|Title||A Review of Simulation Methods for Human Movement Dynamics with Emphasis on Gait|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Ezati, M., B. Ghannadi, and J. McPhee|
|Journal||Multibody System Dynamics|
Human gait analysis is a complex problem in biomechanics because of highly nonlinear human motion equations, muscle dynamics, and foot-ground contact. Despite a large number of studies in human gait analysis, predictive human gait simulation is still challenging researchers to increase the accuracy and computational efficiency for evaluative studies (e.g., model-based assistive device controllers, surgical intervention planning, athletic training, and prosthesis and orthosis design). To assist researchers in this area, this review article classifies recent predictive simulation methods for human gait analysis according to three categories: 1) the human models used (i.e., skeletal, musculoskeletal and neuromusculoskeletal models), 2) problem formulation, and 3) simulation solvers. Human dynamic models are classified based on whether muscle activation and/or contraction dynamics or joint torques (instead of muscle dynamics) are employed in the analysis. Different formulations use integration and/or differentiation or implicit-declaration of the dynamic equations. A variety of simulation solvers (i.e., semi- and fully-predictive simulation methods) are studied. Finally, the pros and cons of the different formulations and simulation solvers are discussed.