12 PACS Students Selected for CONAPP 2020

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Due to COVID-19 the inaugural Consortium of North American Peace Programs has been postponed to Summer 2021

We are pleased to announce that 12 PACS students have been selected to present at the first annual Consortium of North American Peace Programs (CONAPP) Conference! CONAPP is a undergraduate-lead peace and justice conference held at Gettysberg College in Pennsylvania!

Many of these students developed their papers through the PACS 401 research course.
Our 12 PACS delegetes are listed below. To learn more about the research they will present, you can click on their name to have their abstract drop down.

Agnieszka Belnarz

No Abstract Available.

Sierra Scholtens

No Abstract Available.

Sarah Cowan - Demand for Human Trafficking Victims For Sexual Expolitation Within a Legalized Prostitution Market

There is no one answer to the question of why sex trafficking occurs in a legalized European prostitution market. After conducting research, five potential intersecting reasons, have been identified which provide an answer as to why demand for illegal services are present in the market when legal services are available. These 5 reasons are as follows: bigger market which increases the overall demand for sex services; the normalization of sex work as a result of legalization; “niche” demands that cannot be legally obtained; competitive prices and willing victims; and low risk – high reward business venture for traffickers. Underlying all five explanations is the role of the buyer to determine the products put forth on the market. So long as there remains gaps in the market, traffickers will continue to supply the services of trafficked victims to meet the needs of the consumer. 

Rebecca Persoon

No Abstract Available.

Carol Kennedy

No Abstract Available.

Ulysses Maurer - Ordered Disorder: The Enduring Relevance of Anarchist Philosophy in Peace Studies and Discourse

This paper will discuss a number of viewpoints and positions held by prominent anarchist writers, philosophers and groups through the 1800s onward, with the goal of demonstrating their continued relevance in modern struggles for peace and human freedom. Through an examination of anarchism’s core principles and relevant writings, a misconception of the ideological group as inherently violent and anti-societal will be corrected. In addition to ideas which are fundamental to both anarchism and peace and justice movements, I plan to give particular consideration to the anarchist definition of states as groups with a monopoly on the use of violence, as well as the ideology’s complex attitudes surrounding human rights, its unwavering belief in the equality of all genders and races, its rejection of punitive justice and its unmatched commitment to the opposition of authoritarianism. I will shine light on anarchists’ oft-forgotten use of non-violent direct action, though the violent parts of their history will not be denied. Anarchist praxis is alive and far from sedated, and I will demonstrate this using Will Van Spronsen’s attack on the Tacoma Northwest Detention Center as a case study. Special attention will be given to anarcha-feminist, anarcho-pacifist and eco-anarchist viewpoints, with reference to figures such as Mikhail Bakunin, Emma Goldman, Leo Tolstoy, Henry David Thoreau and Murray Bookchin. In addition to writings by these figures, I will draw on Peter Marshall’s monumental book “Demanding the Impossible: a History of Anarchism.” None of this is done with the intent of persuading the audience to embrace an anarchist political vision, but to make the case that anarchist philosophy should not be disregarded, and is worthy of discussion and consideration in contemporary conversations about peace, justice, environmentalism and human rights.

Kamilah Ebrahim

No Abstract Available.

Hannah Hill

No Abstract Available.

Gabrielle McInnis - Conduct Unbecoming: Responses to Sexual Violence in the Canadian Armed Forces

Conducted in 2015 by former Supreme Court Justice Marie Deschamps, an external review concluded that there was a sexualized culture in the Canadian Armed Forces and that sexual violence was a prominent and ongoing issue within the organization. In response, Operation Honour was created the following year by Chief of Defence Staff, General Jonathan Vance. This program sought to educate CAF members on sexual violence and reinforce a zero tolerance policy within the military. This research will engage with recent data from the field to highlight key arguments and engage with new sensitivity training materials as a means of exploring the perpetuation of sexual harassment, assault, and sexualization of CAF members. Furthermore, this thesis will critique the limitations of such material, discuss its effectiveness and conclude on a hopeful note by acknowledging the ever-changing dynamics of military life.

Stefan Hogg - Gun Violence in America: Exposing Systemic Gaps in Enforcement of Firearm Laws in America

This paper will examine how shortcomings in enforcement of both state and federal legislation governing the sale of firearms plays a significant contributing role in the high rate of gun violence in the United States of America. I will do this by examining the existing literature documenting the rates at which illicit transactions are taking place at federally licensed firearms retailers. Contemporary studies have found that 57% of all crime guns in the U.S. can be traced to only 1% of the 55,000+ federally licensed firearms dealers, highlighting an enormous channel through which firearms are being trafficked to criminals. Furthermore, insufficient law enforcement response to illegal firearms transactions (within licensed stores and within the private domain) is a major enabling factor in the continual trafficking of these dangerous weapons. Through this process, this paper will document how firearms make their way from legitimate sources into the “wrong hands”, i.e. people legally prohibited from buying or owning firearms. I will end by suggesting prospective solutions that are rooted in robust statistical evidence supporting their potential for reducing firearm-related violent crime and homicide.  

Grace Wright - Algorithms of Disruption: How Automation Poses a Threat to Democracy

This paper explores the connection between workplace automation and populism. It accomplishes this through an analysis of how automation can perpetuate job loss and inequality, and how this may impact voters’ decisions to elect leaders who symbolize radical political change. The paper begins with a historical analysis of the Industrial Revolution to provide context for how major technological changes in the workplace have influenced the rise of radical political ideologies in the past. Following this, through an exploration of key stakeholders, their ethical obligations, and the nuances of automation’s impact on society, this paper attempts to parse out some of the tenuous issues in the automation debate that present challenges to both ethics and peacebuilding. The core analysis of this paper surrounds the negative implications of automation, namely job loss and growing inequality. Using the 2016 U.S. presidential elections as a case study, it examines how automation trends are correlated with the outcomes of the election, which serves as an alternative explanation for voter choices. The paper then closes with an analysis of future forecasts for automation and discusses the implications of these projections for the fields of math and peacebuilding.

Devina Lookman - The Intersection of Adult Third Culture Kid Identity and Canadian Identity: What Does it Mean for Canada?

This paper explores the ways in which the notion of identity maintenance for the Adult Third.

Culture Kid is supported by the programs offered within the Canadian context. This study will focus on how these support programs validate, support, and integrate the Adult Third Culture Kid into Canadian society in a meaningful way through a screening framework. The findings of this research categorizes the data into three roles of support: civil society, state, and private sectors. The researchable data presents different offerings of support that vary in the form of its programming, stretching across 5 provinces: British Columbia, Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. Not only do the research findings address existing needs for the Adult Third Culture Kid currently facing repatriation challenges in Canada, but it also suggests the direction of future research to better inform the accessibility and content of programming, and overall shaping of the Canadian national identity.