Quick links to chapter one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve thirteen

Quick links to Appendix A Appendix B

**Chapter 1: Introduction**

References:

1. C. Martenson*. **The Crash Course: The Unsustainable Future of our Economy, Energy, and Environment*. Wiley, 2011.

2. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

3. A. Weisman.* The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007.

4. R. Wright.* A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 2: Global Warming**

Further reading links:

References:

1. K. Emanual.* What We Know About Climate Change*. MIT Press, 2012.

2. L. Kump et al.* The Earth System*. Prentice Hall, 2010.

3. F. Mackenzie.* Our Changing Planet*. Prentice Hall, 2011.

4. B. McKibben.* The Global Warming Reader*. OR Books, 2011.

5. R. Primack.* Walden Warming*. University of Chicago Press, 2014.

6. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

**Chapter 3: Systems Theory**

Further reading links:

Systems theory: System, Systems theory, Systems of Systems, Steady state

Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics, Entropy, Energy, Landauer’s principle

Global Flows: Water cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Carbon cycle, Earth’s Energy Budget,

Vitousek et al. Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle,* Issues in Ecology*, 1997.

Examples: Energy return on investment (EROEI), Environmental economics, Full-cost accounting, Environmental accounting, Externalities, Maximum power principle, Technological singularity

References:

1. Special issue on the singularity.* IEEE Spectrum* 45(6), 2008.

2. J. Diamond.* Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed*. Penguin, 2011.

3. A. Ghosh*. **Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

4. J. Greer*. **How Civilizations Fall: A Theory of Catabolic Collapse*. Unpublished, 2005.

5. R. Heinberg.* Searching for a Miracle: Net Energy Limits & the Fate of Industrial Society*. Post Carbon Institute, 2009.

6. C. Hidalgo*. **Why Information Grows: The Evolution of Order, from Atoms to Economies*. Basic Books, 2015.

7. T. Homer-Dixon.* The Upside of Down: Catastrophe, Creativity, and the Renewal of Civilization*. Knopf, 2006.

8. D. Meadows*. **Thinking in Systems: A Primer*. Chelsea Green, 2008.

9. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

10. H. Odum.* Environmental Accounting: Emergy and Environmental Decision Making*. Wiley, 1996.

11. H. Odum.* Environment, Power, and Society for the Twenty-First Century*. Columbia, 2007.

12. J. Salatin.* Salad Bar Beef*. Polyface, 1996.

13. S. Schaltegger and R. Burritt.* Contemporary Environmental Accounting: Issues, Concepts and Practice*. Greenleaf Publishing, 2000.

14. E. Schumacher*. **Small is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as if People Mattered*. Vintage Digital, 2011.

15. J. Smillie and G. Gershuny.* The Soul of Soil*. Chelsea Green, 1999.

16. K. Stowe.* An Introduction to Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics*. Cambridge, 2007.

17. J. Tainter.* The Collapse of Complex Societies*. Cambridge, 1990.

18. M. Wackernagel and W. Rees*. **Our Ecological Footprint*. New Society, 1995.

19. J. Weaver. Root Development of Field Crops PDF. McGraw Hill, 1926.

20. R. Wright*. **A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 4: Dynamic Systems**

Further reading links:

Analysis: Dynamical system, Time series, Fourier transform, Wavelet transform, Principal components

Statistics: Correlation and dependence, Correlation coefficient, Correlation and causality, Stationary process, Pearson’s chi-squared test

References:

1. G. Box, G. Jenkins, and G. Reinsel.* Time series analysis: forecasting and control*. Wiley, 4th edition, 2008.

2. C. Brase and C. Brase.* Understanding Basic Statistics*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

3. P. Brockwell and R. Davis.* Introduction to Time Series and Forecasting*. Springer, 2010.

4. R. Devaney.* A First Course in Dynamical Systems*. Westview Press, 1992.

5. R. Duda, R. Hart, and D. Stork.* Pattern Classification*. Wiley, 2000.

6. A. Ghosh*. **Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

7. M. Kiemele.* Basic Statistics*. Air Academy, 1997.

8. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

9. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab.* Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

10. A. Papoulis and S. Pillai.* Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes*. McGraw Hill, 2002.

11. R. Robinson.* An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Prentice Hall, 2004.

12. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

13. E. Scheinerman. Invitation to Dynamical Systems PDF. Dover, 2013.

14. P. Turchin.* Complex Population Dynamics*. Princeton, 2003.

15. P. Turchin.* Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall*. Princeton, 2003.

16. T. Urdan.* Statistics in Plain English*. Routledge, 2010.

**Chapter 5: Linear Systems**

Further reading links:

Linear system, Linear time invariant systems theory, Eigendecomposition, Jordan normal form, Control theory

References:

1. B. Friedland.* Control System Design: An Introduction to State-Space Methods*. Dover, 2005.

2. Z. Gajic.* Linear Dynamic Systems and Signals*. Prentice Hall, 2003.

3. L. Gunderson and C. Holling*. **Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

4. C. Martenson*. **The Crash Course: The Unsustainable Future of our Economy, Energy, and Environment*. Wiley, 2011.

5. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

6. M. Neubert and H. Caswell. Alternatives to resilience for measuring the responses of ecological systems to perturbations.* Ecology*, 78(3), 1997.

7. N. Nise.* Control Systems Engineering*. Wiley, 2015.

8. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab.* Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

9. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

10. E. Scheinerman*. **Invitation to Dynamical Systems*. Dover, 2013.

11. L. Trefethen and M. Embree*. **Spectra and Pseudospectra: The Behaviour of Nonnormal Matrices and Operators*. Princeton, 2005.

12. B. Walker and D. Salt*. **Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

**Chapter 6: Nonlinear Dynamic Systems — Uncoupled**

Further reading links:

Nonlinear systems: Nonlinear system, Bifurcation theory, Hysteresis, Catastrophe theory

Population: Population dynamics, Carrying capacity, Allee effect, Predator-prey model

Climate systems: Great oxidation, Snowball earth, Greenhouse and icehouse earth, Glacial period, Milankovitch cycles, Thermohaline circulation, Little Ice Age, Medieval Warm Period

Other Papers: Varshney et al., The kinematics of falling maple seeds PDF* Nonlinearity* (25), 2012

Andersen et al., Analysis of transitions between fluttering PDF* Fluid Mech.* (541), 2005

H. Petroski, Engineering: Designed to Fail,* American Scientist* (85) #5, 1997

References:

1. K. Alligood, T. Sauer, and J. Yorke*. **Chaos: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Springer, 2000.

2. V. Arnol’d*. Catastrophe Theory*. Springer, 1992. 593 3. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert (ed.s)*. **Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

4. L. Gunderson and C. Holling*. **Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

5. R. Hilborn.* Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers*. Oxford, 2000.

6. P. Loring. The most resilient show on earth.* Ecology and Society*, 12, 2007.

7. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

8. J. Rockström, W. Steffen, et al. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity.* Ecology and Society*, 14, 2009.

9. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

10. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition.* Annual Reviews*, 2015.

11. D. Sornette*. **Why Stock Markets Crash*. Princeton, 2004.

12. S. Strogatz*. **Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos*. Westview Press, 2014.

13. P. Turchin.* Complex Population Dynamics*. Princeton, 2003.

14. B. Walker and D. Salt*. **Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

**Chapter 7: Nonlinear Dynamic Systems — Coupled**

Further reading links:

Nonlinear systems: Nonlinear system, Hopf bifurcation, Limit cycle, Chaos theory

Economic cycles: Goodwin model, Business cycle, Elliott wave, Kondratiev wave

Tragedy of the commons: Tragedy of the Commons, Prisoner’s dilemma, Nash equilibrium

Hardin, The Tragedy of the Commons,* Science *(162), 1968

Ostrom*, **Governing the Commons*, Cambridge, 2015

Examples: El Niño, La Niña, Lotka-Volterra Equation, Newton’s Method, Attractor, Fractal, Stick-slip phenomenon

References:

1. K. Alligood, T. Sauer, and J. Yorke.* Chaos: An Introduction to Dynamical Systems*. Springer, 2000.

2. M. Crucifix. Oscillators and relaxation phenomena in pleistocene climate theory.* Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A*, 370, 2012.

3. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert*. **Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

4. P. Fieguth and A. Wong.* Introduction to Pattern Recognition*. Springer. (in preparation).

5. L. Gunderson and C. Holling*. **Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems*. Island Press, 2012.

6. R. Hilborn.* Chaos and Nonlinear Dynamics: An Introduction for Scientists and Engineers*. Oxford, 2000.

7. P. Loring. The most resilient show on earth.* Ecology and Society*, 12, 2007.

8. D. Meadows*. **Thinking in Systems: A Primer*. Chelsea Green, 2008.

9. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

10. M. Scheffer*. **Critical transitions in nature and society* Princeton University Press, 2009.

11. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition.* Annual Reviews*, 2015.

12. S. Strogatz*. **Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos*. Westview Press, 2014.

13. B. Walker and D. Salt*. **Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

14. R. Wright*. **A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Chapter 8: Spatial Systems**

Further reading links:

Partial differential equations: Partial differential equation, Initial value problem, Boundary value problem, Discretization Finite element method

Earth systems: Advection, Navier–stokes, Coriolis effect, Low-pressure area, Ocean gyre, Buys Ballot’s law

Lumped Parameter Models: H. Stommel, Thermohaline Convection with Two Stable Regimes of Flow*, Tellus* (13) #2, 1961

H. Kaper, H. Engler, Mathematics & Climate, SIAM, 2013

Global flows: Water cycle, Nitrogen cycle, Carbon cycle, Earth’s energy budget, NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES)

Cellular automata and agents: Cellular automaton, Conway’s game of life, Forest fire model, Ising model, Agent-based model

Simulation environments: GAMA, NetLogo, StarLogo, Others

Traffic:

Wikipedia Links: Traffic flow, Traffic simulation, Three-phase traffic theory

Simulation Projects: Assessment of Roundabout Capacity and Delay (ARCADY), Multi-agent transport simulation (MATSim)

References:

1. J. Adam.* Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World*. Princeton, 2006.

2. P. Bak*. **How Nature Works*, Copernicus, 1996.

3. M. Batty*. **The New Science of Cities*. MIT Press, 2013.

4. H. Dijkstra.* Nonlinear Climate Dynamics*. Cambridge, 2013.

5. L. Evans.* Partial Differential Equations*. American Mathematical Society, 2010.

6. S. Farlow.* Partial Differential Equations for Scientists and Engineers*. Dover Books, 1993.

7. B. Friedland.* Control System Design*. Dover, 2005.

8. J. Giles. Climate science: The dustiest place on earth.* Nature*, 434, 2005.

9. R. Hamming*. Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers*. Dover, 1987.

10. B. Hayes. Follow the money*. American Scientist*, 90(5), 2002.

11. H. Kaper and H. Engler*. Mathematics & Climate*. SIAM, 2013.

12. I. Koren et al. The Bodélé depression.* Environmental Research Letters*, 1, 2006.

13. R. Malone, R. Smith, M. Maltrud, and M. Hecht. Eddy–Resolving Ocean Modeling PDF.* Los Alamos Science*, 2003.

14. D. Meadows, J. Randers, and D. Meadows*. **Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update*. Chelsea Green, 2004.

15. M. Mitchell*. **Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

16. A. Oppenheim, A. Willsky, and H. Nawab.* Signals & Systems*. Prentice Hall, 1997.

17. H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe*. **Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science*. Springer, 2004.

18. B. Saltzman.* Dynamical Paleoclimatology: Generalized Theory of Global Climate Change*. Academic Press, 2001.

19. M. Schroeder*. **Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws: Minutes from an Infinite Paradise*. Dover, 2009.

20. M. Sipser.* Introduction to the Theory of Computation*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

21. W. Strauss.* Partial Differential Equations: An Introduction*. Wiley, 2007.

22. S. Strogatz. Exploring complex networks*. Nature*, 410, 2001.

23. F. White.* Fluid Mechanics*. McGraw Hill, 2010.

24. S. Wolfram*. **A New Kind of Science*. Wolfram Media, 2002.

**Chapter 9: Power Laws and Non-Gaussian Systems**

Further reading links:

Distributions: Normal distribution, Central limit theorem, Exponential distribution, Memorylessness, Poisson distribution, Power law, Black swan, Heavy-tailed distributions

Power laws: Zipf’s law, Benford’s law, Pareto principle, Pareto distribution, Gutenberg-richter law

Power laws and cities:

The Origin of Scaling in Cities,* Science* (340), 2013

Bettencourt et al., Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities,* PNAS* (104), 2007

Discount functions: Time preference, Time value of money, Hyperbolic discounting

Principles: Scale invariance, Scale-free network, Preferential attachment, Fitness model

References:

1. P. Bak*. **How Nature Works*. Copernicus, 1996.

2. J. Diamond.* Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed*. Penguin, 2011.

3. B. Hayes. Follow the money*. American Scientist*, 90(5), 2002.

4. G. Lawler.* Introduction to Stochastic Processes*. Chapman & Hall, 2006.

5. R. Lowenstein*. **When Genius Failed: The Rise and Fall of Long-Term Capital Management*. Random House, 2001.

6. D. Manin. Zipf’s law and avoidance of excessive synonymy.* Cognitive Science*, 32, 2008.

7. S. Resnick.* Adventures in Stochastic Processes*. Birkhäuser, 2002.

8. M. Schroeder*. **Fractals, Chaos, Power Laws: Minutes from an Infinite Paradise*. Dover, 2009.

9. D. Sornette.* Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences*. Springer, 2006.

10. M. Stumpf and M. Porter. Critical truths about power laws*. Science*, 335, 2012.

11. N. Taleb*. **The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable*. Random House, 2010.

**Chapter 10: Complex Systems**

Further reading links:

Complex systems: Complex system, Phase transition, Critical phenomena, Critical point, Universality, Percolation theory, Network theory, Chaos theory

Self organized criticality: Self-organized criticality, Self-organization, Emergence

Complex behaviours: Swarm behaviour, Flocking

Control of complex systems:

D. Cajueiro, R. Andrade, Controlling self-organized criticality in sandpile models,* Phys. Rev. E* (81), 2010

P. Noël, C. Brummitt, R. D’Souza, Controlling Self-Organizing Dynamics on Networks Using Models that Self-Organize,* Phys. Rev. Letters* (111), 2013

Cascading Complex Systems:

W. Aiello, F. Chung, L. Lu, A Random Graph Model for Power Law Graphs PDF,* Experiment. Math.* (10), 2001.

S. Buldyrev et al. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks.* Nature Physics*, 464, 2010.

S. Rinaldi et al. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.* IEEE Control Systems Magazine*, 21, 2001.

B. Carreras et al., Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality in a Time Series of Electric Power System Blackouts,* IEEE Circuits and Sytems I* (51), 2004

Dobson et al., Complex Systems Analysis of Series of Blackouts,* Chaos* (17), 2007

W. Kröger, E. Zio*, **Vulnerable Systems*, Springer, 2011

Dictyostelium (slime mould): Dictyostelium, Tutorial, Sample video

Resilience: Definitions, Stockholm Resilience Centre

J. Greer, Salvaging Resilience

P. Smith et al., Network Resilience: A Systematic Approach,* IEEE Communications Magazine*, 2011 *Viability and Resilience of Complex Systems: Concepts, Methods and Case Studies from Ecology and Society*. Springer, 2011.

References:

1. S. Arora and B. Barak. Computational Complexity: A Modern Approach PDF. Cambridge, 2009.

2. P. Bak.* How Nature Works*. Copernicus, 1996.

3. P. Bak and K. Chen. Self-Organized Criticality.* Scientific American*, 1991.

4. Y. Bar-Yam.* Dynamics of Complex Systems*. Addison-Wesley, 1997.

5. S. Buldyrev et al. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks.* Nature Physics*, 464, 2010.

6. R. Cohen and S. Havlin.* Complex Networks: Structure, Robustness and Function*. Cambridge, 2010.

7. G. Deffuant and N. Gilbert (ed.s)*. *

8. S. Dorogovtsev, A. Goltsev, and J. Mendes. Critical phenomena in complex networks.* Reviews of Modern Physics*, 80, 2008.

9. L. Fisher*. **The Perfect Swarm – The Science of Complexity in Everyday Life*. Basic Books, 2009.

10. R. Frigg. Self-organised criticality — what it is and what it isn’t.* Studies in History and Philosophy of Science*, 34, 2003.

11. J. Gribbin*. **Deep Simplicity: Bringing Order to Chaos and Complexity*. Random House, 2005.

12. H. Hoffmann and D. Payton. Suppressing cascades in a self-organized model with non-contiguous spread of failures.* Chaos, Solitons, & Fractals*, 67, 2014.

13. J. Holland.* Complexity: A Very Short Introduction*. Oxford, 2014.

14. S. Johnson.* Emergence*. Scribner, 2001.

15. M. Mitchell*. **Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

16. H. Peitgen, H. Jürgens, and D. Saupe*. **Chaos and Fractals: New Frontiers of Science*. Springer, 2004.

17. S. Rinaldi et al. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.* IEEE Control Systems Magazine*, 21, 2001.

18. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

19. M. Scheffer, S. Carpenter, V. Dakos, and E. van Nes. Generic Indicators of Ecological Resilience: Inferring the Chance of a Critical Transition.* Annual Reviews*, 2015.

20. M. Sipser.* Introduction to the Theory of Computation*. Cengage Learning, 2012.

21. S. Strogatz. Exploring complex networks.* Nature*, 410, 2001.

22. B. Walker and D. Salt*. **Resilience Thinking: Sustaining Ecosystems and People in a Changing World*. Island Press, 2006.

23. S. Wolfram*. **A New Kind of Science*. Wolfram Media, 2002.

**Chapter 11: Observation and Inference**

Further reading links:

Electromagnetics: Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Scattering, Reflection (physics), Radiative transfer, Planck’s law

Radar: Radar, Synthetic aperture radar, Interferometric synthetic aperture radar

Remote sensing: Remote sensing, Satellite, List of orbits

Sensing types: Microwave radiometer, Scatterometer, Weather satellite, Altimeter

Sensing platforms: Landsat program, Hubble Space Telescope, Radarsat-2, NASA Jason-2 Altimeter

Inverse problems: Inverse problem, Least squares, Data assimilation, Regularization, Medical imaging

References:

1. R. Aster, B. Borchers, and C. Thurber.* Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems*. Academic Press, 2005.

2. M. Bertero and P. Boccacci.* Introduction to Inverse Problems in Imaging*. Taylor & Francis, 1998.

3. A. Chandra and S. Ghosh*. **Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System*. Alpha Science, 2015.

4. A. Tikhonov et al..* Numerical Methods for the Solution of Ill-Posed Problems*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1995.

5. L. Kump et al..* The Earth System*. Prentice Hall, 2010.

6. P. Fieguth*. **Statistical Image Processing and Multidimensional Modeling*. Springer, 2010.

7. T. Lillesand, R. Kiefer, and J. Chipman.* Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation*. Wiley, 2015.

8. F. Mackenzie.* Our Changing Planet*. Prentice Hall, 2011.

**Chapter 12: Water**

Further reading links:

Ocean acidification:

S. Doney, The Dangers of Ocean Acidification PDF,* Scientific American*, 2006

E. Kolbert, The Acid Sea,* National Geographic*, 2011

Ocean Garbage: Marine debris, Great pacific garbage patch

L. Parker, Ocean Trash: 5.25 Trillion Pieces and Counting,* National Geographic*, 2015

Groundwater: Groundwater Recharge, Overdrafting, Ogallala Aquifer, Hydrogeology

References:

1. S. Grace.* Dam Nation: How Water Shaped theWest and Will Determine Its Future*. Globe Pequot Press, 2013.

2. S. Lovejoy and D. Schertzer.* The Weather and Climate: Emergent Laws and Multifractal Cascades*. Cambridge, 2013. 3. C. Roberts*. **An Unnatural History of the Sea*. Harper Collins, 2009.

4. C. Roberts*. **The Ocean of Life*. Viking, 2012.

5. M. Scheffer.* Critical transitions in nature and society*. Princeton University Press, 2009.

6. S. Solomon*. **Water: The Epic Struggle for Wealth, Power, and Civilization*. Harper Collins, 2009.

7. M. De Villiers*. **Water: The Fate of Our Most Precious Resource*. McClelland & Stewart, 2003.

8. A. Weisman*. **The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007.

**Chapter 13: Concluding Thoughts**

References:

1. F. Capra and P. Luisi*. **The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision*. Cambridge, 2014.

2. A. Ghosh.* Dynamic Systems for Everyone: Understanding How Our World Works*. Springer, 2015.

3. M. Mitchell*. **Complexity: A Guided Tour*. Oxford, 2009.

4. M. Scheffer*. **Critical transitions in nature and society* Princeton University Press, 2009.

5. A. Weisman*. **The World Without Us*. Picador, 2007. 6. R. Wright*. **A Short History of Progress*. House of Anansi Press, 2004.

**Appendix A: Matrix Algebra**

References:

1. D. Damiano and J. Little.* A Course in Linear Algebra*. Dover, 2011.

2. D. Lay, S. Lay, and J. McDonald.* Linear Algebra and Its Applications*. Pearson, 2014.

3. D. Poole. Linear Algebra: A Modern Introduction. Brooks Cole, 2014.

**Appendix B: Random Variables and Statistics**

References:

1. M. DeGroot and M. Schervish.* Probability and Statistics*. Pearson, 2010.

2. J. Haigh.* Probability: A Very Short Introduction*. Oxford, 2012.

3. R.Walpole, R. Myers, S. Myers, and K. Ye.* Probability & Statistics for Engineers & Scientists*. Pearson, 2006.