Culture and purification

  • Acreman. J.1994. Algae and cyanobacteria: isolation, culture and long-term maintenance. J. Industrial Microbiol. 12: 193-194.
  • Anderson, Robert A. 2005. Algal Culturing Techniques. Elsevier Science & Technology Books.
  • Brown, L. 1982. Production of axenic cultures of algae by an osmotic method. Phycologia. Vol. 21: 408-410.
  • de Chazal., N.M., Smaglinski, S., and Smith, G. D. 1992. Methods involving light variation for isolation of cyanobacteria: characterization of isolates from central Australia. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 58: 3561-3566.
  • Divan, C. and Schnoes, H. 1982. Production of axenic Gonyaulax cultures by treatment with antibiotics. Appl. and Env. Microbiol. July, 1982, p. 250-254.
  • Ferris, M. and Hirsch, C.F. 1991. Method for isolation and purification of cyanobacteria. Appl and Environ. Microbiol. P. 1448-1452.
  • Fogg, G.E. and Thaake, B. 1987. Algal cultures and phytoplankton ecology. University of Wisconsin Press. 269 pp.
  • Guillard, R.L. and Keller, M. D. 1984. Culturing Dinoflagellates. In: Dinoflagellates. 1984. Spector, D.L. (Ed.) Academic Press. pp 391-442.
  • Harris, E. 1989. The Chlamydomonas Source Book. Academic Press. 780 pp.
  • Lee, J. J. and Soldo, A.(Eds.) 1992. Protocols in Protozoology. Allen Press Inc. Kansas, USA.
  • Paasche, E. 1971. A simple method for establishing bacteria-free cultures of phototactic flagellates. Extr. du J. du Conseil de la Mer. Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 509-511.
  • Palinska, K.A., Becker, C., and Krumbein, W. E. 1999. Isolation and purification techniques for benthic marine cyanobacteria - biotechnology potential. In: Charpy, L. & A.W. D. Larker (Eds.) 1999. Marine
  • Cyanobacteria. Bull. de I'Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco. Special Issue No. 19. 632 p.
  • Pringsheim, E.G., 1967. Pure cultures of algae. Their preparation and maintenance. Hafner Publ. Co. 119 pp.
  • Rippka, R. 1988. Isolation and purification of cyanobacteria. Methods in Enzymology. 167: 3-27.
  • Rippka, R., Deruelles, J., Waterbury, J.B., Herdman M. and Stanier, R.Y. 1979. Generic Assignments, Strain Histories and Properties of Pure Cultures of Cyanobacteria. Journal of Gen. Microbiology. iii, 1-61 pp.
  • Rippka, R. J., Waterbury, B., and Stanier, R. Y. 1981. Isolation and purification of cyanobacteria: some general principles, p 211-220. In M. P.Starr, H. Stolp, H. G; Truper, A. Balows and H.G. Schegel (ed.), The Prokaryotes. Springer-Verlag KG Berlin.
  • Sournia, A. 1978. Phytoplankton Manual. UNESCO. Monographs on Oceanographic methodology. No. 6. 337 pp.
  • Stanier, R., Kunisawa, R., Mandel, M., and Cohen-Bazire, G. 1971. Purification and properties of unicellular blue-green algae (Order Chroococcales). Bacteriological Reviews p. 171-205.
  • Stein, J. 1973. Handbook of phycological methods. Culture methods and growth measurements. Cambridge University Press. 448 pp.
  • Throndsen, J. 1978. The dilution\culture method. IN: Phytoplankton Manual (A. Sournia, ed.) UNESCO 337 pp.
  • Vaara, T., Vaara, M., and Niemala, S. 1979. Two improved methods for obtaining axenic cultures of cyanobacteria. Appl. Envir. Micro. 38. No 5: 1011-1014
  • Wolk, C.P. 1988. Purification and storage of nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria. Methods. Enzymol. 167: 93-95.


Cyanobacteria and toxins

  • Chorus, I., & Welker, M. (Eds.). (2021). Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A Guide to Their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management (2nd ed.). CRC Press.



  • Beaty, M. H. and Parker, B. C. 1992. Cryopreservation of Eukaryotic Algae. Virginia J. Sci. 43 (4): 403-410.
  • Bodas, K., Brennig, C., Diller, K.R., and Brand, J.J. (1995) Cryopreservation of Blue-green and Eukaryotic Algae in the Culture Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Cryo-letters 16:267-274.
  • Brand, J., Cryopreservation of Cyanobacteria
  • Crutchfield, Alexandra L.M., Kenneth R. Diller and Jerry J. Brand. 1999. Cryopreservation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyta) Eur. J. Phycol. 34: 43-52.
  • Day, John and McLellan, Mark R. (Eds.) 1995. Cryopreservation and Freeze-Drying Protocols. Humana Press.
  • Kartha, K.K. (Ed.) 1985. Cryopreservation of Plant Cells and Organs. CRC Press, Inc. ISBN 0-8493-6102-8.
  • Engels, M. 1997. Cryopreservation of Algae, with Special Reference of the Conjugatophyceae, Chlorophyta. Infusionsther. u. Transfusionsmed. 24 (1997) 384.
  • Engels, M. 1998: Influence of Cell morphology on the success of cryopreservation in the Zygnematophyceae. Cryo-Letters 19, 207-208.
  • Shore, K. Optimizing cryopreservation protocols for the Hawaii Culture Collection
  • Simione, F. 2021. Nalgene and Nunc Cryopreservation Guide. Thermo Scientific. (PDF)
  • Walsh, Tanaka J. J., Diller, K., Aggarwal, S., and Brand, J. 1999. Applications of model and design of algal cryopreservation protocols for dimethyl sulfoxide. (PDF)
  • Taylor, R. and Fletcher, R. 1999. Cryopreservation of eukaryotic algae- a review of methodologies. J. of Applied Phycology 10: 481-501


Identification of algae and cyanobacteria

  • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Agri-Environment Services Branch. 2011. Algae Identification Lab Guide: Accompanying manual to the Algae Identification Field Guide. Available at
  • Anagnostidis, K. and Komarek, J. 1985. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 1-Introduction. Archiv. Hydrobio. Suppl. 71, 1-2 (Algological studies 38-39). pp 291-302.
  • Anagnostidis, K. and Komarek, J. 1988. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 3-Oscillatoriales. Archiv. Hydrobio. Suppl. 80,1-4 (Algological studies 50-53). pp 327-472.
  • Anagnostidis, K. and Komarek, J. 1990. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 5-Stigonematales. Algological studies 59: 1-73.
  • Bellinger, E. G. and Sigee, D. C. 2010. Freshwater Algae: Identification and Use as Bioindicators, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
  • Bérard-Therriault, L., Poulin, M., et Bossé, L. 1999. Guide d’identification du phytoplancton marin de l’estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent incluant également certains protozoaires. Publication spéciale canadienne des sciences halieutiques et aquatiques 128. 387 p. Available at:
  • Bold, H.C. and Wynne, M.J. 1985. Introduction to the Algae: Structure and Reproduction, 2 ed., Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., USA.
  • Bourrelly, P. 1972. Les Algues d'Eau Douce. N. Boubee et Cie, Paris. Tome I. Les Algues Vertes. pp 1-511. Paris, France.
  • Bourrelly, P. 1968. Ibid. Tome II. Les Algues Jaunes et Brunes, Chrysophycees, Pheophycees, Xanthophycees et Diatomees. pp 1-512. Paris, France.
  • Bourrelly, P. 1970. Ibid. Tome III. Les Algues Bleues et Rouges, Les Eugleniens, Peridiniens et Cryptomonadines. pp 1-512 Paris, France.
  • Brunel, J. 1968. Le Phytoplankton de la Baie des Chaleurs. Contrib. Du Ministere de la Chasse et des Pecheries. No. 91. Prov. de Quebec. 365 pp.
  • Carr, N. G. and Whitton, B. A. (Eds.) 1982. The Biology of Cyanobacteria. Blackwell Sci. Publ., Oxford.
  • Cupp, E. 1943. Marine plankton diatoms of the west coast of North America. Bull. Scripps Inst. Oceanography. 5(1)
  • Desikachary, T. V. 1959. Cyanophyta. I.C.A.R. Monographs, New Delhi. 686 pp.
  • Dillard, G. 1991, Freshwater Algae of the Southeastern U.S. Common Freshwater Algae of the United States, An Illustrated Key to the Genera (Excluding the Diatoms). 2008. 2. edition. 188 pages, 299 figures, 22x16cm, 450 g ISBN 978-3-443-50033-7. Available at: (An excellent introduction to freshwater algae.)
  • Hendey, N.I. 1964. An Introductory Account of the Smaller Algae of British Coastal Waters. Part V.
  • Bacillariophyceae (Diatoms) Fishery Investigations. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Series 4: 317 pp.
  • Hustedt, F. 1985. The Pennate Diatoms (Translation. Originally published as vol. VII of Dr. Rabenhorst's Kryptogamen- Flora von Deutschland, Osterreich und der Schweiz. Lepzig 1959) Koeltz Scientific Books. 918 pp.
  • John, M., Brook, A. J., and Whitton, B. A. (Eds.) 2001. The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. An identification guide to freshwater and terrestrial algae. Koeltz Scientific Books. 720 pp.
  • Komarek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. 1986. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophytes. 2-Chroocacales. Arch. Hydrobio. Suppl. 73,2. pp 157-226.
  • Komarek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. 1989. Modern approach to the classification system of cyanophtes. 4-Nostocales. Arch. Hydrobiol. Suppl. 82,3 (Algological studies 56). pp 247-345.
  • Komarek, J. and Anagnostidis, K. 2001. Cyanoprokaryota. Oscillatoriales. Susswasserflora von Mitteleuropa Vol. 19. Part 2. 750 pp.
  • Lebour, M. 1925. The Dinoflagellates of Northern Seas. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 13 (1) 250 pp.
  • Lebour, M. 1930. The Planktonic Diatoms of Northern Seas. Ray. Soc. 166: 244 pp.
  • Patrick, R. and Reimer, C.W. 1966. The diatoms of the United States. Monographs of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. No. 13. Vol. I and II.
  • Prescott, G.W. 1962. Algae of the Western Great Lakes Area. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa . Available at:
  • Simonsen, R. 1974. The diatom plankton of the Indian Ocean. Expedition of R/V "Meteor" 1964-1965. "Metero" Forsch. Ergebniss, Reihe D. 19:1-107.
  • Siver, P. A. & Shayler, H. A. 2004. Key to common freshwater algae. Connecticut College, Environmental Studies Program, Freshwater Ecology Laboratory. Available at

  • Tomas, C. (Ed.). 1997. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. Academic Press. 858 pp. ISBN 0-12-693018-X. Available at: (EXCELLENT AND UP TO DATE)
  • Wehr, J. D. & Sheath, R. G. (Eds.). 2003. Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification. 917 pages. Academic Press. San Diego, CA. 

  • Wehr, J. D., Sheath, R. G., & Kociolek, J. P. (Eds.). 2015. Freshwater Algae of North America: Ecology and Classification (2nd ed.). 1066 pages. Academic Press. San Diego, CA. doi:10.1016/C2010-0-66664-8. Available at

  • Whitton, B. A. and Potts, M. (eds.) 1999. Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston.

  • Wilmotte, A. and Golubic, S. 1991. Morphological and genetic criteria in the taxonomy of Cyanophyta/Cyanobacteria. Arch. Hydrobiol. (Suppl. 92) Algol. Stud. 64:1-24.
  • Wilmotte, A., Turner S., Van de Peer, Y., and Pace, N. R. 1992. Taxonomic study of marine oscillatoriacean strains (cyanobacteria) with narrow trichomes. II. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA. Journal of Phycology 28:828-838.