract:

We examined the development of changes in the zoobenthos along a transect from an experimental rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farm in Lake 375, Experimental Lakes Area, northwestern Ontario, Canada. After 2 months, invertebrate abundance was reduced under the fish cage (2542 ± 569 individuals·m–2) compared with samples collected 45 m away (16 137 ± 2624 individuals·m–2). MORE HERE.
 


1. ROONEY, R. C. and M. J. Paterson 2009. Ecosystem effects of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) invasions in inland lakes: a literature review. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences #2845, Fisheries and Oceans Canada: 33 pp.

Abstract:

Extracting algae pigments under nitrogen gasRainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) have invaded many North American inland lakes, and their distribution continues to expand. Their broad dietary and habitat tolerances permit smelt to interact with numerous trophic levels, including zooplankton, planktivores, benthivores, and piscivores. Major concerns include the potential for rainbow smelt to extirpate native planktivores through a combination of competition and predation, their potential to weaken sport and commercial fisheries through competition and predation on juvenile game fish, and their potential to produce a trophic cascade that accelerates eutrophication. Enhancing adult piscivore populations has proven effective at reducing smelt populations; however, preventing smelt invasion is the preferred management strategy. Accidental and deliberate introduction by humans has been the primary mode of smelt range expansion, thus programs should be aimed at increasing public awareness of the risks of smelt invasion. MORE HERE.