Compound Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA)

C1-C3 hydrocarbons are listed separately under aqueous and gasseous analyses.

Sampling Information

Normal procedures for volatile organic compound (VOC) collection should be followed. Analysis requires two (2) 40 ml VOC vials per compound per analysis for δ2H and δ13C or four (4) 40 mL VOC vials per compound for δ37Cl (i.e. if you want to analyze TCE, cis-DCE and trans-DCE in one sample for both δ13C and δ37Cl, then please collect 3x2+3x4=18 vials per sample).

  • Use 40 ml VOC type open cap vial with Teflon/silicon septa. Make sure the Teflon side faces toward the sample.
  • Purge the well three volumes before collecting your sample.
  • Do not filter.
  • Add the preservative. Either ZnCl2 or acidification (acidify using HNO3 or HCl) are recommended.
  • Cap without headspace in the vials.
  • Keep samples cold (<4°C) at all times and ship insulated with cold pack packs (e.g. ship in cooler with ice packs).
  • Clear tape on labels can help preserve sample information during shipping.

Waterloo Membrane Sampler (WMS™) analysis is available for sampling of VOC vapour concentrations at no additional cost. Samples should be taken in duplicate (for chemistry and for isotopic analysis) and the chemical concentration of the analyte of interest and other significant compounds present in the sorbent must be provided.

Tips for sampling, labelling and shipping

Sample Requirements for BTEX and VOC

Analysis Amount Precision
δ13 40 ppb in 40 mL 2σ = 0.3 ‰ VPDB
δ2H 100 ppb in 40 mL 2σ = 5 ‰ VSMOW

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Sample Requirements for 1,4-Dioxane

Analysis Amount Precision
δ13C 40 ppb in 40 mL 2σ = 0.3 ‰ VPDB
δ2H 100 ppb in 40 mL 2σ = 5 ‰ VSMOW

Additional extraction options are available for larger volume, low level 1,4-Dioxane samples

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Sample Requirements for Chlorinated Solvents

Analysis Amount Precision
δ13C (Cl Solvents) 40 ppb in 40 mL 2σ = 0.3 ‰ VPDB
δ37Cl (PCE or VC) 10 ppb in 40 mL σ = 0.2 ‰ SMOC
δ37Cl (Other Cl Solvents) 5 ppb in 40 mL σ = 0.1 ‰ SMOC

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