- “I could never live without a dog”: Re-storied narratives of persons living with dementia and their companion animals
- The Lived Experiences of Caregivers Caring for Individuals with Developmental Disabilities
- Making Moves Trauma-Informed Walking Program: Creating opportunities for social cohesion among fathers living in marginalizing conditions
“I could never live without a dog”: Re-storied narratives of persons living with dementia and their companion animals
Department of Recreation and Leisure, University of Waterloo
Most research on human-animal companionship highly regards the utility and influence of animals on the health and wellbeing of humans, and countless studies explore the impact of animal-assisted therapies and interventions among marginalized populations, including persons with dementia. However, these approaches fail to conceptualize the interactions and relationships people have with animals as reciprocal, personal, and dynamic. Guided by relational theory (Jordan & Walker, 2004) and a social citizenship framework (Bartlett & O’Connor, 2010), this project aimed to explore how persons with dementia story their relational experiences with companion animals, and sought to understand how companion animals contribute to life and leisure experiences Using narrative inquiry, relational narratives were co-constructed by way of photovoice with seven community-dwelling individuals living with dementia, who share their homes with companion animals. Data was analyzed using McCormack’s (2004) storying stories approach and represented as a re-storied short story collection. Re-storied narratives were represented in different formats based on variations in storytelling. These narratives illustrate the significance and complexities involved in the relationships between persons living with dementia and their companion animals. They also connect to a number of concepts from Bartlett and O’Connor’s (2010) social citizenship conceptual framework and illustrate how persons living with dementia practice citizenship in their daily lives. Sharing stories of persons living with dementia from a social citizenship perspective introduces alternate narratives of dementia that challenge dominant biomedical and tragedy discourses, and provide new perspectives that include persons with dementia within public and private spheres of life as active, contributing citizens.
Bartlett, R., & O’Connor, D. (2010). Broadening the dementia debate: Towards social citizenship. Bristol, UK: The Policy Press.
Jordan, J. & Walker, M. (2004). Introduction. In J. Jordan, M. Walker, & L.M. Hartling (Eds.), The complexity of connection: Writings from the Stone Center’s Jean Baker Miller Training Institute (pp. 1-8). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
McCormack, C. (2004). Storying stories: a narrative approach to in-depth interview conversations. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 7(3), 219-236.
Department of Kinesiology & Physical Education, Wilfrid Laurier University
A caregiver is an individual who provides care to a family or friend with a long-term health condition, a problem related to aging, or a mental or physical disability. In 2018, 25% of Canadians were caregivers, and 8% of those caregivers provided intensive care to children with long-term health conditions or disabilities (Statistics Canada, 2018). Individuals caring for children are the caregiver group with the highest unmet support needs, while contributing the most hours of care out of all caregiver groups due to being responsible for a greater amount and variety of tasks. These demands are associated with higher daily stress, compromised mental health, and lower life satisfaction (Hango, 2020). While the length of time caregivers provide is important to understand, it is imperative that future studies investigate the overall impacts caring for children with developmental disabilities has on caregivers. As such, the purpose of this research study is to examine the lived experiences of caregivers who care for their children with developmental disabilities, specifically within the Kitchener-Waterloo region. This study hopes to answer the following research questions: 1) How does having children with developmental disabilities affect caregivers and their families? 2) What factors affect caregivers’ abilities to provide care? This qualitative study will allow for an in-depth exploration of this phenomenon. It is anticipated this project will give a “voice” to this particularly underrepresented group of caregivers and work together to suggest ways to support this group more effectively at the governmental level.
Making Moves Trauma-Informed Walking Program: Creating opportunities for social cohesion among fathers living in marginalizing conditions
University of Ottawa
The role of fatherhood in marginalized communities is not widely recognized nor well understood in qualitative research. This is particularly the case in the Downtown Eastside (DTES) of Vancouver, British Columbia. This neighbourhood demonstrates disproportionate representation of social issues: exceptionally high rates of substance use, homelessness, violence and street-based survival sex work and 53% of residents are reported as low-income, in comparison with 21% in Vancouver overall. (City of Vancouver, 2013). In the DTES there are numerous support programs for mothers, but a dearth of family-centered services that recognize that fathers play important roles in their children’s lives and also require access to resources and opportunities.
My overall research objective is to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to investigate the experiences of fathers living and parenting in the DTES and more specifically, how participating in a family-centered physical activity program could impact social cohesion and their sense of belonging. To address these questions, I conducted semi-structured interviews with fathers to better understand the unique challenges that they face in accessing services; as well as, their participation in Make a Move Pilot program, a trauma-informed, mixed-gender weekly walking program that was created for families living in the DTES.
This goal of this presentation is to draw attention to the role fathers can play in strengthening families in the DTES and to understanding how a physical activity program like Make a Move can be a conduit for discerning how to provide appropriate services to fathers.
Tourism management and community development
- Can VFR be an effective recovery strategy during the recovery period of crisis management: an exploratory investigation of novel coronavirus on the lodging industry in China
- Razing/raising: Tracing the material-discursive histories of the Algonquin Park Peace and Reconciliation totem pole
- Roadtripping in theory: A short story that explores race, class, social change and researcher positionality
- Unsettling Legacies: Gentrification and Settler Colonialism
Can VFR be an effective recovery strategy during the recovery period of crisis management: an exploratory investigation of novel coronavirus on the lodging industry in China
Ted Rogers School of Hospitality and Tourism Management, Ryerson University
Keywords: Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) Travel, China’s hotel industry, Novel coronavirus, Market Segmentation Strategy, Market target
This study aims to explore whether domestic Visiting Friends and Relatives (VFR) Travel segment can be considered as a suitable market target for China’s hotel industry in the recovery stage after the end of the 2019 Novel coronavirus crisis. From previous studies, although there are many scholars who have performed a series of research on marketing strategy to cope with crisis in the hotel industry, there is lack of study on whether VFR travel is regarded as a market target during the disease outbreak in the lodging industry. VFR travel, as one segment of crucial importance, is explored based on the theory of Market Segmentation Strategy. In this study, eight criteria including measurability, size, accessibility, homogeneity, actionable, durability, relevance and compatibility are utilized to test whether VFR travel is the appropriate target to help hotels regain the market when the coronavirus effects clear away. Novel coronavirus has already caused globally widespread panic. The World Health Organization's (WHO) emergency committee declared China's new coronavirus outbreak a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) on January 30, 2020. Therefore, the significant impacts of the Novel coronavirus are outlined in the perspectives of effects on local residents’ daily life and on the lodging industry in China, especially the financial suffering at hotels in Wuhan and other major cities across the country. Thus, this study contributes to helping Chinese hotel managers to make a fitting market target.
Razing/raising: Tracing the material-discursive histories of the Algonquin Park Peace and Reconciliation totem pole
Michela J. Stinson,Chris E. Hurst, Bryan S. R. Grimwood
Department of Recreation and Leisure, University of Waterloo
In Canada, many of our tourism spaces share lengthy histories of colonial violence that persist and are obscured in material-discursive ways (Grimwood, 2015; Ryan & Aicken, 2005). Narrative collides with affect in tourism places; we tell and enact stories about the places we visit, and we are moved to transform within them (Tucker & Shelton, 2018). But tourism is also enlivened with and ordered by material objects (Ren, 2011)—since objects can enact multiple versions of reality through their interventionist becomings, they subsequently have the power to disrupt tourism orderings through affective means (Franklin, 2004; Springgay & Truman, 2017). This is a potentially powerful attenuation, as affective energies—as opposed to intentional ethical acts—may allow us to interrupt force fields of whiteness and settler colonialism (Lobo, 2014).
The relational, material powers of affects and objects are exemplified in the case of Algonquin Park, where environmental wilderness designation, covert resource extraction, and strategically-placed monuments tell contested and competing stories about place, land, and identity (Baker, 2002; Euler & Wilton, 2009). This project considers the material-discursive emergence of one specific affective object: a totem pole carved by Whitney, Ontario area resident and Algonquin man Dan Bowers and gifted to Algonquin Park in the spirit of peace and reconciliation. Through engaging actor-network theory, we aim to unpack the histories, geographies, and tourism practices embedded in this totem’s material agency. By considering the totem as an intervening object, we work to illuminate how it might prompt affects disruptive to or productive of reconciliation in Settler Canadians.
Baker, J. (2002). Production and consumption of wilderness in Algonquin Park. space & culture, 5(3), 198-210.
Euler, D., & Wilton, M. (Eds.) (2009). Algonquin Park: The Human Impact. Espanola, ON: Algonquin Eco Watch.
Franklin, A. (2004). Tourism as ordering: Towards a new ontology of tourism. Tourist Studies, 4(3), 277-301.
Grimwood, B. S. R. (2015). Advancing tourism’s moral morphology: Relational metaphors for just and sustainable Arctic tourism. Tourist Studies, 15(1), 3-26
Lobo, M. (2014). Affective energies: Sensory bodies on the beach in Darwin, Australia. Emotion, Space, and Society. 12(1), 101-109.
Ren, C. (2011). Non-human agency, radical ontology, and tourism realities. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 858-881.
Ryan, C., & Aicken, M. (2005). Indigenous tourism: The commodification and management of culture. Amsterdam: Elsevier
Springgay, S., & Truman, S. E. (2017). Stone Walks: inhuman animacies and queer archives of feeling. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 38(6), 851-863.
Roadtripping in theory: A short story that explores race, class, social change and researcher positionality
Department of Recreation and Leisure, University of Waterloo
Keywords: community development, post-colonialism, critical race theory, creative analytic practise
This paper is a short story that explores my own positionality as a recreation and leisure scholar. I use the metaphor of a road-trip, where I enter into conversation with different philosophers disguised as hitch-hikers as I go to ‘Africa’ to volunteer with a community development project. The story unfolds as a critical self-reflection on my place within issues such as race, poverty, colonialism and social change. The overall aim of this paper is to illustrate the ways in which theory can be used to frame ethics within community development research that involve race, class and social change. To gain insight into these social phenomena, I draw on Marxist, post-colonial, critical race and post-structural theories. The hope is that by using a creative form of writing, leisure scholars can come to understand theory and its role within leisure research in ways that could be relevant to their own research.
Althusser, Louis. (1971). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (Notes towards an investigation). In Louis Althusser, Lenin and philosophy and other essays (Ben Brewster, Trans.). New York: W.W. Norton (Original work published 1949) [Translator’s note and Chapter 1, pp. vii-7]
Berbary, Lisbeth (her highness). (2017). Thinking Through Post-structuralism in Leisure Studies: A Detour Around “Proper” Humanist Knowledges. In K. Spracklen et al. (eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Leisure Theory.
Butler, Judith. (1990). (1994). Contingent foundations: Feminism and the question of ‘postmodernism’. In S. Seidman (Ed.), The Postmodern Turn: New Perspectives on Social Theory (pp. 153-170). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511570940.01
Delgado, Richard. (1997). Rodrigo’s eleventh chronicle: Empathy and false empathy. In Richard Delgado & Jean Stefancic (Eds.), Critical white studies: Looking behind the mirror (pp. 614-618). Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Grosz, Elizabeth. (1990). Contemporary theories of power and subjectivity. In Gunew, s. (ed.) Feminist knowledge: Critique and construct.
Foucault, Micheal. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York: Pantheon
Freire, Paolo. (1972). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Herder and Herder.
Lather, Patti. (1996). Troubling clarity: The politics of accessible language. Harvard Educational Review, (66)3, 525-545.
Marx, Karl. (1977). The communist manifesto. In David McLellan (Ed.), Karl Marx: Selected writings (pp. 221-247). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. (Original work published 1848).
Omi, Michael, & Winant, Howard. (1994). Racial formation in the United States: From the 1960’s to the 1990’s. (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. [Chapter 4: Racial formation, pp. 53-76].
Said, Edward. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books. [Introduction, pp. 1-28]
Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. (2012). Decolonizing Methodologies. London: Zed Books (2nd ed)
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Established theories of gentrification problematically erase the historical and pervasive violence of settler colonialism. Rife with language like “occupiers” and “original inhabitants” to refer to established settlers, gentrification research largely ignores the reality that these are stolen lands (Lees, Slater, & Wyly, 2008, p. 31). Worse yet, some scholars have invoked colonization as a metaphor, arguing gentrification is the “new urban colonialism” (Atkinson & Bridge, 2004, p. 2). While their intent is to establish gentrification as an increasingly globalised phenomenon, they (like many others) take up notions of (de)colonization without reference to Indigeneity and use decolonization as a metaphor for “other things we want to do to improve societies or schools,” instead of centring on “the repatriation of Indigenous life and land” (Tuck & Yang, 2012, p. 3). As I prepare to study gentrification in my doctoral research, I am troubled by these erasures and tensions. In this presentation I will grapple with my discomfort, exploring how I might responsibly address the ongoing violence of settler colonialism amidst gentrification, account for the ways I (as a settler) have and continue to benefit from these systems, while ensuring that gentrification (as a violent and inequitable process in and of itself) remains the central focus of my research. Simultaneously, I will question the appropriateness of taking up discourses of (de)colonization as a side-note or token acknowledgement, running the risk of diluting “what is unsettling, and what should be unsettling” about settler colonialism (Tuck & Yang, 2012, p. 3).
Recreation and sport business
- Sex Segregation and Transgender Youth in Recreational Sport
- What do community members think the impacts are? A Case Study of a Sport-For-Development initiative in Africa
- How awareness, motivations, constraints, and organizational facilitators influence participation in campus recreation
- Youths' major sport event consumption for sport participation: A proposal
- General Attitudes Towards the Use of Performance Enhancing Substances: Does Context and Consequence Matter?
- Mental Health of Youth Elite Athletes: The Impact of Mental Performance Training
- Second generation African Canadian adolescent girls’ participation in a community sport program in Ottawa: An intersectional analysis
- Habitual Success: Exploring and Understanding Habits Employed by Elite Athletes for Success
Vancouver Island University
People with such diverse sexual identities like lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer
and similar identities (LGBTQ+) are most likely to experience discrimination in sport environments. Additionally, Cunningham and Pickett (2017) argued that the prejudice in sport context toward transgender youth remained much greater than that toward their LGB peers. Yet, the sex segregation in sport has reinforced gender inequality by separating two normative sexes of male and female based on biological differences, imposing significant challenges on the transsexual community. Despite the ongoing debate about perceived athletic advantages of transsexual men and women in sex-segregated sports, a number of transgender athletes do not want to be classified within the normative two-sex system (Caudwell, 2014), while the majority of this community does. As multiple empirical research have examined the impact of sex segregation on athletes’ participation in competitive and professional sport, but little has been done on that in recreational sport. This paper aims to contribute to the existing literature on gender studies and sport looking at the implications that sex segregation has on transgender young athletes’ participation in recreational sport. Furthermore, should sex segregation serves as a barrier to recreational sport participation, how young transgender athletes negotiate with this constraint will too be discussed. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design is adopted, with data extracted quantitatively then richly explored by a qualitative methodology. It is expected that the results of this study provide additional information to the controversial discussion around the proposed abolition of sex segregation in sport.
Caudwell, J. (2014). [Transgender] young men: Gendered subjectivities and the physically active
body. Sport, Education and Society, 19(4), 398–414.
Cunningham, G. B., & Pickett, A. C. (2017). Trans prejudice in sport: Differences from LGB
prejudice, the influence of gender, and changes over time. Sex Roles, 78(3-4), 220– 227.
What do community members think the impacts are? A Case Study of a Sport-For-Development initiative in Africa
The first wave of Sport for Development (SfD) initiatives made bold assumptions that sport was inherently good for all participants and could achieve both social and developmental outcomes (Levermore, 2008, Lyras & Welty-Peachey, 2011). Many scholars began to question the impacts that SfD programs were having achieving developmental goals and positive social outcomes (Darnell, 2010, Coalter, 2013, Schulenkorf, Sherry, & Rowe, 2016, Svensson & Levine, 2017). Researchers also conveyed that there were possible issues associated with race and power dynamics, Global North and South relations, cultural sensitivity, and gender issues apparent in SfD programs (Darnell et al., 2016). There has been shifts in the SfD sphere in response to this critical research to work closer with the communities and individuals who are the co-creators of these programs (Coalter, 2007, 2010; Darnell, 2012; Collison & Marchesseault, 2018; Van der Kleshorst, 2018). The purpose of this study was to better understand how the community members who are co-creators and participants of this SfD initiative perceive the impacts of these programs at a community, and individual level. The community that I worked with has been working with a SfD program for the past eight years. I worked closely with a local gatekeeper (the rugby development officer) to understand the community and identify interviewees. Participants included; community members, parents, coaches, teachers, and former participants. During my time there I also participated in coaching seminars, worked with participants, and helped life skills sessions. Using Stake’s (1995) case study approach interviews, fieldwork, and content analysis were used. Through these methods and data analysis four over arching themes emerged. Community development through a sport-education centre, community interaction and engagement, development of participants, and High-Performance rugby development. These findings work to fill multiple gaps in literature identified by Schulenkorf, Sherry, & Rowe (2016) and attempt to address critical issues laid out by Darnell et al. (2016). This research also hopes to work as a bridge between academia, and practitioners and will aim to make recommendations for possible best practices moving forward in the SfD world that include; community engagement in development, upskilling local participants and community members, and seeking out feedback from the community members involved.
Coalter, F. (2007). A wider social role for sport: Who’s keeping the score? New York, NY: Routledge.
Coalter, F. (2010). Sport-in-development: Accountability or development. In R. Levermore & A. Beacom (Eds.), Sport and International Development (p. 55-75). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Coalter, F. (2013b). ‘There is loads of relationships here’: Developing a programme theory for sport-for-change programmes. International Review For The Sociology Of Sport, 48(5). 594-612.
Collison, H., &, Marchesseault, D. (2018). Finding the missing voices of Sport for Development and Peace (SDP): Using a ‘Participatory Social Interaction Research’ methodology and anthropological perspectives within African developing countries. Sport in Society. 21(2). 226-242.
Darnell, S. (2010). Power, politics and “sport for development and peace”: Investigating the utility of sport for international development. Sociology of Sport Journal, 27(1), 54-75.
Darnell, S. (2012). Sport for Development and Peace: A Critical Sociology. New York, NY: Bloomsburg.
Darnell, S.C., Chawansky, M., Marchesseault, D., Holmes, M., Hayhurst, L. (2016) “The State of Play: Critical Sociological Insights into Recent ‘Sport for Development and Pace’ Research.” International Review for the Sociology of Sport.
Levermore, R. (2008a). Sport: A new engine for development? Progress in Development Studies, 8, 183–90.
Lyras, A., & Welty-Peachey, J. (2011). Integrating sport-for-development theory and praxis. Sport Management Review, 14(4). 311–326
Schulenkorf, N., Sherry, E., &, Rowe, K. (2016). Sport for Development: An Integrated Literature Review. Journal of Sport Management. 30. 22-39.
Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Svensson, P., &, Levine, J. (2017). Rethinking Sport for Development and Peace: The Capability Approach. Sport in Society. 20(7). 905-923.
Van der Klashorst, E. (2018). Exploring the economic, social and cultural rights of youth leaders working in Sport for Development initiatives at grassroots level in South Africa. Leisure Studies. 37 (1). 109-116.
How awareness, motivations, constraints, and organizational facilitators influence participation in campus recreation
Department of Recreation and Leisure, University of Waterloo
Participation in campus recreation provides an opportunity for students to improve their health and well-being, develop connections with other students and the university, engage in enjoyable and personally meaningful recreation, and enhance their academic performance. Despite the importance of recreation for university students, understandings of why only some students participate in recreation on campus are limited. Partnering with the Campus Athletic Recreation Network at the University of Waterloo, this study sought to develop theoretical and practical insights into participation and non-participation. Theoretically, the study draws on the Psychological Continuum Model which identifies awareness and attraction as preceding conditions to individuals reaching the stages of psychological attachment and loyal behaviour. Additionally, this study also draws on leisure constraint theory to further explain variations in levels of participation. The study explored the following research questions: (1) Is greater awareness of campus recreation opportunities associated with higher levels of participation? (2) What constraints reduce participation in campus recreation notwithstanding the effects of awareness? (3) What motivations are associated with participation in campus recreation notwithstanding the effects of awareness? and (4) What organizational strategies might increase an interest in participating in campus recreation? This study also explored how awareness, constraints, motivation, and organizational strategies differed based on gender and international vs domestic students. Data were collected from students using a cross-sectional survey during the spring and fall terms of 2018. A total of 314 usable surveys were returned. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine how awareness, motivations, and constraints were associated with varying levels of participation in three types of campus recreation (i.e., intramural sport, drop-in sport, fitness). ANOVAs were used to examine differences in awareness, motivation, constraints, and organizational strategies based on gender and student type. Results revealed that awareness of opportunities was significantly and positively associated with levels of participation in all three types of campus recreation. Furthermore, results indicate the effects of constraints and motivation differ based on the type of campus recreation activity and student characteristics. For example, constraints such as “takes too much of my time” and “don’t know enough people” had statistically significant associations with drop in sports participation but not for fitness centre participation. This study has important implications for practitioners seeking to increase campus recreation participation levels.
Funk, D. C., & James, J. (2001). The psychological continuum model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual’s psychological connection to sport. Sport Management Review, 4, 119–150.
Funk, D. C., & James, J. D. (2006). Consumer Loyalty: The Meaning of Attachment in the Development of Sport Team Allegiance. Journal of Sport Management, 20(2), 189-217.
Wood, L., & Danylchuk, K. (2015). The impact of constraints and negotiation strategies on involvement in intramural sport. Managing Sport and Leisure, 1-15.
University of Ottawa, School of Human Kinetics
Although debated, proponents of sport events claim that viewing elite sport events can inspire youth to become more physically active and increase sport participation (Weed et al., 2015). Empirical investigations have explored this inspiration phenomenon, however, findings have been largely inconsistent (Taks, Green, Misener, & Chalip, 2018), in that there is no consensus as to whether the phenomenon exists, and if so, to what extent, and under what circumstances.
Little is known about the role that engaging with elite sport events might play in youths’ sport participation intentions and behaviours. Through understanding the unique ways that youth passively consume major sport events, new leveraging initiatives can be developed to better engage and inspire youth to actively participate in sport. Thus, guided by Social Ecology Theory, the purpose of this research is to explore how youths’ consumption of major sport events might shape their sport participation behaviours. The purpose of the presentation will be to present the proposed research project.
Using purposive sampling with a youth population, I will employ a collective case study methodology, longitudinally exploring two cases (sport events) that differ in size, scope, type of athletes, and proximity to the region in which the participants live. Adhering to an embedded sequential mixed methods design, both quantitate (i.e., surveys) and qualitative (i.e., diaries) data will be collected concurrently (embedded), then analyzed together to inform how follow-up qualitative data (i.e., unstructured art-informed interviews) will be collected to help explain the phenomena (sequential). Research, theoretical, and practical implications will also be presented.
Taks, M., Green, B. C., Misener, L., & Chalip, L. (2018). Sport participation from sport events: Why it doesn’t happen? Marketing Intelligence and Planning,185-198.
Weed, M., Coren, E., Fiore, J., Wellard, I., Chatziefstathiou, D., Mansfield, L., & Dowse, S. (2015). The Olympic Games and raising sport participation: A systematic review of evidence and an interrogation of policy for a demonstration effect. European Sport Management Quarterly, 15(2), 195-226.
General Attitudes Towards the Use of Performance Enhancing Substances: Does Context and Consequence Matter?
University of Waterloo
The purpose of this honours thesis was to gain a better understanding of how an individual’s attitudes change based on the context performance enhancing substances (PESs) are used (e.g., sports, music) and the consequence of using the PES (e.g., causes harm to self or others). Further, this study examined whether an individual’s preconceived moral beliefs influence their attitudes towards PESs. Participants included 284 undergraduate students from the University of Waterloo and was grounded in the theory of bracketed morality (Kavussanu & Ring, 2016). The Moral Disengagement in Doping Scale (Kavussanu et al., 2016) and the General Drug Use Subscale from the Drugs Attitude Scale (Goodstadt et al., 1978) were used to assess participants moral beliefs and attitudes towards substance use. The results indicated that as attitudes towards general drug and substance use became more conservative, the stronger moral beliefs are towards PESs. Further indicating that individuals had the most conservative attitudes towards the use of PESs in the sport context and more liberal attitudes towards the surgical field. In comparison, the data indicated that harm consequences were not a strong indicator to predict attitudes towards PESs unless harm occurred directly within a context. The data showed that when sport and harm to others were paired individuals had the strongest moral attitudes toward substance. Whereas when Post-secondary No Harm, Surgical Field No Harm, and Surgical Field Harm to Others were paired, individuals had more lenient moral beliefs.
Goodstadt, M., Cook, G., Magid, S., & Gruson, V. (1978). The drug attitudes scale (DAS): Its development and evaluation. The International Journal of the Addictions, 13(8), 1307-1317.
Kavussanu, M., Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Elbe, A.M., & Ring, C. (2016). The moral disengagement in doping scale. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 24, 188-198.
Kavussanu, M., & Ring, C. (2016). Moral thought and action in sport and student life: A study of bracketed morality. Ethics & Behavior, 26(4), 267-276.
University of Waterloo
The purpose of this literature review is to explore the issue of mental health in youth elite sports and investigate whether Mental Performance Training (MPT) can aid in the establishment of a positive health experience for youth athletes. With understanding children’s cognitive maturity based on Piaget’s stages of cognitive development, this paper illustrates how MPT can be implemented into youth’s training and provides recommendations to guide reasonable decisions in children’s engagement within organized sports.
Literature review encompassed a thorough search of databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, utilizing key words such as “youth athletes”, “mental health”, “goal setting”, “imagery”, and combinations of key words). Books and journal articles were also utilized.
Pressure imposed on youth athletes to succeed by coaches, parents and overall nature of elite sport, produces a fear of failure, decreased motivation and increased anxiety among athletes (Sagar et al., 2007; Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996). Use of goal setting, motivational self-talk and motivational general-mastery imagery by youth athletes has shown to decrease fear of failure (Wikman et al., 2014) and increase self-efficacy (O et al., 2014; Hatzigeorgiadis et al., 2008).
Further studies should investigate the effects of MPT among younger athlete participants in order for appropriate programs to be implemented. Coaches and parents need to be aware of their behaviors as their role has great impact on youth athletes’ future success in sport. Youth’s level of development must also be recognized in order for reasonable sport-related demands to be made.
Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and Avoidance Achievement Goals and
Intrinsic Motivation: A Mediational Analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461-475.
Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Zourbanos, N., Goltsios, C., & Theodorakis, Y. (2008). Investigating the Functions of Self-Talk: The Effects of Motivational Self-Talk on Self-Efficacy and Performance in Young Tennis Players. The Sport Psychologist, 22(4), 458-471. doi:10.1123/tsp.22.4.458
O, J., Munroe-Chandler, K. J., Hall, C. R., & Hall, N. D. (2014). Using Motivational General- Mastery Imagery to Improve the Self-Efficacy of Youth Squash Players. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(1), 66-81.
Sagar, S. S., Lavallee, D., & Spray, C. M. (2007). Why Young Elite Athletes Fear Failure: Consequences of Failure. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(11), 1171-1184.
Wikman, J. M., Stelter, R., Melzer, M., Hauge, M., Elbe, A. (2014). Effects of goal setting on fear of failure in young elite athletes. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(3), 185-205.
Second generation African Canadian adolescent girls’ participation in a community sport program in Ottawa: An intersectional analysis
Amina A. Haggar
University of Ottawa
The following study uses intersectionality theory to explore the role of ethnocultural identity in shaping second generation African Canadian adolescent girls’ community sport participation outcomes. Namely, the unique ethnocultural experience of second generation Canadians as simultaneously exposed to two distinctive value systems (i.e., heritage culture and dominant Canadian culture) will be examined to determine if/how it influences sport participation outcomes among adolescent African Canadian girls. The study research questions are two-fold: 1) What is the role of ethnocultural identity in shaping the experiences and/or perspectives of second generation African Canadian adolescent girls toward community sport programs in Ottawa?; and 2) how do City of Ottawa community sport program coordinators and staff address multiculturalism and its intersection with gender in the delivery of sport programs to ethnoculturally diverse adolescent girls? To address each question, 16 semi-structured interviews and one focus group interview will be conducted with the second generation African Canadian adolescent girls involved in the City of Ottawa’s Community Centre Basketball League (CCBL) at one selected community centre. Further, eight semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the CCBL program staff and volunteers currently or in the last two years involved in the delivery of the program at the selected centre. Braun and Clarke’s (2006) reflexive thematic analysis method will be used to analyse the field note and transcription data following data collection. The findings from the study will be used to promote more inclusive and culturally sensitive community sport programs serving ethnoculturally diverse adolescent girls in Canada.
Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
University of Waterloo
The purpose of this literature review is to examine habit formation from a psychological perspective and to explore the most significant habits that are employed by elite athletes around the world to achieve success in their respective field of competition and sport. Habit formation remains one of the most fascinating topics in sports psychology today and understanding the mechanisms through which it is achieved can allow athletes to become more successful in their sport. For this literature review, scientific literature, books, grey literature and online articles were searched and screened for relevant information pertaining to the topic. Grounded in the habit loop framework, habit formation consists of a cue, routine and reward (Duhigg, 2012). For any habit, the cue acts as a signal to the brain to trigger a routine such that a reward can be achieved. Over time this pattern associates cues to rewards, creating a sense of craving for the brain, further reaffirming habits. Across sports, certain habits are employed more frequently by elite athletes than others. Nutrition, sleep, visualization, physical training and mental strengthening habits were found to be most employed for success. These habits also can act as keystone habits; a habit leading to the development of other habits (Stemmle, 2019). Habits serve as the foundation for success of elite athletes. Understanding habit efficacy for achieving success across sports can be enlightening and useful to prospective athletes, and people looking to improve performance.
Duhigg, Charles. (2012) The power of habit :why we do what we do in life and business New York : Random House.
Stemmle, C. (2019, October 29). What are Keystone Habits? (And How They Build Breakthrough Routines).
- 100% Satisfaction Guaranteed? A Review of Fishing Float Visitors on the Mississippi River
- Military Parents’ Perspectives on their Children’s Outdoor Risky Play
- Nature-based Leisure and the Anthropocene
- Constraints to Citizen Science Participation among Canadian Birdwatchers
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Keywords: fishing, leisure experience, loyalty, outdoor, recreation service providers, satisfaction
A major objective for agencies that provide recreation is for the consumer to perceive their experience as positive or satisfying (Tian-Cole, Crompton, & Willson, 2002). Satisfaction is important for consumers, but also crucial for the providers as it is an indicator of future customer behaviors such as repurchase or return (Hauser, Simester, & Wernerfelt, 1994). One way to explain satisfaction is by using the Expectation Confirmation Theory (ECT) which states that satisfaction is contingent upon the experience (perceived performance) matching or exceeding the consumers expectations (Oliver, 1977). In the service industry, this gap between expectations and the perceived performance can be measured using the SERVQUAL model; specifically addressing responsiveness, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and reliability (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). While the ECT and SERVQUAL model are widely used in the service industry, there has been limited applications in the field of recreation. Thus, the intent of this study was to explore the meaning of satisfaction in a recreation context.
This study explored visitor (n = 151) experiences on a fishing float located on the Mississippi River during the summer months of 2017. Data were collected using a survey as the instrument. Results suggested that satisfaction with the experience was more than the success of the activity (i.e. fishing was more than just catching fish). In this case, satisfaction was better explained by emotional, environmental, service, and social features.
Hauser, J. R., Simester, D. I., & Wernerfelt, B. (1994). Customer Satisfaction Incentives. Marketing Science, 13(4), 327–350. Retrieved from JSTOR.
Oliver, R. L. (1977). Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on postexposure product evaluations: An alternative interpretation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62(4), 480.
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). Servqual: A Multiple-Item Scale For Measuring Consumer Perc. Journal of Retailing; Greenwich, 64(1), 12.
Tian-Cole, S., Crompton, J. L., & Willson, V. L. (2002). An Empirical Investigation of the Relationships Between Service Quality, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions among Visitors to a Wildlife Refuge. Journal of Leisure Research, 34(1), 1–24.
University of Ottawa
The decline in children’s outdoor risky play over time in Canada is alarming to child health and family leisure advocates and is currently a major public health concern. Parents’ perspectives on their children’s outdoor risky play can provide insight into why the decline in children’s outdoor risky play is occurring and how to mitigate the negative health consequences for children associated with it. There is thus a need to situate a diversity of parents’ perspectives on outdoor risky play within leisure research. Military parents are a subset of parents who can provide unique perspectives on children’s outdoor risky play due to their daily contact with risk and danger, exposure to processes of stress inoculation in military training, and subscription to values systems contextualized by militarized masculinities. Our research makes a timely contribution to the current state of leisure knowledge by exploring combat specialists’ and their wives’ and female partners’ perspectives on their children’s outdoor risky play. For this presentation, I discuss how military parents’ perspectives on outdoor risky play are influenced by time away from the home during deployment and training, past injury experiences, militarized masculinities, social media, and societal risk aversion and overprotection. I provide an overview of our approach to this research, including the theoretical framework and analytical tools used, and discuss the relevance of the results to furthering the current state of knowledge on outdoor risky play within leisure research.
Chris E. Hurst
Department of Recreation and Leisure, University of Waterloo
There is growing acknowledgement among geologists, geographers, and social scientists that the planet has entered into a new epoch, one in which humans have set in motion different processes (ecological and otherwise) and left permanent traces on a planetary scale(Lorimer, 2015). This epoch, the Anthropocene, recognizes human activity as pervasive; permeating spaces typically perceived of as untouched by society and calls into question conventional conceptualizations of nature and wilderness (Lorimer, 2015; Monbiot, 2014; Ryan, 2015). This presentation focuses on a description and analysis of the Anthropocene as the geological context impacting on contemporary nature-based leisure. The presentation describes and interrogates current scholarly critiques of the Anthropocene as an epoch informed by anthropocentrism (i.e., human-centredness), autopoiesis (i.e., self-reproducing and bounded individuals), and/or nihilism (i.e., meaninglessness/ hopelessness) (Haraway, 2016; Morton, 2018). The presentation proposes an alternative conceptualization - the Anthropocene as catalyst – to take into account the impact of human activity while also considering natures as entanglements of: i) human and nonhumans, and ii) ecological and geological processes (Lorimer, 2015; Monbiot, 2014). The presentation concludes with a discussion of how traditional ways of thinking about nature and wilderness within leisure may be challenged in the Anthropocene epoch.
Haraway, D. (2016). Staying with the Trouble: Making Kin in the Chthulucene. Durham, US: Duke University Press.
Lorimer, J. (2015). Wildlife in the Anthropocene: Conservation after nature. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Monbiot, G. (2014). Feral: Rewilding the Land, the Sea, and Human Life. Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
Morton, T. (2018). Being Ecological. London, UK: Pelican Books.
Ryan, S. (2015). Theorizing outdoor recreation and ecology: Managing to enjoy ‘nature’? London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Citizen science has grown exponentially with the evolution of technology especially within the birding community (Sullivan et al., 2009). Allowing avian researchers access to large volumes of data (Sullivan et al., 2014) while additionally providing avian conservation managers an alternative to the high costs associated with research at a similar scale (Callaghan & Gawlik, 2015). Much of the current literature interrogates the methods for including citizen science as a data collection tool (Devictor et al., 2010; Dickinson et al., 2012; Lukyanenko et al., 2011; among others). Yet in 2012, only 15 percent of Canadians reported participating in a citizen science initiative within the previous 12 months (Canada et al., 2014). With approximately 18 percent of Canadians participating in bird watching (Canada et al., 2014) and 25 percent having bird feeders and/or bird houses in their yards (Statistics Canada, 2015). The potential to engage these bird watching citizens towards driving the train of data production has been only initially investigated with research addressing motivations (Wright et al., 2015), science literacy and sense of place (Evans et al., 2005), and identifying birdwatching as a gendered serious leisure pursuit (Lee et al., 2015). As such, this research addresses a gap in the literature through employing the leisure constraints model (Crawford et al., 1991; Crawford & Godbey, 1987) to explore the factors that restrict the participation of bird watchers in citizen science. Through understand constraints, organisations that provide opportunities for citizen science can work towards integrating additional avenues that reduce participation barriers.
Callaghan, C. T., & Gawlik, D. E. (2015). Efficacy of eBird data as an aid in conservation planning and monitoring. Journal of Field Ornithology, 86(4), 298–304.
Canada, Environment Canada, & Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. (2014). 2012 Canadian nature survey: Awareness, participation, and expenditures in nature-based recreation, conservation, and subsistence activities.
Crawford, D. W., & Godbey, G. (1987). Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences, 9(2), 119–127.
Crawford, D. W., Jackson, E. L., & Godbey, G. (1991). A hierarchical model of leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences, 13(4), 309–320.
Devictor, V., Whittaker, R. J., & Beltrame, C. (2010). Beyond scarcity: Citizen science programmes as useful tools for conservation biogeography. Diversity and Distributions, 16(3), 354–362. x
Dickinson, J. L., Shirk, J., Bonter, D., Bonney, R., Crain, R. L., Martin, J., Phillips, T., & Purcell, K. (2012). The current state of citizen science as a tool for ecological research and public engagement. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 10(6), 291–297.
Evans, C., Abrams, E., Reitsma, R., Roux, K., Salmonsen, L., & Marra, P. P. (2005). The Neighborhood Nestwatch Program: Participant Outcomes of a Citizen-Science Ecological Research Project. Conservation Biology, 19(3), 589–594.
Lee, S., McMahan, K., & Scott, D. (2015). The Gendered Nature of Serious Birdwatching. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 20(1), 47–64.
Lukyanenko, R., Parsons, J., & Wiersma, Y. (2011). Citizen Science 2.0: Data Management Principles to Harness the Power of the Crowd. In H. Jain, A. P. Sinha, & P. Vitharana (Eds.), Service-Oriented Perspectives in Design Science Research (pp. 465–473). Springer.
Statistics Canada. (2015, March 10). Canadians and Nature: Birds, 2013 - Enviro Fact Sheet.
Sullivan, B. L., Aycrigg, J. L., Barry, J. H., Bonney, R. E., Bruns, N., Cooper, C. B., Damoulas, T., Dhondt, A. A., Dietterich, T., Farnsworth, A., Fink, D., Fitzpatrick, J. W., Fredericks, T., Gerbracht, J., Gomes, C., Hochachka, W. M., Iliff, M. J., Lagoze, C., La Sorte, F. A., … Kelling, S. (2014). The eBird enterprise: An integrated approach to development and application of citizen science. Biological Conservation, 169, 31–40.
Sullivan, B. L., Wood, C. L., Iliff, M. J., Bonney, R. E., Fink, D., & Kelling, S. (2009). eBird: A citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biological Conservation, 142(10), 2282–2292.
Wright, D. R., Underhill, L. G., Keene, M., & Knight, A. T. (2015). Understanding the Motivations and Satisfactions of Volunteers to Improve the Effectiveness of Citizen Science Programs. Society & Natural Resources, 28(9), 1013–1029.
Leisure spaces and wellbeing
- Race, Location, Time, Income: How they Serve as Barriers to Physical Activity and Chronic Disease Prevention and Management in Canada
- Identity, Unemployment, and Leisure: Experiences of Filipino Immigrants in Nova Scotia
- A matter of survival: Contextualizing ‘recreational’ spaces and activities in the lives of people living in poverty
- An application of serious leisure to analyze wellbeing from time spent in nature
Race, Location, Time, Income: How they Serve as Barriers to Physical Activity and Chronic Disease Prevention and Management in Canada
University of Waterloo
This literature review interpreted how race, location, time and income intersect and influence the ability of people to access physical activity (PA) as a means of chronic disease (CD) prevention and management in Canada.
The literature view included a thorough search of UWaterloo Library, Statistics Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, World Health Organization and Google Scholar databases.
Canada ranks amongst the bottom of developed countries when analyzing the equity level of their respected healthcare systems (Doty et al., 2017). 1 in 3 Canadian adults live with at least one form of chronic disease (PHAC, 2019). Although the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines were created to provide the public with an evidence-based tool to combat chronic disease, Health Canada concluded that 77.8% of adults aged 18 and over, and 90.7% of children and youth aged 5 to 17 are not meeting these guidelines (PHAC, 2018).
The relationship between PA and CD was analyzed by using a social determinants of health framework. Racialized Canadians (specifically Black Canadians and Indigenous Peoples living in Canada), low-resource communities, time limited individuals and low-income individuals, face significant barriers to accessing PA. These barriers have made it difficult for individuals to use PA as a means of preventing and managing CD. International and Canadian health institutions have recognized the socioeconomic benefits to regular PA. Despite this, governing bodies at all levels of Canadian governance have failed to integrate PA into the social fabric of Canadian life, disproportionately placing the burden of CD upon marginalized peoples across Canada.
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2019, September 25). At-a-glance – How Healthy are Canadians? A brief update.
Public Health Agency of Canada. (2018, May 30). A Common Vision for increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary living in Canada: Let’s Get Moving.
Doty, M. M. D., Squires, D. S., Sarnak, D. O. S., Schneider, E. C. S., & Shah, A. S. (2017). Mirror, Mirror 2017: International Comparison Reflects Flaws and Opportunities for Better U.S. Health Care.
Giana C.L. Tomas
School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University
Obtaining employment, accessing health care, and exploring recreation are some challenges that immigrants experience in their attempts to re-settle and integrate into Canadian society. These challenges can impact their health and well-being, as well as their sense of identity, which is understood as a perceived state and process of knowing oneself and one’s capabilities, as shaped by social structures. For many individuals, employment is not only a way of obtaining of income, but also of constructing identity. Since recent immigrants are more likely than others to be unemployed or underemployed in jobs that are not reflective of their educational background or training, experiences of unemployment are relevant to this population. However, jeopardized identities experienced through unemployment and resettlement among immigrants in Canada can potentially be reinforced or reconstructed through leisure. By providing a path for exploring, understanding, and creating a unique identity, leisure plays a key role in identity development. In this presentation, I will share my master’s thesis proposal, a qualitative study exploring immigrants’ experiences of identity through unemployment and leisure. This study will investigate the lived experience of Filipino immigrants living in Canada since they are one of the largest ethnic minorities in the country whose individual and lived experience regarding employment and identity are often overlooked or misunderstood. Semi-structured interviews and phenomenological data analysis will explore Filipino immigrants’ lived experience of identity through unemployment and leisure.
A matter of survival: Contextualizing ‘recreational’ spaces and activities in the lives of people living in poverty
University of Toronto
The number of people living in poverty in Canada is estimated to be between 1 in 10 and 1 in 7 (The Canadian Press, 2011), with racialized and Indigenous peoples experiencing poverty at significantly higher levels than their non-racialized and settler counterparts (Canadian Observatory on Homelessness, 2017; Niagara Poverty Reduction Network, 2013). The utilization of space connects to experiencing recreational activities, as spaces are a fundamental component of a person’s identity and experiences, and have profound social meaning (Fitzpatrick & LaGory, 2003). However, opportunities for participation in recreation or social life in certain spaces are not always available when particular bodies are heavily policed, and when the population utilizing outdoor spaces are homeless or living in visible poverty (Hodgetts & Stolte, 2016; Nemeth, 2008). Moreover, there has historically been a failure to recognize that activities such as walking, biking, and sitting on park benches, which are traditionally regarded as ‘recreational’ by those living not in poverty, may serve instead as survival techniques for those who are. The aim of this paper then, is to examine the multiple roles that recreation spaces and activities can occupy, specifically for individuals living in poverty. The data presented in this paper emerged from a one-year ethnography in the Niagara Region in Canada. Central to the purpose and meaning of this project was to humanize poverty and homelessness, simultaneously deepening the understanding of the lived experiences of persons in poverty.
Canadian Observatory on Homelessness (2017). Who is homeless? In The homeless hub: Homelessness 101. Retrieved from https://homelesshub.ca/about-homelessness/homelessness-101/who-homeless.
Fitzpatrick, K., & LaGory, M. (2003) “Placing” health in urban sociology: Cities as mosaics of risk and protection, City & Community 2(1): 33-46.
Hodgetts, D. & Stolte O. (2016). Homeless people’s leisure practices within and beyond urban socio-spaces. Urban Studies, 53(5), 899-914.
Nemeth, J. (2008). Defining a public: The management of privately owned public space. Urban Studies, 46(11).
Niagara Poverty Reduction Network. (2013). Poverty myths and facts. In Factsheet.
The Canadian Press. (2011). Poor in Canada: Statistics Canada reports one in 10 Canadians are living in poverty. The Huffington Post.
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Numerous authors can attest to the benefits people accrue from spending time in, and connecting with, the natural environment (Nisbet, Zelenski, & Murphy, 2011; Zelenski, & Nisbet, 2014). However, the wellbeing benefits people gain vary by motivations, and are influenced by their view on nature and place. In a survey of over 600 trail users in Ontario, respondents were asked questions regarding their place attachment, levels of nature relatedness and motivations for their most recent trail use. To understand the types of wellbeing gained in this sample, Stebbins (1982) serious leisure typology was applied as a lens to users’ motivations, which included health, social and learning opportunities, activity participation and sense of autonomy. The purpose of this application of serious leisure is to further the understanding of the types of wellbeing gained by users after spending time in, and with nature. As evidenced by Stebbins (1982) descriptions, serious leisure provides durable benefits such as self-actualization, enrichment, renewal of self, and accomplishment, which are associated with the characteristics of eudaimonic wellbeing. Casual leisure provides benefits such as feelings of happiness, entertainment, and relaxation, qualities associated with hedonic wellbeing (Stebbins, 1997). In order to test which wellbeing plays more of a role in relation to time spent in and with nature, motivations were first grouped into serious or casual leisure using factor analysis with varimax rotation. Once classified, analyses sought to understand what wellbeing related to levels of place and nature relatedness. Preliminary findings show strong significant correlations (p p
Nisbet, E.K., Zelenski, J.M., & Murphy, S.A. (2011). Happiness in our nature: Exploring nature relatedness as a contributor of subjective wellbeing. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 303-322.
Stebbins, R.A. (1982). Serious leisure: a conceptual statement. Pacific Sociological Review, 25(2), 251-272.
Stebbins, R.A. (1997). Casual leisure: a conceptual statement. Leisure Studies, 16(1), 17-25.
Zelenski, J.M., & Nisbet, E.K. (2014). Happiness and feeling connected: The distinct role of nature relatedness. Environment and Behaviour, 46(1), 3-23.
Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies, University of Waterloo
Keywords: music, creativity, wellbeing
Research on music making suggests that engaging in the activity can positively contribute to subjective well-being (Creech et al., 2013; Gembris, 2008). Relatedly, Varvarigou, Hallam, Creech, and McQueen (2013) reported that creativity played a vital role in music makers' positive experience. Creativity is the effort to create something to existence or the attempt to produce novel material when presented with common stimuli (King & Pope, 1999)
Guided by self-determination theory this research explores the positive relationship between musical experiences, creativity, and wellbeing. Self-determination theory has the potential to explain intrinsic motivation’s relation to eudaimonic wellbeing. Autonomy is considered a prominent trait of creativity as well (King and Pope, 1999) and can potentially explain why certain musical experiences can improve wellbeing of the participants.
There is a lack of research about musical experiences and creativity in the leisure field. This research will be exploring whether there is a relationship between various musical experiences (i.e. creating music, choir participation, festival attendance) and wellbeing. In addition, this research will test whether and to what extent creativity can mediate the positive relationship between musical experiences and subjective wellbeing.
Data was drawn from the “The Creating Connection: Building Public Will for Arts and Culture” survey conducted by Arts Midwest and Metropolitan Arts group in September 2014. Data was collected from 4645 participants from across the US. The survey seeks to understand how people define arts and culture, and the core values that drive these experiences. The survey includes multiple variables which assess participants engagement in musical experiences, creativity and wellbeing.
Multiple serial mediation models were tested for understanding the relationship between musical experiences and wellbeing. In addition, creativity was being tested as the mediator in all models.
Arts Midwest, and Metropolitan Group. Creating Connection: Building Public Will for Arts and Culture, 2014 [United States] . Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-12-22.
Creech, A., Hallam, S., Varvarigou, M., McQueen, H., & Gaunt, H. (2013). Active music making: A route to enhanced subjective well-being among older people. Perspectives in Public Health, 133(1), 36–43.
Gembris, H. (2008, September). Musical activities in the third age: An empirical study with amateur musicians. Paper presented at the Second European Conference on Developmental Psychology of Music, 10–12th September, Roehampton University, England
King, B. J., & Pope, B. (1999). Creativity as a Factor in Psychological Assessment and Healthy Psychological Functioning. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72(2), 200–207.
Varvarigou, M., Hallam, S., Creech, A., & McQueen, H. (2013). Different ways of experiencing music-making in later life: Creative music sessions for older learners in East London. Research Studies in Music Education, 35(1), 103–118.