Smooth Stem Rough-leaf Goldenrod
Solidago rugosa var. sphagnophila C. Graves is native to sandy and boggy soils of Atlantic white cedar woods and swamps and wet ground. The variety is distinguished by having hairless stems and leaves. Intermediates with var. rugosa occur in areas of sympatry (Semple & Cook 2006 FNA). The variety has been reported to included diploids and hexaploids (2n=18, 2n=54).
The variety has been treated as Solidago aestivalis E. P. Bicknell, but the number of intermediates indicates this is not warranted.