Research and Publications

Lake and river water δ18O and δ2H

TONDU J-ME, KW Turner, BB Wolfe, RI Hall, TWD Edwards and I McDonald. 2013. Using water isotope tracers to develop the hydrological component of a long-term aquatic ecosystem monitoring program for a northern lake-rich landscape. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 45: 594-614.

TURNER KW, TWD Edwards and BB Wolfe. 2014. Characterizing runoff generation processes in a lake-rich thermokarst landscape (Old Crow Flats, Yukon, Canada) using δ18O, δ2H, and d-excess measurements. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes 25: 53-59.

TURNER KW, BB Wolfe, TWD Edwards, TC Lantz, RI Hall and G Larocque. 2014. Controls on water balance of shallow thermokarst lakes and their relations with catchment characteristics: A multi-year, landscape-scale assessment based on water isotope tracers and remote sensing in Old Crow Flats, Yukon (Canada). Global Change Biology 20: 1585-1603.


Lake sediment cellulose δ18O

BOUCHARD F, KW Turner, LA MacDonald, C Deakin, H White, N Farquharson, AS Medeiros, BB Wolfe, RI Hall, R Pienitz and TWD Edwards. 2013. Vulnerability of shallow subarctic lakes to evaporate and desiccate when snowmelt runoff is low. Geophysical Research Letters 40: 6112-6117. Highlighted in EOS 95, 11 (18 March 2014)]

WOLFE BB, EM Light, ML Macrae, RI Hall, K Eichel, S Jasechko, J White, L Fishback and TWD Edwards. 2011. Divergent hydrological responses to 20th century climate change in shallow tundra ponds, western Hudson Bay Lowlands. Geophysical Research Letters 38, L23402, doi: 10.1029/2011GL049766.

WOLFE BB, RI Hall, TWD Edwards and JW Johnston. 2012. Developing temporal hydroecological perspectives to inform stewardship of a northern floodplain landscape subject to multiple stressors: Paleolimnological investigations of the Peace-Athabasca Delta. Environmental Reviews 20: 191-210.


Lake sediment organic matter δ13C and δ15N

MACDONALD LA, KW Turner, AM Balasubramaniam, BB Wolfe, RI Hall and JN Sweetman. 2012. Tracking hydrological responses of a thermokarst lake in the Old Crow Flats (Yukon Territory, Canada) to recent climate variability using aerial photos and paleolimnological methods. Hydrological Processes 26: 117-129.

MEDEIROS AS, DJ Taylor, M Couse, RI Hall, R Quinlan and BB Wolfe. 2014. Biological and nutrient responses to catchment disturbance and warming in small lakes near the Alaskan tundra-taiga boundary. The Holocene 24: 1308-1319.


Stream, lake, and groundwater δ13C-DIC

CEJUDO E, RO Aravena and SL Schiff. 2014.  Epilithon isotope composition as an environmental archive in rivers receiving wastewater: the case of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. In press. Journal of Water Science

MACDONALD LA, N Farquharson, RI Hall, BB Wolfe, ML Macrae and JN Sweetman. 2014. Avian-driven modification of seasonal carbon cycling at a tundra pond in the Hudson Bay Lowlands (northern Manitoba, Canada). Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research 46: 210-224 (special issue on Environmental Change in the Hudson and James Bay Region, Canada).

VENKITESWARAN JJ, Schiff SL, Wallin MB. 2014. Large Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Headwater Boreal and Sub-Boreal Streams. PLoS ONE 9(7): e101756, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101756.


Aquatic and gaseous δ13C

ARAVENA, R., Harrison, S.M., Barker, J., Abercrombie, H., and Rudolph, D. 2003. Origin of methane in the Elk valley coalfield, Southeastern British Columbia, Canada. Chemical Geology, 195:219-227.

ARAVENA, R., Wassenaar, L.I., and Barker, J.F. 1995. Distribution and isotopic characterization of methane in a confined aquifer in southern Ontario, Canada. Journal of Hydrology, 173: 51-70.

CHEUNG, K., Klassen, P., Mayer, B., Goodarzi, F., and Aravena, R. 2010. Major ion and isotope geochemistry of fluids and gases from coalbed methane and shallow groundwater wells in Alberta, Canada. Applied Geochemistry, 25:1307-1329.

FREITAS, J.G. Fletcher, B., Aravena, R and Barker, J.F. Methane production and isotopic fingerprinting in ethanol contaminated sites. Groundwater, 48, 6: 844-857.

VENKITESWARAN, J. and S. Schiff.  2005. Methane oxidation: isotopic enrichment in boreal reservoirs.  Applied Geochemistry 20 4 683-690.

VENKITESWARAN JJ, Schiff SL, St.Louis VL, Matthews CJD, Boudreau NM, Joyce EM, Beaty KG, Bodaly RA. 2013. Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 27(7): 567–577, doi: 10.1002/gbc.20046

VENKITESWARAN, JJ, SL Schiff, N Boudreau, V St Louis et al 2013. Processes affecting greenhouse gas production in experimental boreal reservoirs.  Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27 1-11.

VENKITESWARAN JJ, Schiff SL and Wallin MB, 2014.  Large Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Headwater Boreal and Sub-Boreal Streams. Plos One published on-line July 24, 2014.


Dissolved δ18O-N2O and δ15N-N2O

BAULCH HM, Schiff, SL., Maranger, R, and Dillon, PJ.  2011. Nitrogen enrichment and the emission of nitrous oxide from streams, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 25.

BAULCH HM, STHUSS SJ, *Venkiteswaran JJ, Schiff SL. 2014. Proper Interpretation of Dissolved Nitrous Oxide Isotopes, Production Pathways, and Emissions Requires a Modelling Approach. PLoS ONE 9(3).

LI L, J Spoelstra, WD Robertson, SL Schiff, and *RJ Elgood. 2014. Nitrous oxide as an indicator of nitrogen transformation in a septic system plume. Journal of Hydrology.

SCHIFF SL, Thuss SJ, and PJ Dillon. 2011. Isotopic character of N2O emitted from streams. Environmental Science and Technology 45 4682-4688.

SNIDER, DM, SL Schiff and *J Spoelstra. 2009.  15N/14N and 18O/16O stable isotope ratios of nitrous oxide produced during denitrification in temperate soils. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 73 877-888 

SNIDER DM, Venkiteswaran JJ, Schiff SL, Spoelstra J. 2012. Deciphering the oxygen isotope composition of nitrous oxide produced by nitrification. Global Change Biology 18(1): 356–370, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02547.x

SNIDER DM, Venkiteswaran JJ, Schiff SL, Spoelstra J. 2013. A new mechanistic model of δ18O-N2O formation by denitrification. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 112(1): 102–115, doi:10.1016/j.gca.2013.03.003.


Dissolved δ18O-O2

BOCANIOV SA, SL Schiff, and REH Smith. 2012.  Plankton metabolic balance and physical forcing in a productive embayment of a large oligotrophic lake: Insights from stable oxygen isotopes. Freshwater Biology 57 481-496.

CHEN G, WD Taylor, and SL Schiff. 2014. Inverse modeling of dissolved O2 and δ18O to estimate aquatic metabolism, re-aeration and respiration fractionation: Effects of variable light regimes and uncertainties in inputs. Aquatic Science, Article first published online: 13 Jan 2014.

CHOMICKI, K, and S.L. Schiff. 2008. Stable oxygen isotopic fractionation during photolytic O2 consumption in stream waters Sci. Total Environ. 404 236-244.

JAMIESON, TJ, SL. Schiff, WD Taylor. 2013. Using Stable Isotopes of Dissolved Oxygen for the Determination of Gas Exchange in the Grand River, Ontario, Canada.  Water Research 47 781-790.

SNIDER, DM, J Spoelstra, SL Schiff and *JJ Venkiteswaran. 2010.  Stable oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate produced from nitrification:  18O-labelled incubations of agricultural and temperate forest soils.  Environ, Sci. Tech. 44 5358-5364.   

WASSENAAR LI, JJ Venkiteswaran, SL Schiff and G. Koehler. 2010. Whole community metabolism response to municipal effluent inputs in rivers quantified using diel δ18O values of dissolved oxygen.  Can J. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 67 1232-1246.  

WASSENAAR LI, Venkiteswaran JJ, Koehler G, Schiff SL. 2010. Riverine aquatic community metabolism response to point-source sewage inputs quantified using diel δ18O values of dissolved oxygen. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(7): 1232–1246, doi: 10.1139/F10-057.

WANG, X, D Depew, SL Schiff, and REH Smith. 2008. Photosynthesis, respiration and stable  isotopes of O2 in a large oligotrophic lake (Lake Erie). Can. J. of Fish.Aquatic Sci. 37: 2037-2047.

VENKITESWARAN JJ, Wassenaar LI, Schiff SL. 2007. Dynamics of dissolved oxygen isotopic ratios: a transient model to quantify primary production, community respiration, and air–water exchange in aquatic ecosystems. Oecologia 153(2): 385–398, doi: 10.1007/s00442-007-0744-9.

VENKITESWARAN JJ, SL Schiff and LI Wassenaar.  2008. Effects of key parameters on the  interpretation of dissolved O2 stable isotope diel curves for aquatic metabolism and ecosystem health  assessment. Ecol. Appl. 18 965-982.


Water Resources δ18O, δ2H, Tritium, 14C and 87Sr 

ALEXEEV, S.V., Alexeeva, L.P., Borisov, V.N., Shouakar-Stash, O., Frape, S.K., Chabaux, F. and Kononov, A.M. 2007. Isotopic composition (H, O, Cl, Sr) of ground brines of the Siberian Platform. Russian Geology and Geophysics, 48, 225-236.

CARUCCI, V., Pettita, M., and Aravena, R. 2012. Interaction between shallow and deep aquifers in the Tivoly plain (Central Italy) enchanced by groundwater extraction: A multi-isotope approach and geochemical modeling. Applied Geochemistry, 27: 266–280.

ORTIZ, C., Aravena, R., Briones, E., Muñoz, J, F., Tore, C. 2014. Sources of surface water for the Soncor lagoon ecosystem,  Salar de Atacama Basin, Northern Chile. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59: 336-350.

FRANKLYN, M.T., McNutt, R.H., Kamineni, D.C., Gascoyne M., & Frape, S.K., 1991. Groundwater 87Sr/86Sr values in the Eye-Dashwa Lakes Pluton, Canada: Evidence for plagioclase - Water Reaction. Isotopic Geoscience, V. 86, pp. 111-122.

HIRATA, R., Gesicki, A., Sracek, O., Bertolo, R., Giannini, P.C., and Aravena, R. 2011. Relation between sedimentary framework and hydrogeology in the Guarani Aquifer System in São Paulo state, Brazil.  Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 31: 444-456.

STOTLER, R.K., Frape, S.K., El Mugammar, H.T., Johnston, C.T., Judd-Henry, I., Harvey, F.E., Drimmie, R. and Jones, J.P. 2011. Geochemical heterogeneity in a relatively small, stratigraphically complex, moraine aquifer system: Interpretation of flow and recharge using multiple geochemical parameters. Hydrogeology Journal, 19: 101-115.

STOTLER, R.L., Frape, S.K. and Labelle, L. 2014. Insights Gained From Geochemical Studies in the Waterloo Moraine: Indications and Implications for Anthropogenic Loading. Canadian Water Resources Journal.

URIBE, J.,  Muñoz, J.F., Gironás, J., Oyarzún, R., Aguirre, E., and Aravena, R. 2015. Assessing Groundwater Recharge in an Andean Closed Basin Using a Rainfall-Runoff Model and Isotopic Characterization, Salar del Huasco Basin, Chile. Hydrogeology Journal.


Compound Specific δ13C, δ2H and δ37Cl

ABE, Y., Aravena, R., Zopfi, J., Parker, B., and Hunkeler, D. 2009. Evaluating the fate of chlorinated ethenes in streambed sediments using stable isotope, geochemical and methods microbial. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 107-10–21.

ANNABLE, W.K., Frape, S.K., Shouakar-Stash, O., Shanoff, T., Drimmie, R. and Harvey, F.E. 2007. 37Cl, 15N, 13C, isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants. Applied Geochemistry, 22, 1530-1536.

HUNKELER, D., and Aravena, R. Determination of compound-specific carbon isotope ratios of chlorinated methanes, ethanes, and ethenes in aqueous samples. Environmental Science and Technology. 2000;34:2839-2844.

HUNKELER, D., Aravena, R, Berry Spark, K., and Cox, E. 2005. Assessment of degradation pathways at a site with mixed chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination using stable isotope analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 39: 5975-5981.

LOJKASEK-LIMA, P., Aravena, R., Shouakar-Stash, O., Frape, S.K., Marchesi, M., Fiorenza, S., and Vogan, J. 2012. Evaluating TCE Abiotic and Biotic Degradation Pathways in a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Compound Specific Isotope Analyses. Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 32: 53-62.

LOJKASEK-LIMA, P., Aravena, R., Parker, B. L. and Cherry, J. A., 2012. Fingerprinting TCE in a Bedrock Aquifer Using Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis, Ground Water, Vol. 50, No. 5: 754–764.

PALAU, J., Marchesi, M., Chambon, J., Aravena, R., Canals, A., Binning, P., Bjerg, P, Otero, N., Soler, A. 2014. Multi-isotope (carbon and chlorine) analysis for fingerprinting and site characterization at a fractured bedrock aquifer contaminated by chlorinated ethenes. Science of the Total Environment. 47:61–70.

PATTERSON, B.M., Aravena, R., Davis, G.B., Furness, A.J., Bastow, T.P., and Bouchard, D. 2013. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone and factors controlling rates. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 153: 69-77.

PETITTA, M., Pacioni, E., Sbarbati, C. Corvatta. G., Fanelli2, M., and Aravena, R. 2013. Hydrodinamic and isotopic characterization of a site contaminated by chlorinated solvents: Chienti River Valley, Central Italy.  Applied Geochemistry, 32:164-174.

SHOUAKAR-STASH, O., Drimmie, R. J., Zhang, M., and Frape, S. K. Compound-specific chlorine isotope ratios of TCE, PCE and DCE isomers by direct injection using CF-IRMS, Applied Geochemistry. 2006;21:766–781.

SHOUAKAR-STASH, O., Frape, S.K., Gargini, A., Pasini, M., Drimmie, R.J. and Aravena, R. 2009. Analysis of compound-specific chlorine isotopes of vinyl chloride by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Environmental Forensics Journal, 10: 299-306.


Deep Groundwater δ37Cl, δ81Br, δ13C and δ18O 

BLYTH, A., Frape, S.K. and Tullborg, E-L. 2009. A review and comparison of fracture mineral investigations and their application to radioactive waste disposal. Applied Geochemistry, 24:821-835.

STOTLER, R.L., Frape, S.K. Ruskeeniemi, T., Ahonen, L., Paananen, M., Onstott, T.C. and Hobbs, M.Y. 2009. Hydrogeochemistry of groundwaters at and below the base of thick permafrost at Lupin, Nunavut, Canada. Journal of Hydrology, 373:80-95.

STOTLER, R.L., Frape, S.K., Shouakar-Stash, O. 2010. An isotopic survey of δ81Br and δ37Cl of dissolved halides in the Canadian and Fennoscandian Shields. Chemical Geology, 274 (1-2), 38-55.

STOTLER, R.L., Frape, S.K., Ruskeeniemi, T., Pitkanen, P., and Blowes, D. 2012 Periglacial-glacial cycling and the geochemical evolution of Canadian Shield groundwaters. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 76(1), 45-67.

ZHANG, M., Frape, S.K., Love, A.J., Herczeg, L., Lehmann, B.E., Beyerle, U. and Purtschert, R. 2007. Chlorine stable isotope studies of old groundwater, southwestern Great Artesian Basin, Australia. Applied Geochemistry, 22, 557-574.


15N-NH4 and 15N-NO3 and 18O-NO3

ARAVENA, R., and Robertson, W. 1998. The use of multiple isotope tracers to evaluate denitrification in groundwater: A case study in a large septic system plume. Ground Water, 36: 975-982.

DEVITO, K.J., Fitzgerald, D., Hill, A.R., and Aravena, R. 2000. Nitrate dynamics in relation to lithology and hydrologic flow path in a river riparian zone. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29:1075-1084.

HOOD JL, WD Taylor, SL Schiff. 2013. Examining the fate of WWTP effluent nitrogen using δ15N–NH4+, δ15N–NO3- and δ15N of submersed macrophytes. Aquatic Sciences. Article first published online: 14 December 2013.

LOOMER HA, Oakes KD, Schiff SL, Taylor WD, and Servos MR, 2014. Use of stable isotopes to trace municipal waste water effluents into food webs within a highly developed river system. River Res. Applic. (Published on-line DOI: 10.1002/rra.2826)Best, A., Arnaud, E., Parker, B., Aravena, R., and Dunfield, K. 2015. Effects of glacial sediment type and land use on nitrate patterns in groundwater. Groundwater Monitoring and Remediation 35: 68–8.

LOOMER HA, Oakes KD, Schiff SL, Taylor WD, and Servos MR, 2014. Use of stable isotopes to trace municipal waste water effluents into food webs within a highly developed river system. River Res. Applic. (Published on-line DOI: 10.1002/rra.2826).

MARTINEZ, D., Moschione, E., Bocanegra, E., Galli, M.G., and Aravena, R.  2014. Distribution and origin of nitrae in groundwater in an urban and suburban aquifer in Mar del Plata, Argentina. Environmental Earth Sciences, 72: 1877-1886.

PETITTA, M., Fracchiolla, D., Aravena, R., and Barbieri, M. 2009. Application of isotopic and geochemical tools for the evaluation of nitrogen cycling in an agricultural basin, the Fucino Plain, Central Italy. Journal of Hydrology 372: 124–135.

ROBERTSON, WD, TA Moore, J. Spoelstra, L Li, *RJ Elgood, ID Clark, SL Schiff, R Aravena and JD Neufeld. 2012. Natural Attenuation of Septic System Nitrogen by Anammox.  Groundwater 50 541–553.

SPOELSTRA, J,  SL Schiff , DS Jeffries. and  RG Semkin,  2010. Nitrate attenuation in a small temperate wetland following forest harvest.  Forest Ecology & Management 259 2333–2341.

SPOELSTRA, J, SL Schiff , P.W.Hazlett, *R.J. Elgood, D.S. Jeffries .and  R.G. Semkin, 2007.  Isotopic composition of nitrate produced from nitrification in a hardwood forest floor. Geochim  Cosmochim Acta. 71 ; 3757-3771.

SPOELSTRA, J.,  S. L. Schiff , D.S. Jeffries. and  R.G. Semkin,  2004. The effect of storage on the isotopic stability of nitrate in bulk precipitation. Environ. Sci & Techn. 38 4723-4727.


34S-SO4 and 18O-SO4

CARUCCI, V., Pettita, M., and Aravena, R. 2012. Interaction between shallow and deep aquifers in the Tivoly plain (Central Italy) enchancedenhanced by groundwater extraction: A multi-isotope approach and geochemical modeling. Applied Geochemistry, 27: 266–280.

EIMERS, C. P.J. Dillon  and S.L. Schiff.  2004. A S-isotope approach to determine the relative contribution of redox processes to net SO4 export from upland, and wetland-dominated catchments. Geochem. Cosmochim Acta. 68 3665-3674.

EIMERS, MC., A. M. Paterson, P.J. Dillon, S.L. Schiff, B. F. Cumming and R. I. Hall 2006. Lake sediment core records of sulphur accumulation and sulphur isotopic composition in central Ontario, Canada lakes.  J. Paleolimnn. 35 99–109.

SCHIFF, SL, J Spoelstra, R Semkin, D Jeffries.. 2005. Drought induced pulses of SO4 from a Canadian Shield wetland:  Use of  d34S and d18O in SO42‑  to determine sources of S.  Appl. Geochem. 20  691-700.


Biological Carbonate δ18O and δ13C

GODIKSEN, J. A., Svenning, M.-A., Sinnatamby, R. N., Dempson, J. B., Borgstrm, R. and Power, M. 2011. Stable isotope-based determinations of the average temperatures experienced by young-of-the-year Svalbard Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus (L.)). Polar Biology. 34:591-596.

GUIGUER, K. R. R. A., Drimmie, R. and Power, M. 2003.Validating methods for measuring d18O and d13C in the otoliths from freshwater fish. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 17:463-471.

SINNATAMBY, R. N., Dempson, J. B. and Power, M. 2008. A comparison of muscle- and scale-derived .13C and .15N across three life-history stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.  Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 22:2273-2278.

SINNATAMBY, R. N., Dempson, J. B., Reist, J. D. and Power, M. 2014. Latitudinal variation in growth and otolith-inferred field metabolic rates of Canadian young-of-the-year Arctic charr. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. Published online : 19 July 2014, DOI: 10.1111/eff.12166.

STORM-SUKE, A. Dempson, J. B., Caron, F. and Power, M. 2007. Effects of formalin and ethanol preservation on otlotith d18O stable isotope signatures. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. 21:503-508.