IST Service Desk
East Campus 2  Foyer
helpdesk@uwaterloo.ca
5198884567, ext. 44357
Using the equation editor that comes with Microsoft Word, equations can be inserted into Word, PowerPoint, or any application that supports Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
Although most of this document provides instructions pertaining to Word, the procedures for inserting and editing equations in Word are the same as for PowerPoint. Some PowerPoint specific notes can be found at the end of this document.
Please watch the introduction video.
A complete description about using the equation editor is available under "Help" in the equation editor window.
Please watch the creating an equation video (the examples in this video are slightly different than those in this text).
Please watch automation video.
If you are entering many equations, you may find it convenient to have an "Insert Equation" button right on the toolbar. This can be done by:
To enter the equation, just start typing. All keyboard characters can be entered directly. (Parentheses, brackets and braces can be entered from the keyboard, but these are fixed in size. Brackets that will "grow" must be selected from the appropriate template).
There are 10 symbol palettes, the entire top row of buttons. The symbols printed on the buttons provide a clue to the characters available under each button. The two rightmost symbol palettes are (1) the lower case Greek letters, and (2) the upper case Greek letters.
To select an item from a symbol palette, click on the palette button, and then click on the desired character.
The second row of palette buttons are template palettes. They provide place holders for entering information. For example, provides a number of integration palettes. Some of these have a placeholder only for the integrand, some for the integrand plus lower limit, some for the integrand plus lower plus upper limits.
The palette contains templates for fractions and radicals.
To insert a template, select the desired template from the appropriate palette button and fill in the template place holders. Place holders can contain keyboard characters, characters from symbol palettes, or other templates. For example an integrand can be a fraction template, and the numerator of the fraction can be a square root template.
A flashing right angled cursor indicates where you are about to enter information on the equation. The horizontal bar of the cursor marks the base line of the symbols to be entered. The vertical bar indicates the height. You can set the insertion point by clicking with the mouse, or with the keyboard.
Positioning the insertion point in an equation using keys.
Pressing 
Moves the insertion point 

Tab  To the end of the slot. If the insertion point is at the end of a slot, it moves to the next logical slot. 
Shift+Tab  To the end of the previous slot. 
Right arrow  Right one unit within the current slot or template. 
Left arrow  Left one unit within the current slot or template. 
Up arrow  Up one line. 
Down arrow  Down one line. 
Home  To the beginning of the current slot. 
End  To the end of the current slot. 
Note: To insert a tab character in a slot, press CTRL+TAB.
To enter the equation start the equation editor and:
As you are entering the equation, you can backspace at any time. You can also select parts of the equation with the mouse, and delete.
Brackets, parentheses and braces that grow with the enclosed text should be selected from the template.
Matrices of any size can be created from the template.
Please watch stacking and matrices video.
Equations can be stacked in a pile. To do this, simply press the Return key to begin a new line. To align this pile at a character, such as an equal sign, choose "align at" from the Format menu.
Enter the following equations and align them at the = sign by choosing Format/Align At = after typing them. Also try using the alignment symbol , to align equations.
Spaces can be inserted into an equation in the following way.
Type of space  Keys to press 

Zero space  Shift+Spacebar 
1point space  Ctrl+Alt+Spacebar 
Thin space (onesixth em)  Ctrl+Spacebar 
Thick space (onethird em)  Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar 
Em space (quad)  No shortcut key 
Please watch editing an existing equation video.
An existing equation can be edited either by double clicking on it, or by right clicking on it and selecting Equation Object, and either Open or Edit.
Most people do not want to move their hands from the keyboard to the mouse all the time to select palettes. A number of keyboard shortcuts are available.
To find out more about keyboard shortcuts for equations, open the equation editor and choose:
To insert  Template  Press 

()  Parentheses  Ctrl+9 or Ctrl+0 
[]  Brackets  Ctrl+[ or Ctrl+] 
{}  Braces  Ctrl+{ or Ctrl+} 
  Fraction  Ctrl+F 
/  Slash fraction  Ctrl+/ 
`  Superscript (high)  Ctrl+H 
_  Superscript (low)  Ctrl+L 
Joint sub/superscript  Ctrl+J  
Integral  Ctrl+I  
   Absolute value  Ctrl+Shift+T 
√  Root  Ctrl+R 
nth root  Ctrl+T, N  
∑  Summation  Ctrl+T, S 
∏  Product  Ctrl+T, P 
Matrix template 3X3  Ctrl+T, M  
_  Underscript (limit)  Ctrl+T, U 
To insert  Representing  Press CTRL+K, 

∞  Infinity  I 
→  Arrow  A 
∂  Derivative (partial)  D 
≤  Less than or equal to  < 
≥  Greater than or equal to  > 
X  Times  T 
∈  Element of  E 
∉  Not an element of  SHIFT+E 
⊂  Contained in  C 
⊄  Not contained in  SHIFT+C 
To apply  Description  Press 

Overbar  Ctrl+Shift+Hyphen  
Tilde 
Ctrl+~ (Ctrl+Shift+" on some keyboards) 

Arrow (vector)  Ctrl+Alt+Hyphen  
Single prime  Ctrl+Alt+'  
Double prime  Ctrl+"  
Single dot  Ctrl+Alt+Period 
Equations can appear inline in a line of text. The line spacing will adjust accordingly. If you wish to have equations appear in a paragraph by themselves, simply press Return before and after the equation.
To align an equation, click on the equation to select it, and then click on the appropriate alignment button.
You can also right click on the equation in Word and choose Format Object to control somewhat how the equation works with the text (from the Layout tab).
Equations to be numbered are usually centered with the number at the right margin. Numbering can be done by inserting sequencing fields.
Note: The italicized paragraph below applies to Word 97 and 2000, but not to Word XP.
Word is now in a position to be extremely helpful and do something you don't want. If the "Automatic Bulleted List" autoformatting option is turned on, and you enter an equation in the manner described below, Word will think you are starting a bulleted list with the equation as the bullet character. (I know this sounds far fetched, but it is true. To change this, select Tools, Autocorrect. In both the Autoformat and "Autoformat as you type" tabs, make sure that "Automatic bulleted lists" is not checked.
If you add equations in the middle of the document, or delete equations, the numbers will not automatically be updated. To have them updated, choose Edit, Select All, and then press F9.
It is probable that you may not want to have that centering and right aligning tab for your complete document, but only for your equations. In that case you may find it awkward to set the tabs each time you enter an equation. To get around that, the easiest way would be to create a Style called possibly, Equation.
This process can be automated even further with a macro.
Once you have assigned keyboard shortcuts to your equation style and equation macro (and possibly other things), it is nice to have a list of them in case you forget. To do this choose File/Print and beside Print what: choose Key assignments and then click OK.
You may wish to create a cross reference to an equation, a statement in your document such as "As was shown in Equation 3...", but you want Word to insert the appropriate equation number, and update it if the number of the equation should change. At first glance it would appear that you could do an Insert,Crossreference and select "Equation" as the reference type. However, this will only work if you let Word caption your equations, and Word will only caption an equation above or below the equation, which is not acceptable. The only way to cross reference an entity that you have numbered yourself via a seq Field, is to Bookmark the sequence number.
If you add or delete equations, cross reference numbers will not be updated automatically, but forcing an update is easy. Simple choose Select All from the Edit menu, and press the F9 key.
Please watch the automatically opening equation editor in a new window video.
Use the RegOptions macro to change the Windows Registry settings that control this behaviour:
As mentioned at the beginning of this document, the procedures for inserting and editing equations in Word are the same as for PowerPoint. The differences lie in the aligning of the equations and referencing. These similarities and differences are noted below:
East Campus 2  Foyer
helpdesk@uwaterloo.ca
5198884567, ext. 44357