Knowledge Guide Part 1: Introduction and Treaty Timeline

Knowledge Guide Part 1: Introduction and Treaty Timeline

November 1-5, 2021 marks the second year that the University of Waterloo is officially participating in Treaties Recognition Week. This year, the Office of Indigenous Relations is excited to offer various opportunities to strengthen our understandings of where we live and work, and the importance of treaty rights and relationships.

Return to the Treaties Recognition Week webpage to learn more.

About the Knowledge Guide

This Knowledge Guide is part of a five-part series released to honour Treaties Recognition Week. The following Guide, along with the accompanying video, explores the historical and ongoing significance of treaties, focusing on the Haldimand Treaty.

Remote video URL

Key Themes covered in the video:

  • Two Row Wampum
  • Iroquoian Trade Wars and Conquest
  • 1701 Fort Albany/Nanfan Treaty
  • 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
  • 1763 Royal Proclamation
  • 1783 Treaty of Paris
  • 1784 Haldimand Treaty
  • The source of the Grand River

Reflection Questions:

  1. Noting Phil’s explanation of the Two Row Wampum, how can the concept of Wampum Belts help us move forward towards reconciliation?
  2. What is your connection to the territory you live on? What is your connection to the territory that you work on? Do you note any differences?
  3. Why is land significant? Further, why are land acknowledgements important for people, communities, and institutions?

Land Mapping Activity:

Visit Native Land's website and find out which the Indigenous territories on which you and/or your household lives. Explore to learn about the Indigenous territory's importance, culture, and history, and the Indigenous peoples who continue to reside in their territory today.

How To Use

There are a number of ways to use this website. You can use it directly by entering your address in the search menu, or by mousing or clicking around on the map to see the relevant territories in a location.

Once you click, a number of links will appear with different nation names. By clicking on those links, you will be taken to a page specifically about that nation, language, or treaty, where you can view some sources, give feedback, and learn a little more.

You can also export the map to a printable image file, turn map labels on or off to see non-Indigenous borders and towns, and select or search from a dropdown of territories, treaties, and languages.

There are also mobile apps available for iOS and Android. To use these, you can enter an address into the search bar at the top of the app, or you can press anywhere on the map to “drop a pin” and see more about the location you’ve selected.

Once you have found the location you reside on, please explore the following:

  • The Territory(s)
  • The language(s)
  • The Treaties


Six Nations of the Grand River Visit Six Nations Land and Resources to access booklets and other online resources with information about land rights, maps, treaties, and more.
Treaties in Ontario The Treaties in Ontario infographic (PDF) displays a brief overview of Ontario’s 40+ treaties and agreements. You can also learn more about Treaties, with resources from Waterloo’s Treaties Recognition Week 2020.
Native Land Native Land is an interactive resource to explore the territory that you live on, visit, or work on, and learn more about Indigenous territories, languages, lands, and ways of life.
O:se Kenhionhata:tie Land Back Camp Land Back Camp is located in what is now Victoria Park, Kitchener. This organization seeks to waive all fees for Indigenous communities to host events in public spaces; give back the land in Victoria Park and Waterloo Park to the Indigenous Peoples; urge cities to create paid positions, at all levels, for Indigenous Peoples to engage with the First Nations, Métis, and Inuit peoples living on this territory; and push for cities to create Indigenous Advisory Committees.
The Healing of the Seven Generations The Healing of the Seven Generations assists First Nations Peoples within the Waterloo Region and surrounding areas who are suffering the inter-generational impacts of the residential school system.
Anishnabeg Outreach Anishnabeg Outreach is an incorporated non-profit organization that provides Indigenous peoples with access to culturally appropriate services, striving to support folks to overcome barriers. They provide services in multiple locations in Ontario, including Kitchener.
University of Waterloo Office of Indigenous Relations Indigenous Relations is a central hub for First Nations, Inuit, and Métis students, researchers, faculty, and staff, along with allies within the Waterloo campus community. Additionally, the Office of Indigenous Relations provides the campus community with guidance, support, and resources
Waterloo Indigenous Student Centre (WISC) The Waterloo Indigenous Student Centre (WISC) is located at St. Paul’s University College. They work to share Indigenous knowledge and provide culturally relevant information and support services with the University of Waterloo community, including Indigenous and non-Indigenous students, staff, and faculty.
Office of Indigenous Relations Resources & Allyship Page The University of Waterloo’s Office of Indigenous Relations has created a resource section with a non-exhaustive list of resources for Waterloo’s campus community and beyond.

Download the pdf version of the Knowledge Guide:

Knowledge Guide Part 1: Introduction and Treaty Timeline