The Department of Earth and Environmental Science offers six specializations within its two undergraduate programs. Earth Science has three specializations (geology, geophysics, and hydrogeology) and Environmental Sciences also has three specializations (geoscience, water science, and ecology). All are offered through both regular and co-op streams of study. 

First Year 

All Environmental Science programs have a common first year which allows for flexibility between the three specializations. The ecology program consists primarily of biology courses from second year onwards and is offered through the Biology department. 

For Earth Science, geology and hydrogeology specializations have a common first year. All courses are also shared with geophysics with the exception of PHYS 121/122/121L/122L replacing PHYS 111/112/111L/112L, and MATH 114 is taken in first year instead of EARTH 123.   

Program Course Requirements

A breakdown of the types of required courses you will take in your degree is as follows:

Program BIOL MATH PHYS CHEM GEOG EARTH Core EARTH Electives Sci/Math Electives



Ecology 17.5 2 1 5 1 6 1 1* 7


3.5 2 1 3 1 18 4 5 4
Water Science 11.5 2 1 4.5 4 10 1 1* 7
Geology 0 4 3 3 0 20 6 2 4
Hydrogeology 0 5 3 3 0 21.5 4 2 3
Geophysics 0 6 3 3 0 20.5 5 4 1
Geochemistry 0 2 2 10 0 14 3 0 3

 *Course must be chosen from a list of EARTH or BIOL courses

Note: One lab course is represented by 0.5, as it carries half the weight of a lecture course. Each lecture is worth 1 (ie. a value of 2 can represent two lecture courses, one lecture course and two lab courses, or four lab courses). Detailed information on the courses you will take in your degree is available in the Undergraduate Calendar

PGO (Professional Geoscientists of Ontario)

Each specialization in Earth and Environmental Science fulfils different amounts of the knowledge requirements for PGO. Detailed information for each program can be found on the PGO Checklist page. Earth Science programs are designed with the requirements built-in (through a combination of required courses and program electives). Environmental Science - Geoscience can be designed to fulfil the knowledge requirements through careful use of electives. Environmental Science - Water Science can also be designed to fulfil the requirements, although additional courses may need to be taken. 

Average Requirements 

Earth and Environmental Science majors require a cumulative overall average of 60% and a cumulative average of 60% in all EARTH courses. This 'average requirement' is the same for both regular and co-op programs. All degree requirements are listed in the Undergraduate Calendar. Students are governed by the regulations current for their plan at the time they began their studies.


Minors and electives