Distinguished Professor Emeritus

Member of the Centre for Applied Health Research

Recipient of the University of Waterloo Award for Research Excellence, 2001

Howard GreenEducation

BA., BPHE (Queens)

MA (Alberta)

PhD (Wisconsin)


Email: green@uwaterloo.ca

Fax: 519-885-0470

Research interests

Much of the focus of my recent work has been in the following areas:

  •  Control of metabolism and substrate utilization in skeletal muscle during exercise
  • Ischemia-reperfusion and sarcolplasmic reticulum function
  • Exercise and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-sequestration
  • Adaptations in chronically stimulated muscle
  • Skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure 

My research program is concerned with examining the acute and chronic changes that occur in skeletal muscle in response to perturbations in energy homeostasis. Particular attention is given both to the metabolic pathways involved in the generation of energy and to the excitation and contraction processes that utilize energy. Presently, we are employing a number of models designed to either increase ATP utilization (electrical stimulation, voluntary activity) or to reduce ATP availability (hypoxia, ischemia, hypervolemia). We also are involved in studying skeletal muscle in selected disease states such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where aerobic metabolisms is compromised as a result of reduced oxygen availability. Although the major focus of our efforts is directed at describing the remodeling that occurs in the cell at all levels of organization (histochemical, enzymatic, ultrastructural, molecular) and the factors governing altered protein expression, we are also interested in the consequences of the adaptations, as determined during exercise, on mechanical function and fatiguability, substrate and ionic flux. Ultimately, we hope to be able to determine the strategies employed, both in health and disease, to defend against challenges to muscle energy balance.

Our work has allowed us to challenge a number of long-held beliefs concerning metabolic regulation and adaptation in working muscle. As an example, we have demonstrated that adaptations designed to protect energy homeostasis occur soon after the onset of regular exercise, by mechanisms that are independent of increases in mitochondrial potential. Moreover, our work on sodium and potassium transmembrane regulation and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling indicates that changes in these processes are also intimately involved and closely integrated with the adaptations that occur in metabolic regulation.

In 1988, Dr. Green was the winner of the CASS Outstanding Research (Basic Science) Award. Recently (2001), he was honoured with an Award for Excellence for Research from the University of Waterloo. In 2003, he received the Citation Award for research from the American College of Sports Medicine.

Appointments as visiting scientist/researcher

  • January to July 1975 Visiting Scientist , Washington State U. Physical Education & Physiology
  • September 1981 to July 1982 Visiting Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • September 1988 to August 1989 Visiting Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • May to July 1993 Research Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • September to December 1995 Visiting Scientist, University of Sydney, Australia Biological Sciences
  • February to April 1996 Visiting Scientist, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit

Selected publications

Green, H.J. Membrane excitability, weakness and fatigue. Can J Appl Physiol. 29:291-307, 2004.

Green, H.J., D.J. Barr, J.R. Fowles, S.D. Sandiford, and J. Ouyang. Malleability of human skeletal muscle in Na+-K+-ATPase pump with short-term training. J Appl Physiol. 97:143-148, 2004.

Schertzer, J.D., Green, H.J., Fowles, J.R., Duhamel, T.A., and Tupling, A.R. Effects of prolonged exercise and recovery on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-cycling properties in rat muscle homogenates. Acta Physiol Scand. 179:1-14, 2003.

Fowles, J.R., H.J. Green and J. Ouyang. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: Content, isoform and activity characteristics. J. Appl. Physiol. 96: 316-326, 2004.

Duhamel, T.A., Green, H.J., Perco, J.D., Sandiford, S.D., and Ouyang, J. Depression in human sarcoplasmic reticulum function during submaximal exercise is not modified by hypoxia. J Appl Physiol. 97:180- 187, 2004.

Green, H.J. T.A. Duhamel, S. Ferth, G.P. Holloway, M.M. Thomas, A.R.Tupling, S.M. Rich and J.E.Yau. Reversal of muscle-fatigue during 16 h of heavy intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol. 97:2166-2175, 2004.

Tupling, R., H. Green and S. Grant. Partial ischemia reduces the efficiency of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transport in rat EDL. Cellular and Molecular Biochem. In press, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. Effects of 4-h ischemia and 1-h reperfusion on rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum function. Amer. J. Physiol. (Endocrinal Metab) 281: In press, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. Ischemia induced structural changes in SR Ca2+-ATPase is associated with reduced enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. (Reg Int.Comp). In Press, 2001.

Roy, B.D., J.H. Green, S.M. Grant, and M.A. Tarnopolsky. Substrate turnover and oxidation during moderate intensity exercise following acute plasma volume expansion. Hormone and Metabolic Research. Accepted 2001.

Green, H., C. Mackett, D. O'Toole, S. Grant and D. Ranney. Increase in muscle MCT4 is associated with reductions in muscle lactate after a single exercise session. Amer. J. Physiol. (Endocrinal Metabolic). Accepted, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. The effects of ischemia on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-uptake and Ca2+-release in rat skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physio. (Endocrinol Metab.) 281: E224-E232, 2001.

Roy, B.C., H.J. Green and M. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic induced hypohydration. Effects on fluid and Electrolytes Hormones. Hormone and Metabolic Research. In Press, 2001.

Roy, B., H. Green, S. Grant and M. Tarnopolsky. Acute plasma volume expansion in the untrained alters hormonal response to prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 33: 238-245, 2001.

MacDonald, M.J., H.J. Green, H.L. Naylor, C. Otto and R. Hughson. Reduced oxygen uptake during steady state exercise after a 21 day mountain climbing expedition to 6,194m. Can. J. Appl. Physiol.26: 143-156, 2001.

Duscha, B.O., B.H. Annex, S.J. Keteyian, H.J. Green, M.J., Sullivan, G.P. Samsa, C.A. Brawner, F.H. Schachat and W.E. Kraus. Differences in skeletal muscle between men and women with chronic heart failure. J. Appl. Physiol. 90: 280-286, 2001.

Green, H.J., B.D. Duscha, W.B., Kraus, S.T. Ketegian and M.T. Sullivan. Norman skeletal muscle Na+-K+- pump concentration in patients with chronic heart failure. Muscle and Nerve 24: 69-76, 2001.

Green, H., B. Roy, S. Grant, R. Tupling, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D.McKenzie and J. Ouyang. Effects of a 21 day expedition to 6,194m human skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 1(4): 301-310, 2000.

Green, H., B. Roy, S. Grant, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D. McKenzie and M. Johnson. Human skeletal muscle metabolism following an expedition to Mount Denali. Amer. J. Physiol.: Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 279: R1872-R1879, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green and M. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic-induced hypohydration: Effects on substrate turnover and oxidation. Amer. J. Physiol. 279: E1383-E1390, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green and M.C. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic-induced hypohydration: Effects on cardiovascular and thermal strain. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 78:1-7, 2000.

Scheuermann, B.W., J.M. Kowalchuk, D.H. Paterson, A.W. Taylor and H.J. Green Muscle metabolism during heavy-intensity exercise after acute acetazolamide administration. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 722-729, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green, S.M. Grant and M.A. Tarnopolsky. Acute plasma volume expansion alters cardiovascular but not thermal function during moderate intensity prolonged exercise. Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 78: 244-250, 2000.

Green, H.J., B.D. Duscha, W.E. Kraus, S.J. Ketegian and M.T. Sullivan Association of chronic heart failure in humans with an intrinsic up regulation in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2±ATPase activity. Amer. J. Cardiol. 85: 1498-1500, 2000.

Green, H.J., B. Roy, S. Grant, R. Hughson, M. Burnett, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D. McKenzie and M. Johnson. Increases in submaximal cycling efficiency mediated by altitude acclimatization. J. Appl. Physiol. 89: 1189-1197, 2000.

Green, H.J., B. Roy, S. Grant, M. Burnett, R. Tupling, C. Otto, A. Pipe and D. McKenzie. Down regulation in muscle Na+-K+-ATPase following a 21 day expedition to 6194 M. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 634-640, 2000.

Tupling, R., H. Green, S. Grant, M. Burnett and D. Ranney. Post contractile force depression in humans associated with an impairment in SR Ca2+ pump function. Amer. J. Physiol.278: R87-R94, 2000.

Green, H., R. Tupling, B. Roy, D. O'Toole, M. Burnett and S. Grant. Adaptations in skeletal muscle exercise metabolism to a sustained session of heavy intermittent exercise. Amer. J. Physiol. 278: E118-E126, 2000.

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