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Thursday, February 29, 2024

Quantum LiDAR

En francais

What do you do when your lab space is too small to test the distance requirements for a new long-range sensor and detector in development? Alex Maierean and Luke Neal, graduate students at the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) recently navigated this challenge for their latest project.

Their project is looking to advance one application of quantum sensing by incorporating techniques from quantum key distribution into light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. These sensors are commonly used without quantum components for a wide variety of applications, including 3-dimensional imaging for self-driving vehicles, but have a very limited range and require bright laser beams with many photons to take a measurement.

En francais

Federal funding will accelerate quantum startups’ products and solutions for domestic and global markets.

The Government of Canada announced on February 22 it is investing more than $17.2 million in funding through the Regional Quantum Initiative to support startup companies in Southern Ontario’s quantum technology sector, including two companies that have spun out from the University of Waterloo, High Q Technologies Inc., with an investment of $3.7 million and Foqus Technologies Inc., with an investment of $601,975.  

En francais

Researchers from IQC, MIT, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a technique for better identification and control of microscopic defects in diamond, as detailed in PRX Quantum, paving the way for the creation of larger qubit systems for enhanced quantum sensing. This breakthrough, led by Alexandre Cooper-Roy, represents a significant advancement in quantum sensing, offering potential revolutionary impacts across various industries and scientific fields.

Events

IQC Special Colloquium - Aziza Suleymanzade, Harvard University

200 University Ave W. Waterloo ON - ZOOM only

The experimental development of quantum networks marks a significant scientific milestone, poised to enable secure quantum communication, distributed quantum computing, and entanglement-enhanced nonlocal sensing. In this talk, I will discuss the recent advancements in the field along with the outstanding challenges through my work on two different platforms: Silicon Vacancy defects in diamond nanophotonic cavities and Rydberg atoms coupled to hybrid cavities. First, I will present our recent results on distributing entanglement across a two-node network with on-chip solid-state defects in cavities which we built at Harvard. We demonstrated high-fidelity entanglement between communication and memory qubits and showed long-distance entanglement over the 35 km of deployed fiber in the Cambridge/Boston area. Second, I will describe our work at the University of Chicago on using Rydberg atoms as transducers of quantum information between optical and microwave photons, with the goal of integrating Rydberg platforms with superconducting circuits and paving the way for advanced quantum network architectures. The talk will conclude with a perspective on the potential of this hybrid platform approach in constructing quantum networks, highlighting the uncharted scientific and technological opportunities it could unlock.

Tuesday, March 5, 2024 3:00 pm - 4:00 pm EST (GMT -05:00)

Hamiltonians whose low-energy states require Ω(n) T gates

CS/Math Seminar - Nolan Coble - University of Maryland, College Park

200 University Ave. Waterloo ON. QNC 1201 + ZOOM

The recent resolution of the NLTS Conjecture [ABN22] establishes a prerequisite to the Quantum PCP (QPCP) Conjecture through a novel use of newly-constructed QLDPC codes [LZ22]. Even with NLTS now solved, there remain many independent and unresolved prerequisites to the QPCP Conjecture, such as the NLSS Conjecture of [GL22]. In this talk we focus on a specific and natural prerequisite to both NLSS and the QPCP Conjecture, namely, the existence of local Hamiltonians whose low-energy states all require ω(log n) T gates to prepare. In fact, we will show a stronger result which is not necessarily implied by either conjecture: we construct local Hamiltonians whose low-energy states require Ω(n) T gates. We further show that our procedure can be applied to the NLTS Hamiltonians of [ABN22] to yield local Hamiltonians whose low-energy states require both Ω(log n)-depth and Ω(n) T gates to prepare. This result represents a significant improvement over [CCNN23] where we used a different technique to give an energy bound which only distinguishes between stabilizer states and states which require a non-zero number of T gates.

Wednesday, March 6, 2024 12:00 pm - 1:00 pm EST (GMT -05:00)

IQC Student Seminar Featuring Sarah Li

Improving the Fidelity of CNOT Circuits on NISQ Hardware

Quantum-Nano Centre, 200 University Ave West, Room QNC 1201 Waterloo, ON CA N2L 3G1

We introduce an improved CNOT synthesis algorithm that considers nearest-neighbour interactions and CNOT gate error rates in noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) hardware. Our contribution is twofold. First, we define a \Cost function by approximating the average gate fidelity Favg. According to the simulation results, \Cost fits the error probability of a noisy CNOT circuit, Prob = 1 - Favg, much tighter than the commonly used cost functions. On IBM's fake Nairobi backend, it fits Prob with an error at most 10^(-3). On other backends, it fits Prob with an error at most 10^(-1). \Cost accounts for the machine calibration data, and thus accurately quantifies the dynamic error characteristics of a NISQ-executable CNOT circuit. Moreover, it circumvents the computation complexity of calculating Favg and shows remarkable scalability. 


Second, we propose an architecture-aware CNOT synthesis algorithm, NAPermRowCol, by adapting the leading Steiner-tree-based synthesis algorithms. A weighted edge is used to encode a CNOT gate error rate and \Cost-instructed heuristics are applied to each reduction step. Compared to IBM's Qiskit compiler, it reduces \Cost by a factor of 2 on average (and up to a factor of 8.8). It lowers the synthesized CNOT count by a factor of 13 on average (up to a factor of 162). Compared with algorithms that are noise-agnostic, it is effective and scalable to improve the fidelity of CNOT circuits. Depending on the benchmark circuit and the IBM backend selected, it lowers the synthesized CNOT count up to 56.95% compared to ROWCOL and up to 21.62% compared to PermRowCol. It reduces the synthesis \Cost up to 25.71% compared to ROWCOL and up to 9.12% compared to PermRowCol. NAPermRowCol improves the fidelity and execution time of a synthesized CNOT circuit across varied NISQ hardware. It does not use ancillary qubits and is not restricted to certain initial qubit maps. It could be generalized to route a more complicated quantum circuit, and eventually boost the overall efficiency and accuracy of quantum computing on NISQ devices. 

Joint-work with: Dohun Kim, Minyoung Kim, and Michele Mosca