Building quantum computers from superconducting elements
Building blocks of actual physical implementations of quantum computation are becoming more and more mature. As part of a new insight issue of the leading science journal Nature, John Clarke of UC Berkeley and Frank Wilhelm of IQC review the field of superconducting circuits for quantum computing.
Superconducting circuits are macroscopic in size but have generic quantum properties such as quantized energy levels, superposition of states, and entanglement, all of which are more commonly associated with atoms. Superconducting quantum bits (qubits) form the key component of these circuits. Their quantum state is manipulated by using electromagnetic pulses to control the magnetic flux, the electric charge or the phase difference across a Josephson junction (a device with nonlinear inductance and no energy dissipation). As such, superconducting qubits are not only of considerable fundamental interest but also might ultimately form the primitive building blocks of quantum computers.
For more information please see Nature