Southern Rough-leaf or Wrinkle-leaf Goldenrod
Solidago rugosa var. aspera (Ait.) Fern. is widely distributed across the southeastern U.S. becoming infrequent northward. It grows in sandy, silty, and clay soils, fields, thickets, edges of woods, roadsides, and ditches. Leaves are relatively thick and firm, strongly rugose-nerved, usually blunt-toothed to subentire, apices often acute, relatively short and stiff hairy; upper stem leaves are lanceolate to elliptic, not much reduced uward; ray florets 4–9 (Semple & Cook 2006 FNA). Both diploids and tetraploids (2n=18, 2n=36) occurs in var. aspera.