|Title||Simulation of Stand-to-Sit Biomechanics for Robotic Exoskeletons and Prostheses with Energy Regeneration|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Laschowski, B., R. Sharif Razavian, and J. McPhee|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Medical Robotics and Bionics|
|Keywords||Biomechanics, Exoskeletons, Prostheses, Rehabilitation Engineering, Robotics|
Previous studies of robotic exoskeletons and prostheses with regenerative actuators have focused exclusively on level-ground walking applications. Here we analyzed the lower-limb joint mechanical power during stand-to-sit movements using inverse dynamic simulations to estimate the biomechanical energy available for electrical regeneration. Nine subjects performed 20 sitting and standing movements while lower-limb kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured. Subject-specific body segment parameters were estimated using system parameter identification. Joint mechanical power was calculated from net joint torques and rotational velocities and numerically integrated over time to estimate the joint biomechanical energy. The hip absorbed the largest peak negative mechanical power (1.8 ± 0.5 W/kg), followed by the knee (0.8 ± 0.3 W/kg) and ankle (0.2 ± 0.1 W/kg). Negative mechanical work on the hip, knee, and ankle joints per stand-to-sit movement were 0.35 ± 0.06 J/kg, 0.15 ± 0.08 J/kg, and 0.02 ± 0.01 J/kg, respectively. Assuming known regenerative actuator efficiencies (i.e., maximum 63%), robotic exoskeletons and prostheses could theoretically regenerate ~26 Joules of electrical energy while sitting down, compared to ~19 Joules per walking stride. Given that these regeneration performance calculations are based on healthy young adults, future research should include seniors and/or rehabilitation patients to better estimate the biomechanical energy available for electrical regeneration.