Summary of data sources

The CIW draws from almost 200 reliable data sources,
primarily from Statistics Canada.

Click on a domain to view its indicators and data sources:

Indicators and Data Sources
Domain and indicator  Source of data Years covered

Community Vitality

   
Percentage of population reporting unpaid, formal volunteering for groups or organizations  Canadian Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating / GSS, Social Engagement 1997, 2000, 2003, 2008, 2013
Percentage with 5 or more close friends GSS, Social Engagement, Cycles 11, 17, 22 1996, 2003, 2008, 2013
Crime Severity Index Uniform Crime Reporting Survey (Stats Can, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics) 1993 to present
Percentage experiencing discrimination in past 5 years based on ethno-cultural characteristics Ethnic Diversity Survey; GSS Victimisation, Cycles 18 and 23 2002, 2004, 2009, 2014
Percentage of population that feels safe walking alone after dark GSS, Victimisation, Cycles 8, 11, 18, 23 1993, 1999, 2004, 2009, 2014
Percentage of population that believe that most or many people can be trusted GSS, Social Engagement, Cycles 17, 22, 27; GSS, Time Use, Cycle 19 2003, 2005, 2008, 2013
Percentage of population that provides unpaid help to others on their own Canadian Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating / GSS, Cycle 27, Social Engagement 1997, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013
Percentage of population that reports very or somewhat strong sense of belonging to community NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007 to 2013
Democratic Engagement     
Percentage of voter turnout at federal elections Elections Canada Each federal election year
Percentage of population that volunteers for a law, advocacy or political group Canadian Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating 1997, 2000, 2003, 2008, 2013
Gap in percentage turnout between older and younger voters Elections Canada Each federal election year
Percentage of population that is very or fairly satisfies with way democracy works in Canada Canada Election Study (Pre-Election Survey) 1993, 1997, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2011
Percentage of population with a great deal or quite a lot of confidence in Federal Parliament GSS, Social Support/Engagement Cycles 2003, 2008, 2013
Ratio of registered to eligible voters Elections Canada Each federal election year
Percentage of women in Federal Parliament Elections Canada Each federal election year
Percentage of Members of Parliament's office budget devoted to sending communications to constituents Members’ Expenditures Reports, Board of Internal Economy, Parliament of Canada 2001 to 2014
Education     
Percentage of children aged 0 to 5 years for whom there is a regulated centre-based child care space Childcare Canada (Childcare Resource and Research Unit) 1992, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2012, 2014
Amount of time spent in talk-based activities with children aged 0 to 14 years GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Ratio of students to educators in public schools Centre for Education, Statistics Canada 1997 to 2010
Average expenditure per public school student ($2013) Elementary-Secondary Education Survey; Survey of Uniform Financial System – School Boards 1997/1998 to 2013/2014
Percentage of population aged 25 and older participating in education-related activities GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010

Average annual Canadian undergraduate tuition fees ($2015)

Tuition and Living Accommodation Costs Survey 1994/95 to 2014/2015
Percentage of Canadians 20 to 24 years of age in labour force completing high school Labour Force Survey 1994 to 2014 (annual)
Percentage of 25 to 64 year olds in population with a university degree Labour Force Survey 1994 to 2014 (annual)
Environment    
Ground level ozone (population weighted in parts per billion) Environment Canada – Environmental Indicators 1994 to 2012
Absolute greenhouse gas emissions (megatonnes of CO2 per year) Environment Canada – Environmental Indicators 1994 to 2013
Primary energy production (petajoules) Statistics Canada – Energy Statistics 1995 to 2014
Residential energy use Statistics Canada – Energy Statistics; Census of Canada 1995 to 2014
Total farm land (hectares) Census of Agriculture 1991 to 2011
Viable Metal Reserves Index Statistics Canada – Metal Reserves Statistics 1994 to 2011
Ecological footprint Global Footprint Network 1961 to 2011
Annual water yield in Southern Canada (km3)  Canadian System of Environmental and Resource Accounts – Natural Resource Asset Accounts 1994 to 2013
Healthy Populations    
Percentage of population that rates their overall health as very good or excellent NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2014
Percentage of population with self-reported diabetes NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2014
Life expectancy at birth in years Vital Statistics Birth and Death Databases, Statistics Canada 1992 to 2010
Percentage of daily or occasional smokers among teens aged 12 to 19 years NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2014
Percentage of population that rates their mental health as very good or excellent  NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2014
Percentage of Canadians with a regular medical doctor NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 to 2014
Percentage of population getting influenza immunization in past year NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2014
Percentage of population with an absence of health or activity-based limitations Canadian Community Health Survey 2002 to 2014
Leisure and Culture     
Average percentage of time spent on the previous day in social leisure activities GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Average percentage of time spent on the previous day in arts and culture activities GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Average number of hours volunteering for culture and/or recreation organizations  Canadian Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating 1997, 2000, 2004, 2007, 2010, 2013
Average monthly frequency of participation in physical activity lasting over 15 minutes  NPHS / Canadian Community Health Survey 1994 to 1999 / 2001 to 2012
Average attendance per performance in past year at all performing arts performances Survey of Service Industries, Performing Arts 1998 to 2012
Average visitation per site to all National Parks and National Historic Sites  Parks Canada visitation data (online) 1995 to 2013

Average number of nights away on vacation trips to destinations at least 80km from home 

Travel Survey of Residents of Canada (Canadian Travel Survey pre-2006) 1994 to 2013
Expenditures on all culture and recreation as a percentage of total household expenditures  Survey of Household Spending 1997 to 2014
Living Standards     
Gini coefficient (income gap) Survey of Consumer Finances / Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics / Canadian Income Survey 1994 to 2014
After-tax median income economic family ($2013) Survey of Consumer Finances / Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics / Canadian Income Survey 1994 to 2013
Percentage of persons in low income based on low income cut-off (LICO) Survey of Consumer Finances / Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics / Canadian Income Survey 1994 to 2013
Percentage of households that are moderately or severely food insecure Canadian Community Health Survey 2004 to 2013
Percentage of labour force in long-term unemployment Labour Force Survey 1994 to 2014
Percentage of labour force employed Labour Force Survey 1994 to 2014
CIBC index of employment quality (1994 QI=100) CIBC Employment Quality Index 1994 to 2014
Housing affordability based on Shelter Consumption Affordability Ratio (SCAR) Unpublished data – Centre for for Economic Analysis 1994 to 2014
Time Use    
Percentage of Canadians 25 to 64 years of age working over 50 hours per week at main job Labour Force Survey 1994 to 2014
Percentage of 15 to 64 years old reporting high levels of time pressure GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Average daily amount of time with friends (minutes per day) GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Percentage of labour force working under 30 hours per week, not by choice Labour Force Survey 1997 to 2014
Percentage of Canadians who report 7 to 9 hours of good quality essential sleep GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Mean workday commute time for individuals working for pay GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Percentage of individuals working for pay with flexible work hours GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010
Percentage of labour force with regular, weekday work hours GSS, Time Use, Cycles 7, 12, 19, 24 1992, 1998, 2005, 2010