Spermatophyte fossils

Spermatophytes are some of the most highly organized plants. This Genus includes all seed producing plants, including the gymnosperms, plants whose seeds are unprotected by the coverings and the angiosperms, the flowering plants. Their geological range includes the Carboniferous to recent times.

Spermatophytes include a large number of subset taxa. They are by far the largest group of living organisms. They include:

  • Cycads: A subtropical and tropical group of plants with a large crown of compound leaves and a stout trunk
  • Ginkgo: There is now only one single living species of this tree
  • Conifers: Cone-bearing trees and shrubs. Conifers have both male (pollen grain producing) and female (pollen tube) cones. The world’s oldest trees are conifers and are older than 5,000 years. The bristlecone pines grow in the Desert Mountains in California and Nevada.
  • Gnetophytes: Woods plants
  • Angiosperms: The flowing plants

In addition to what is listed above, there are a number of many extinct seed plants including pteridospermae, glossopteris and gigantopterids.