Classification and illustrations of goldenrods

This is a major change from previous versions of this page and is based on Semple and Beck (2021) which begins with the following statement: "A phylogenomic study of the genus Solidago based on 893 nuclear genes (Semple et al. submitted) indicates that numerous changes to the infrageneric nomenclature are needed. The following revised nomenclature for the genus is structured around a phylogeny of 87 diploid Solidago species noted with an asterisk. The positions of 51 polyploid species or those not otherwise included in the phylogeny are based on morphology."

Individual treatments of species on this website will be updated to reflect the results of the DNA study.  This will take time; patience is requested.


Solidago subg. Solidago

Solidago sect. Solidago

   Solidago ser. Solidago

   Solidago ser. Macrophyllae

  Solidago sect. Villosicarpae

  Solidago sect. Erectae

   Solidago subsect. Erectae

   Solidago ser. Erectae

   Solidago ser. Albigulae

   Solidago ser. Puberulae

  Solidago subsect. Humiles

  Western North American taxa

   Eastern North American taxa

Solidago sect. Squarrosae

Solidago sect. Brintonia

Solidago sect. Thyrsiflorae 

Solidago subg. Pleiactila

Solidago sect. Ptarmicoidei

  (Oligoneuron Group)

 Solidago sect. Glomeruliflorae 

Solidago sect. Multiradiatae

Solidago sect. Maritimae

   S. sempervirens complex

   S. stricta complex

   S. uliginosa complex

   basal complex

Solidago sect. Argutae 

  Solidago subsect. Argutae 

 Solidago subsect. Patulae

Solidago subsect. Brachychaeta

Solidago sect. Venosae

  Solidago subsect. Venosae

  Solidago subsect. Ulmifoliae

    Solidago ser. Ulmifoliae

    Solidago ser. Auriculatae

  Solidago subsect. Drummondiani

Solidago sect. Unilaterales

 Solidago subsect. Triplinervae

   Solidago ser. Canadensae

   Solidago ser. Tortifoliae

  Solidago subsect. Junceae

    Solidago ser. Junceae

   Solidago ser. Spectabiles

 Solidago subsect. Radulae

Solidago subsect. Serotinae

   North American taxa

   Chilensis Complex (South American)

Solidago subg. Nemorales

(Nemoralis Group)

Solidago subg. Triactis

  Solidago sect. Odorae

Solidago sect. Suffrutescentes


Semple, John C. and James B. Beck. 2021. A revised infrageneric classification of Solidago (Asteraceae: Astereae). Phytoneuron 2021-10. 1-6.

Last updated 22 August 2023 by J.C. Semple     

© 2023 J.C. Semple, including all photographs unless otherwise indicated.

Range maps are based on specimens seen and literature reports and are "works in progress".  Data to improve the maps are welcomed.