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Cross Cultural Measures

Measures of Social Orientation


Contextual conception of the self

Original measure in: Kuhn and McPartland (1954)

       Link: English Version (PDF)



Sociogram Task

Original measure in: Kitayama, Park, Sevincer, Karasawa, & Uskul (2009)

       Link: English Version (PDF)



Singelis' Self-construal Scale

Original measure in: Singelis (1994)

       The latest version of the SCS can be obtained from Ted Singelis

Updated by: I. Grossmann and J. Na in 2008 to remove aging-sensitive items for Na, Grossmann, Varnum, Kitayama, Gonzalez, & Nisbett, 2010

       Link: English Version (PDF)

Russian translation by: I. Grossmann (2007; includes aging-sensitive items)

       Link: Russian Version (PDF)


Inclusion of others in the self

The Inclusion of Others in the Self Scale (IOS Scale)

Original measure in: Aron, Aron, & Smollan (1992)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Intensity of engaged vs. disengaged emotion

Implicit Social Orientation Questionnaire (ISOQ)

Original measure in: Kitayama, Mesquita, & Karasawa (2006)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Engaged vs. disengaged emotions as predictors of happiness

Implicit Social Orientation Questionnaire (ISOQ)

Original measure in: Kitayama, Mesquita, & Karasawa (2006)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Friend vs. stranger - loyalty vs. nepotism

Original measure in: Talhelm, Zhang, Oishi, Shimin, Duan, Lan, & Kitayama (2014)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Measures of Cognitive Style


Framed line test

Framed Line Test

Original measure in: Kitayama, Duffy, Kawamura, & Larson (2003)

Updated version in: Kitayama, Park, Sevincer, Karasawa, & Uskul (2009)

       Link: English Version, Absolute First (PDF)

              English Version, Relative First (PDF)

              German Version, Absolute First (PDF)

              German Version, Relative First (PDF)


Change blindness

Change Blindness Task

Original measure in: Masuda & Nisbett (2006)

Updated measure below in: Grossmann & Varnum, 2011

       Link: English Version 1 of 2 (ZIP)        English Version 2 of 2 (ZIP)


Object in context

Original measure in: Masuda & Nisbett, 2001

       Link: Japanese Version (ZIP)

English version updated by T. Masuda in 2008

       Link: English Version (ZIP)


Inclusion of contextual information

Original measure in: Choi, Dalal, Kim-Prieto, & Park (2003)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Third- vs. First-person autobiographical memory

Original measure in: Cohen & Gunz (2002) (holistic first- always)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Situational vs. dispositional attribution

Original measure in: Kitayama, Ishii, Imada, Takemura, & Ramaswamy (2006)

       Link: English Version (PDF)

Updated by I. Grossmann and M. E.W. Varnum for Na, Grossmann, Varnum, Kitayama, Gonzalez, & Nisbett (2010)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Non-linear vs. linear prediction of change

Original measure in: Ji, Nisbett, & Su (Study 2; 2001)

Materials adapted by: I. Grossmann for Grossmann & Varnum (2011), and Na, Grossmann, Varnum, Kitayama, Gonzalez, & Nisbett (2010)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Relational vs. taxonomic classification

Original measure in: Uskul, Kitayama, & Nisbett (2008)

Updated by I. Grossmann and J. Na for Na, Grossmann, Varnum, Kitayama, Gonzalez, & Nisbett (2010)

       Link: English Version (PDF)


Intuitive vs. Formal Categorization

Original measure in: Norenzayan, Smith, Kim, & Nisbett (2002)

Link: English Version (ZIP)


Additional Databases


Dr. Daphna Oyserman, University of Southern California

  • A list of measures used in Culture and the Self research, including reliability and relevant citations. Measures include priming tasks, as well as measures of individualism and collectivism.
  • Link to website (click here)

Dr. Vivian Vignoles, University of Sussex

  • A complete set of measures from the project 'Motivated Identity Construction in Cultural Context.' English measures are available to download, non-English measures may be acquired through e-mail request to Dr. Vignoles or Dr. Becker.
  • Link to website (click here)