Operation of Distribution Systems with PEVs and Smart Loads
Claudio Canizares and Kankar Bhattacharya
A three-phase Distribution Optimal Power Flow (DOPF) model is presented, which incorporates comprehensive models of distribution system components and their respective limits, to determine optimal feeder voltage control settings and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) smart-charging schedules. Various objective functions from the perspective of the local distribution company (LDC) and customers are considered, and controlled tap, switching capacitors, and smart charging schemes are determined for various scenarios to address the shortcomings of uncontrolled charging.
Mathematical models for price-responsive and controllable loads are further presented that are used to study the smart operation of unbalanced distribution systems with such smart loads, based on the DOPF model. The price-responsive load models are represented using linear and exponential functions of the price, while a constant energy load model, controllable by the LDC, represents the critical and deferrable loads.
Finally, a load model of an energy hub management system (EHMS) residential micro-hub using neural networks (NN) is presented that is based on measured and simulated data. Various NN structures are trained, tested, validated, and compared to obtain the best fit for the given data.