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The Language Use Inventory

An adult surrounded by children

The Language Use Inventory (LUI) is a new, standardized parent questionnaire to assess early language use and pragmatics in children 18 to 47 months of age and developed by Dr. Daniela O'Neill. The LUI is the product of over 12 years of research funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Below, researchers/clinicians/health professionals, and parents will find more information about the LUI. Researchers interesting in adapting and translating the LUI into another language for use in research will also find relevant information below.

If you are a Speech and Language Professional, Health Professional, or researcher interested in obtaining the LUI commercially, it is available to order at

Multiple Language Use Inventory products

The LUI is used worldwide, all across Canada, in over 40 states in the USA, and in Australia, New Zealan, and the United Kingdom. Translations into several other languages are underway!

The LUI is included among a set of recommended measures for assessment of pragmatics in evaluating the efficacy of interventions that target spoken language acquisition in children with autism spectrum disorders by a panel of experts convened by NIH's National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (Tager-Flusberg et al., 2009 (PDF)). Here is also a press release on the LUI's inclusion in the report.

The LUI has been added to American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA) Directory of Speech Language Pathology Assessment Instruments & Best Start's OnTrack Guide for Screening Tools in Ontario

Here are some media write-ups of this research!

For researchers, clinicians and health professionals

Brief overview

The LUI meets urgent calls for a standardized, empirically validated measure of children's early language use (i.e, pragmatic language development) suitable for very young children - 18 to 47 months of age. The LUI has undergone years of development to ensure its internal reliability, discriminative and concurrent validity. For example, in a study of its ability to distinguish between young children with and without language delay, its sensitivity and specificity was found to be 96%. Detailed information about the LUI and its development is available in O'Neill (2007, Journal of Speech,Language and Hearing Research) (PDF). A study of its predictive validity was completed and published in Pesco & O'Neill (2012, Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research) (PDF).

Norms were developed as a result of a cross-Canada standardization study (The Canadian Early Childhood Language Project) involving over 3500 Canadian children from over 550 communities and all provinces and territories. These norms allow a child's score to be quickly converted to a percentile-score relative to peers of the same age in months. These norms are available in the LUI Manual (O'Neill, 2009) that accompanies the LUI (visit the commercial publisher's website for more information and to order the LUI).

Development of the LUI has been, and is currently being funded, by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

Interested in using the LUI in your clinic or in a research project?

Researchers and clinicians should find all the information they need at the commerical publisher's website. Further questions can be directed to Daniela O'Neill directly. The LUI is currently being used in a number of research projects. Below you will find a listing of some of them.

Studies involving children with autism

Study Researchers Institution Funded by:
Learning in 3- to 5-year-olds with autism Rebecca Landa, Adele Diamond Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, USA

NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

Infants at-risk for autism and infants at low risk for developmental delay Rebecca Landa Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, USA NIH: National Institute of Mental Health
Early Steps Study: (Intensive Treatment for Toddlers with Autism: A Multi-site Randomized Study) is a randomized trial of an early intensive behavioral intervention (Early Start Denver Model; ESDM) compared to standard community treatment (assessment and monitoring). Annette Estes, Sally Rogers, Catherine Lord University of Washington, Seattle; UC Davis MIND; University of Michigan (USA) NIH Autism Center of Excellence
Infants at Risk of Autism: A Longitudinal Study Sally Ozonoff, Sally Rogers, Marian Sigman

UC Davis, MIND; UC Davis MIND; University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) (USA)

National Institute of Mental Health R01-MH068398
Auditory Mechanisms of Social Engagment PI: Rhea Paul
Co-Investigator: Katyrzyna Chawarska
Yale University NIMH under Yale's Autism Center of Excellence, PI: Ami Klin
Autism: Longitudinal perspectives, Biological origins, Environmental Risk, Translational Approaches (the ALBERTA project) Glen Baker, Lonnie Zwaigenbaum, Margaret Clarke, Kathryn Todd, Joanne Volden, Carmen Rasmussen, Bryan Kolb, Chris Power, Jerry Yager, Jaideep Bains, Igor Burstyn, Eric Fombonne, Suzanne Curtin, Steven Scherer, Sergio Pellis, Robbin Gibb, David Nicholas. University of Alberta, Canada Seeking funding. (Alberta Heritage Fund for Medical Research)

Studies with high-risk infants

Study Researchers Institution Funded by:
Early detection of language disorders in genetically and perinatally high-risk infants. Janet Werker, Barbara May Bernhardt, Linda Siegal, Julie Scott, Nenagh Kemp University of British Columbia, Canada Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada -CHRP (Collaborative Health Research Projects Program) and BC Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP)

Studies with prematurely born children

Study Researchers Institution Funded by:
Linguistic development of premature infants Amy Booth, Jessica Meye Northwestern University, IL, USA Seeking funding

Interested in adapting the LUI into another language?

Guidelines for the adaptation of the LUI into other languages and the required license agreements are available on the publishers' website. Interested researchers can also email Daniela O'Neill directly. Below is a listing of some ongoing projects in which a research version of the LUI is being developed for use in another language.

Ongoing research studies involving the translation/adaptation of the LUI into other languages

Language Primary researcher(s) Institution Project title
Arabic Aseel Alkadhi
PhD Doctoral Student
City University London
Advisors: Dr. Shula Chiat & Dr. Penny Roy
P.O. Box 18219
Riyadh 11415
Saudi Arabia
City University London, UK An investigation of relations between sociocognitive skills, motor imitation and language skills in young Saudi children.

Dr. Emiddia Longobardi
Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Sapienza'
Dip. di Psicologia Dinamica e Clinica
Via degli Apuli 1
00185 Roma

Universita degli Studi di Roma 'Sapienza' An examination of pragmatic abilities through the Language Use Inventory
Polish Dr. Marta Bialecka-Pikul
Institute of Psychology
Jagiellonian University
Al. Mickiewicza 3
31-120 Krakow
Jagiellonian University, Poland The birth and development of mentalizing ability
Polish Dr. Ewa Haman
Psycholinguistics Lab
Faculty of Psychology
University of Warsaw
Stawki 5/7
00-183 Warsaw
University of Warsaw Cognitive and linguistic development of Polish bilingual children - risks and opportunities at school entrance age
Portuguese Cristiana Guimarães
PhD Doctoral Student
Department of Educational Psychology and Special Education - University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar
4715- Braga
Advisors: Anabela Santos & Leandro Almeida
University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar Development of a Portuguese Language Use Inventory
Slovenian Dr. Martina Ozbic
Assistant Professor
Faculty of education – University of Ljubljana
Department of Special Education
Kardeljeva ploscad 16
1000 Ljubljana

Co-researchers: Dr. Damjana Kogovsek & Jenerja Novsak Brce
Faculty of education – University of Ljubljana
Department of Special Education
University of Ljubljana. Slovenia Pragmatic language development in Slovenian children from 18-47 months of age: A pilot study

For Parents

First, a huge thank you to the thousands of parents across Canada who took part in the Canadian Early Childhood Language Project over the past few years! With your help, we were able to accomplish the goal of having completed questionnaires for over 3500 children - that is, more than our goal even of having questionnaires completed for 100 children at each month from 18 to 47 months. This data has allowed us to learn what the typical range of scores on the LUI is for children at each age in months from 18 - 47. This means that, in the future, a family doctor, health professional or speech-language professional may be able to inform parents (once the LUI is completed by a parent and the score is interpreted by a professional using the norms) much more quickly as to how their child is performing relative to children of the same sex and age in months, based on rigourous, empirical data. For example, a parent may learn more quickly that their concerns were justified and their child is scoring at a low percentile for his/her age, allowing intervention to begin sooner. In other cases, a parent may learn, to their relief, that their child's performance is actually on par with the performance of their child's peers. In other words, just as, in the first months and years of your child's life, your doctor told you the your child's percentile score for height and weight, similarly the LUI will provide this infomation with respect to a child's use of language. It is hoped that the LUI will help to shorten the waiting time for parents to receive an initial assessment of their child's language functioning, and also do so in a timely and cost-effective manner for both parent and child.

Parents' comments about completing the LUI and taking part in the research to develop it

The following are comments we received from some of the parents who took part in the Canadian Early Childhood Language Project and completed the Language Use Inventory Questionnaire.

I have learned a lot about my child from doing this questionnaire.

Very informative!

I thoroughly enjoyed filling out your questionnaire. It was straightforward, user-friendly, and the bracketed examples were very helpful in understanding context. It was a treat to realize how much language my son has. My husband and I got lots of chuckles from your very kid-focused examples. Good luck with the remainder of your study. I look forward to browsing the updates on your website. It was an honor to take part. Thank you.

I'm glad that you touched on teasing and humour because my son is a funny little boy. Thank you for this questionnaire, I have learned a lot from it.

Thank you for looking into studies that will help our children in the future

I thank you for your work and hope you have an overwhelming response from participates in order to make this work.

It was interesting filling out your survey. It made me really think about my child's likes and dislikes and what she spends her time doing and talking about. Thanks for the experience.

I enjoyed completing your questionnaire. I look forward to learning more about the results and the implications for our children.

I would like to support this study because I had to go through the long waiting list for a speech therapist to have my son's speech assessed (which turned out to be fine). Having a questionnaire to be used by doctors etc. to assess speech would be much more convenient.

This is a great project.

[I] was a kindergarten teacher for many years...Parents are often told not to worry about speech and/or language problems when they inquire with the family doctor or other professionals, about their concerns. I think your assessment will be a great benefit to parents and their children and I look forward to seeing it in use in the near future. If all parents completed it and had it reviewed in a timely fashion by a speech/langauge pathologist then the chidlren who really need services could be seen long before they enter school and parents could be involved in supporting this intervention, given the right direction.

Below are some photographs of the students who helped in the Canadian Early Childhood Language Project.

The 2005 Early Childhood Language project teamThe 2005 Early Childhood Language Project Team in the main office

- Pandora, Alyse, Jane, and Jennifer


Research assistants on the 2004-2005 Early Childhood Language project team in the research office.Research assistants on the 2004-2005 Early Childhood Language Project Team in the research office. From left to right, Elizabeth Brunger, Jeannette Benson and Christina Chen.


Mounties visit the 2004 Canada Day celebrations at the University of WaterlooThe mounties visit our booth at the 2004 Canada Day celebrations at the University of Waterloo! Research assistant, Valerie Athaide, is at right.