Rough-stemmed or Wrinkle-leaf Goldenrod, verge d’or rugueuse

Solidago rugosa 9744 WATSolidago rugosa Miller is highly variable in stem height, degree of leaf wrinkling, inflorescence shape and branch length, and hairiness. It is similar to members of the S. canadensis complex in lacking lower stem leaves at the time of flowering; it differs in not having 3-nerved leaves.  The species includes diploids 2n=18 (four varieties), tetraploids 2n=36 (all varieties), and hexaploids 2n=54 (only var. sphagnophila). Semple et al. (2021) reviewed previously published chromosome numbers and present new data and presented a cytogeographic map for the species.  Semple et al. (2021) cited Beck et al. (2021) who did a genomic investigation of S. ulmifolia and included samples of S. rugosa in their analysis and concluded that based on the limited sample size there was only limited phylogenetic separation of the varieties recognized in S. rugosa and that the results did not support recogonizing subspecies.  Further study is needed.

The species is divided into two subspecies and five varieties that can be difficult to distinguish (Semple & Cook 2006 FNA).

Solidago rugosa ranges of varieties - draft JCS

Semple, J.C., Jie Zhang, R.E. Cook, and B.A. Suripto. 2021. Cytogeography of the Solidago rugosa Mill. complex (Asteraceae: Astereae) in Eastern North America.  Taxonomy 2021 (1) 290-301.

Last updated 14 October 2021 by J.C. Semple     

© 2021 J.C. Semple, including all photographs unless otherwise indicated.