Howard Green

Distinguished Professor Emeritus

Recipient of the University of Waterloo Award for Research Excellence, 2001

Howard Green

Contact

Email: green@uwaterloo.ca

Research interests

Much of the focus of my recent work has been in the following areas:

  • Control of metabolism and substrate utilization in skeletal muscle during exercise
  • Ischemia-reperfusion and sarcolplasmic reticulum function
  • Exercise and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-sequestration
  • Adaptations in chronically stimulated muscle
  • Skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure

My research program is concerned with examining the acute and chronic changes that occur in skeletal muscle in response to perturbations in energy homeostasis. Particular attention is given both to the metabolic pathways involved in the generation of energy and to the excitation and contraction processes that utilize energy. Presently, we are employing a number of models designed to either increase ATP utilization (electrical stimulation, voluntary activity) or to reduce ATP availability (hypoxia, ischemia, hypervolemia). We also are involved in studying skeletal muscle in selected disease states such as chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), where aerobic metabolisms is compromised as a result of reduced oxygen availability. Although the major focus of our efforts is directed at describing the remodeling that occurs in the cell at all levels of organization (histochemical, enzymatic, ultrastructural, molecular) and the factors governing altered protein expression, we are also interested in the consequences of the adaptations, as determined during exercise, on mechanical function and fatiguability, substrate and ionic flux. Ultimately, we hope to be able to determine the strategies employed, both in health and disease, to defend against challenges to muscle energy balance.

Our work has allowed us to challenge a number of long-held beliefs concerning metabolic regulation and adaptation in working muscle. As an example, we have demonstrated that adaptations designed to protect energy homeostasis occur soon after the onset of regular exercise, by mechanisms that are independent of increases in mitochondrial potential. Moreover, our work on sodium and potassium transmembrane regulation and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium handling indicates that changes in these processes are also intimately involved and closely integrated with the adaptations that occur in metabolic regulation.

In 1988, Dr. Green was the winner of the CASS Outstanding Research (Basic Science) Award. Recently (2001), he was honoured with an Award for Excellence for Research from the University of Waterloo. In 2003, he received the Citation Award for research from the American College of Sports Medicine.

Education

BA., BPHE (Queens)

MA (Alberta)

PhD (Wisconsin)

Appointments as visiting scientist/researcher

  • January to July 1975 Visiting Scientist , Washington State U. Physical Education & Physiology
  • September 1981 to July 1982 Visiting Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • September 1988 to August 1989 Visiting Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • May to July 1993 Research Scientist, University of Konstanz, West Germany Biology
  • September to December 1995 Visiting Scientist, University of Sydney, Australia Biological Sciences
  • February to April 1996 Visiting Scientist, Sport Science Institute of South Africa, Bioenergetics of Exercise Research Unit

Selected publications

Publications: 2000-2004

Green, H.J. Membrane excitability, weakness and fatigue. Can J Appl Physiol. 29:291-307, 2004.

Green, H.J., D.J. Barr, J.R. Fowles, S.D. Sandiford, and J. Ouyang. Malleability of human skeletal muscle in Na+-K+-ATPase pump with short-term training. J Appl Physiol. 97:143-148, 2004.

Schertzer, J.D., Green, H.J., Fowles, J.R., Duhamel, T.A., and Tupling, A.R. Effects of prolonged exercise and recovery on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-cycling properties in rat muscle homogenates. Acta Physiol Scand. 179:1-14, 2003.

Fowles, J.R., H.J. Green and J. Ouyang. Na+-K+-ATPase in rat skeletal muscle: Content, isoform and activity characteristics. J. Appl. Physiol. 96: 316-326, 2004.

Duhamel, T.A., Green, H.J., Perco, J.D., Sandiford, S.D., and Ouyang, J. Depression in human sarcoplasmic reticulum function during submaximal exercise is not modified by hypoxia. J Appl Physiol. 97:180- 187, 2004.

Green, H.J. T.A. Duhamel, S. Ferth, G.P. Holloway, M.M. Thomas, A.R.Tupling, S.M. Rich and J.E.Yau. Reversal of muscle-fatigue during 16 h of heavy intermittent exercise. J Appl Physiol. 97:2166-2175, 2004.

Tupling, R., H. Green and S. Grant. Partial ischemia reduces the efficiency of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ transport in rat EDL. Cellular and Molecular Biochem. In press, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. Effects of 4-h ischemia and 1-h reperfusion on rat skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum function. Amer. J. Physiol. (Endocrinal Metab) 281: In press, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. Ischemia induced structural changes in SR Ca2+-ATPase is associated with reduced enzyme activity in rat skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physiol. (Reg Int.Comp). In Press, 2001.

Roy, B.D., J.H. Green, S.M. Grant, and M.A. Tarnopolsky. Substrate turnover and oxidation during moderate intensity exercise following acute plasma volume expansion. Hormone and Metabolic Research. Accepted 2001.

Green, H., C. Mackett, D. O'Toole, S. Grant and D. Ranney. Increase in muscle MCT4 is associated with reductions in muscle lactate after a single exercise session. Amer. J. Physiol. (Endocrinal Metabolic). Accepted, 2001.

Tupling, R., H. Green, G. Senisterra, J. Lepock and N. McKee. The effects of ischemia on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-uptake and Ca2+-release in rat skeletal muscle. Amer. J. Physio. (Endocrinol Metab.) 281: E224-E232, 2001.

Roy, B.C., H.J. Green and M. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic induced hypohydration. Effects on fluid and Electrolytes Hormones. Hormone and Metabolic Research. In Press, 2001.

Roy, B., H. Green, S. Grant and M. Tarnopolsky. Acute plasma volume expansion in the untrained alters hormonal response to prolonged moderate intensity exercise. Hormone and Metabolic Research. 33: 238-245, 2001.

MacDonald, M.J., H.J. Green, H.L. Naylor, C. Otto and R. Hughson. Reduced oxygen uptake during steady state exercise after a 21 day mountain climbing expedition to 6,194m. Can. J. Appl. Physiol.26: 143-156, 2001.

Duscha, B.O., B.H. Annex, S.J. Keteyian, H.J. Green, M.J., Sullivan, G.P. Samsa, C.A. Brawner, F.H. Schachat and W.E. Kraus. Differences in skeletal muscle between men and women with chronic heart failure. J. Appl. Physiol. 90: 280-286, 2001.

Green, H.J., B.D. Duscha, W.B., Kraus, S.T. Ketegian and M.T. Sullivan. Norman skeletal muscle Na+-K+- pump concentration in patients with chronic heart failure. Muscle and Nerve 24: 69-76, 2001.

Green, H., B. Roy, S. Grant, R. Tupling, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D.McKenzie and J. Ouyang. Effects of a 21 day expedition to 6,194m human skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase. High Altitude Medicine and Biology 1(4): 301-310, 2000.

Green, H., B. Roy, S. Grant, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D. McKenzie and M. Johnson. Human skeletal muscle metabolism following an expedition to Mount Denali. Amer. J. Physiol.: Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 279: R1872-R1879, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green and M. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic-induced hypohydration: Effects on substrate turnover and oxidation. Amer. J. Physiol. 279: E1383-E1390, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green and M.C. Burnett. Prolonged exercise following diuretic-induced hypohydration: Effects on cardiovascular and thermal strain. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 78:1-7, 2000.

Scheuermann, B.W., J.M. Kowalchuk, D.H. Paterson, A.W. Taylor and H.J. Green Muscle metabolism during heavy-intensity exercise after acute acetazolamide administration. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 722-729, 2000.

Roy, B.D., H.J. Green, S.M. Grant and M.A. Tarnopolsky. Acute plasma volume expansion alters cardiovascular but not thermal function during moderate intensity prolonged exercise. Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 78: 244-250, 2000.

Green, H.J., B.D. Duscha, W.E. Kraus, S.J. Ketegian and M.T. Sullivan Association of chronic heart failure in humans with an intrinsic up regulation in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2±ATPase activity. Amer. J. Cardiol. 85: 1498-1500, 2000.

Green, H.J., B. Roy, S. Grant, R. Hughson, M. Burnett, C. Otto, A. Pipe, D. McKenzie and M. Johnson. Increases in submaximal cycling efficiency mediated by altitude acclimatization. J. Appl. Physiol. 89: 1189-1197, 2000.

Green, H.J., B. Roy, S. Grant, M. Burnett, R. Tupling, C. Otto, A. Pipe and D. McKenzie. Down regulation in muscle Na+-K+-ATPase following a 21 day expedition to 6194 M. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 634-640, 2000.

Tupling, R., H. Green, S. Grant, M. Burnett and D. Ranney. Post contractile force depression in humans associated with an impairment in SR Ca2+ pump function. Amer. J. Physiol.278: R87-R94, 2000.

Green, H., R. Tupling, B. Roy, D. O'Toole, M. Burnett and S. Grant. Adaptations in skeletal muscle exercise metabolism to a sustained session of heavy intermittent exercise. Amer. J. Physiol. 278: E118-E126, 2000.

Publications: 1990-1999

Duscha, B.D., W.E. Kraus, S.J. Keteyian, M.J. Sullivan, H.J. Green, F.H. Schachat, A.M. Pippen, C.A. Brawner, J.M. Blank and B.H. Annex. Capillary density of skeletal muscle. A contributing mechanism for exercise intolerance in Class II-III chronic heart failure independent of other peripheral alterations. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 33: 1956-1963, 1999.

Enns, D., H. Green, R. Tupling, M. Burnett, S. Grant and D. Ranney. Alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-sequestration function in female vastus lateralis with eccentric exercise. Mol. and Cell. Biochem. In press, 1999.

Goreham, C., H.J. Green, M. Ball-Burnett and D. Ranney. High resistance training and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise. Amer.J.Physiol. 276: E489-E496, 1999.

Green, H.J. Serial effect of high resistance and prolonged endurance training on Na+-K+ pump concentration and enzyme activities in human vastus lateralis. Acta Physiol. Scand.165: 177-184, 1999.

Green, H., A. Dahly, K. Shoemaker, C. Goreham, E. Bombardier and M. Ball-Burnett. Serial effects of high resistance training on Na+-K+ pump concentration and enzymatic activities in human vastus lateralis. Acta. Physiol. Scand. In press, 1999.

Green, H.J., C. Goreham, H. Ouyang, M. Ball-Burnett and D. Ranney. Regulation of fiber size, oxidative potential and capillarization in human vastus lateralis by resistance training. Amer. J. Physiol. 276: R591-R596, 1999.

Green, H.J., F. Grange, E. Chin, C. Goreham and D. Ranney. Exercise induced decreases in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity are attenuated by high resistance training. Acta. Physiol. Scand. 164: 141-146, 1999.

Green, H., S. Grant, E. Bombardier and D. Ranney. Initial aerobic power does not alter muscle metabolic adaptations to short-term training. Amer. J. Physiol. 277: E39-E48, 1999.

Green, H.J., J. MacDougall, M. Tarnopolsky and N.L Melissa. Down-regulation of Na+-K+-ATPase pumps in skeletal muscle with training in normobaric hypoxia. J. Appl. Physiol. 86: 1745-1748, 1999.

Green, H.J., B. Roy, S. Grant, M. Burnett, R. Tupling, C. Otto, A. Pipe and D. McKenzie. Down-regulation in muscle Na+-K+-ATPase following a 21 day expedition to 6194 M. J. Appl. Physiol. In press, 1999.

Green, H.J., R. Tupling, S. Carter, S. Grant and G. Coates. Vascular volume and hematology in specifically trained athletes. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 244-250, 1999.

Green, H.J., R. Tupling, B. Roy, D. O'Toole, M. Burnett and S. Grant. Adaptations in skeletal muscle exercise metabolism to a sustained session of heavy intermittent exercise. Amer. J. Physiol. In press, 1999.

MacDonald, M.J., M.A. Tarnopolsky, H.J. Green and R.L. Hughson. Comparison of femoral blood gases and muscle near infrared spectroscopy at the onset of exercise in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 86: 687-693, 1999.

Tupling, R., H. Green, S. Grant, M. Burnett and D. Ranney. Post contractile force depression in humans associated with an impairment in SR Ca2+ pump function. Amer. J. Physiol.In press, 1999.

Green, H.J., S. Grant, S. Phillips, D. Enns and J. Sutton. Reduced muscle lactate during prolonged exercise following induced plasma volume expansion. Can J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 75: 1280-1286, 1998.

MacDougall, J.D., A.L. Hicks, J.R. MacDonald, R.S. McKelvie, H.J. Green and K.M. Smith. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training. J.Appl.Physiol. 84: 2138-2142,1998.

Shoemaker, J.K., H.J. Green, M. Ball-Burnett and S. Grant. Relationship between fluid and electrolyte hormones and plasma volume during exercise with training and detraining. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 30 (4): 497-505, 1998.

Carvalho, A.J., N.H. McKee and H.J. Green. Metabolic and contractile responses of fast and slow twitch rat skeletal muscles of different fiber types with ischemia and reperfusion. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 99: 163-171, 1997.

Grant, S., H. Green, S. Phillips, D. Enns and J. Sutton. Effects of graded expansion of plasma volume on cardiovascular function during prolonged exercise. Europ. J. Appl.Physiol. 76: 356-362, 1997.

Green, H.J., and D. Pette. Early metabolic adaptations in low frequency stimulated fast-twitch muscle of the rabbit. Europ.J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 418-424, 1997.

Melissa, L., J.D. MacDougall, M.A. Tarnapolsky, N. Capriano and H.J. Green. Skeletal muscle adaptations to training under normobaric hypoxic versus normoxic conditions. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29: 238-243, 1997.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, S.M. Grant, M.J. MacDonald, J.R. Sutton, R.E. Hill and M.A. Tarnapolsky. The effect of acute plasma volume expansion on substrate turnover during prolonged low-intensity exercise. Am. J. Physiol. 273: E297-E304, 1997.

Green, H.J., and D. Pette. Early metabolic adaptations in low frequency stimulated fast-twitch muscle of the rabbit. Europ.J. Appl. Physiol. (October), 1996.

Green, H.J., N.H. McKee, A.J. Carvalho, S. Phillips. Reductions in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity in rat skeletal muscles of different fibre composition with ischemia and reperfusion. Can. J. Physiol.Pharmacol. 75: 78-82, 1996.

Carvalho, A.J., H.J. Green and N.H. McKee. Metabolic and contractile response of fast and slow twitch skeletal muscles to ischemia. Can.J.Physiol.Pharmacol. 75: 78-82, 1996.

Green, H.J., J.C. Dossett-Mercer, A.J. Carvalho and N.H. McKee. Ischemia induced increases in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase activity in rat skeletal muscle relation to fiber type composition. Am. J. Physiol. 271: 1942-1948, 1996.

Chin, E.R. and H.J. Green. Effects of tissue fractionation on exercise-induced alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum function in rat gastrocnemius muscle. J.Appl. Physiol. 80: 940-948, 1996.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, M.A. Tarnopolsky, G.J.F. Heigenhauser, R.E. Hill and S.M. Grant. Time dependent adaptations in substrate turnover and oxidation with exercise and training. J. Appl. Physiol. 81: 2182-2191, 1996.

Grant, S., H. Green, S. Phillips, D. Enns and J. Sutton. Fluid and electrolyte hormonal responses to exercise and acute plasma volume expansion. Am. J. Physiol. 81: 2386-2392, 1996.

Helyar, R., H. Green, D. Zappe and J. Sutton. Blood metabolite and catecholamine responses to prolonged exercise following either acute plasma volume expansion on short-term training. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. In press, 1996.

Helyar, R., H. Green, D. Zappe and J. Sutton. Comparative effects of acute volume expansion and short-term training on thermal and cardiovascular responses to prolonged exercise. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 74: 1087-1094, 1996.

Shoemaker, J.K., S.M. Phillips, H.J. Green and R.L. Hughson. Faster femoral artery blood velocity kinetics at the onset of exercise following short-term training. Circulation Research 31: 278-286, 1996.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, M.A. Tarnopolsky, G.J.F. Heigenhauser and S.M. Grant. Progressive effect of endurance training on metabolic adaptations in working skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 33: E265-E272, 1996.

Shoemaker, J.K., H.J. Green, J. Coates, M. Ali and S. Grant. Failure of prolonged exercise training to increase red cell mass in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 270: H121-H126, 1996.

Chin, E.R., and H.J. Green. Effects of tissue fractionation on exercise-induced alterations in sarcoplasmic reticulum function in rat gastrocnemius muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 80: 940-948, 1996.

Phillips, S.M., X-X. Han, H.J. Green and A. Bonen. Increments in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 and GLUT-1 following endurance training in humans. Am. J. Physiol. 270: E456-E462, 1996.

Zappe, D.H., R.G. Heylar and H.J. Green. The interaction between short term training, and a diuretic-induced hypovolemic stimulus. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 335-340, 1996.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, M.J. MacDonald and R.L. Hughson. Progressive effect of endurance training on O2 kinetics at the onset of submaximal exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.79: 1914-1920, 1995.

Hughson, R.L., H.J. Green and M.T. Sharratt. Gas exchange, blood lactate and plasma catecholamines during incremental exercise in hypoxia and normoxia. J. Appl. Physiol.79: 1134-1141, 1995.

Chin, E.R., H.J. Green, F. Grange, J. Dossett-Mercer and P.J. O'Brien. Effects of prolonged low frequency stimulation on skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 73: 1154-1164, 1995.

Dossett-Mercer, J., H.J. Green, E.R. Chin and F. Grange. Failure of short term stimulation to reduce sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase function in homogenates of rat gastrocnemius. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 146: 23-33, 1995.

Green, H.J., J. Cadefau, M. Cussó, M. Ball-Burnett and G. Jamieson. Metabolic adaptations to short term training are expressed early in submaximal exercise. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 73: 474-482, 1995.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, M.A. Tarnopolsky and S.M. Grant. Decreased glucose turnover following short-term training is unaccompanied by changes in muscle oxidative potential. Am. J. Physiol. 269: E222-E230, 1995.

Phillips, S.M., H.J. Green, M.A. Tarnopolsky and S.M. Grant. Increased clearance of lactate following short term training in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1862-1869, 1995.

Green, H.J., M. Ball-Burnett, S. Symon, S. Grant and G. Jamieson. Short term training, muscle glycogen and cycle endurance. Can. J. Appl. Physiol. 20: 315-324, 1995

Green, H., S. Jones, M. Ball-Burnett, B. Farrance and D. Ranney. Adaptations in muscle metabolism to prolonged voluntary exercise and training. J. Appl. Physiol. 78: 138-145, 1995.

Chin, E.R., H.J. Green, F. Grange, J.D. Mercer and P.J. O'Brien. Technical considerations for assessing alterations in skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca++ sequestration function in vitro. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 129: 141-152, 1994.

Dossett-Mercer, J., H.J. Green, E. Chin and F. Grange. Preservation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase function in homogenates of different fibre type composition following sprint activity. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 76: 2586-2593, 1994.

Cadefau, J., H.J. Green, R. Cussó, M. Ball-Burnett and G. Jamieson. Coupling of muscle phosphorylation potential to glycolysis during submaximal exercise of varying intensity following short term training. J. Appl. Physiol. 76: 2586-2593, 1994.

Chin, E.R., and H.J. Green. Na+-K+ ATPase concentration in different adult rat skeletal muscles is related to oxidative potential. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 71(8): 615-618, 1993.

Green, H.J., E.R. Chin, M. Ball-Burnett and D. Ranney. Training induced changes in sarcolemmal Na+-K+ ATPase pump concentration in human skeletal muscle. Am. J. Physiol. 264: C1538-C1541, 1993.

Green, H.J., M. Ball-Burnett, E.R. Chin and D. Pette. Time dependent increases in Na+-K+ ATPase content of low frequency-stimulated rabbit muscle. FEBS Letters 310: 129-131, 1992.

Green, H.J., J.R. Sutton, E.E. Wolfel, J.T. Reeves, G.E. Butterfield and G.A. Brooks. Altitude acclimatization and energy metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle during submaximal cycle exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 73: 2701-2708, 1992.

Ebbeson, B.L., K.M. Prkachin, D.E. Mills and H.J. Green. Effects of acute exercise on cardiovascular reactivity. J. Behav. Medicine 15: 1-19, 1992.

Green, H.J., S. Düsterhöft, L. Dux and D. Pette. Metabolite patterns of exhaustion, recovery and transformation in chronically stimulated rabbit fast-twitch muscle. Pflügers Arch. 420 3-4: 359-409, 1992.

Green, H.J., R. Helyar, M. Ball-Burnett, N. Kowalchuk, S. Symon and B. Farrance. Metabolic adaptations to training precede changes in muscle mitochondrial capacity. J. Appl. Physiol. 72: 484-491, 1992.

MacDougall, J.D., H.J. Green, J.R. Sutton, G. Coates, A. Cymerman, P. Young and C.S. Houston. Operation Everest II: structural adaptations in skeletal muscle in response to extreme simulated altitude. Acta Physiol. Scand. 142: 421-427, 1991.

Green, H.J. How important is endogenous muscle glycogen to fatigue during prolonged exercise? Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 69: 290-297, 1991.

Sullivan, M.J., H.J. Green and F.R. Cobb. Abnormal skeletal muscle metabolic response to exercise in chronic heart failure: Contribution of hemodynamic and intrinsic skeletal muscle factors. Circulation 84: 1597-1607, 1991.

Green, H.J., J. Cadefau and D. Pette. Altered glucose 1,6-biphosphate and fructose 2,6-biphosphate levels in low-frequency stimulated rabbit fast twitch muscle. FEBS Letters 282: 107-109, 1991.

Green, H.J. , G. Coates, J.R. Sutton and S. Jones. Early adaptations in gas exchange, cardiac function and hematology to prolonged training in man. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol.63: 17-23, 1991.

Green, H.J., S. Jones, M.E. Ball-Burnett, D. Smith, J. Livesey and B.W. Farrance. Early muscular and metabolic adaptations to prolonged training in humans. J. Appl. Physiol.70: 2032-2038, 1991.

Green, H.J.,S. Jones, M.E. Ball-Burnett, D. Smith , J. Livesey and B.W. Farrance. Early adaptations in blood substrates, metabolites and hormones to prolonged training in man. Can. J. Physiol. & Pharmacol. 69: 1222-1229, 1991.

Ball-Burnett, M., H.J. Green and M.E. Houston. Energy metabolism in human slow and fast twitch fibres during prolonged cycle exercise. J. Physiol. (London) 437: 257-267, 1991.

Green, H.J., J.R. Sutton, G. Coates, M. Ali and S. Jones. Response of red cell volume and plasma volume to prolonged training in man. J. Appl. Physiol. 70: 1810-1815, 1991.

Green, H.J., D. Smith, P. Murphy and I. Fraser. Training induced alterations in muscle glycogen utilization in fibre specific types during prolonged exercise. Can. J. Physiol. and Pharmacol. 68: 1372-1376, 1990.

Dux, L., H.J. Green and D. Pette. Chronic low-frequency stimulation of rabbit fast-twitch muscle induces partial inactivation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and changes in its tryptic cleavage. Europ. J. Biochem. 192: 95-100, 1990.

Sullivan, M.J., H.J. Green and F.R. Cobb. Skeletal muscle biochemistry and histology in ambulatory patients with long term heart failure. Circulation 81: 518-527, 1990.

Green, H.J., L. Jones and D. Painter. Effect of short term training on cardiac function during prolonged exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 22: 488-493, 1990.

Publications: 1985-1989

Massarelli, P., H. Green, R. Hughson and M. Sharratt. Mechanical and metabolic alterations in rat diaphragm during electrical stimulation. J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 210-220, 1989.

Green, H., and S. Jones. Does post-tetanic potentiation compensate for low frequency fatigue? Clin. Physiol. 9: 499-514, 1989.

Green, H.J., L.L. Jones, M.E. Houston, M.E. Ball-Burnett and B.W. Farrance. Muscle energetics during prolonged cycling following exercise hypervolemia. J. Appl. Physiol.66(2): 622-631, 1989.

Orok., C.J., R.L. Hughson, H.J. Green and J.A. Thomson. Blood lactate responses to incremental exercise as predictors of constant load performance. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 59: 262-267, 1989.

Green, H.J., J.R. Sutton, A. Cymerman, P.M. Young and C.S. Houston. Operation Everest II: adaptations in human skeletal muscle. J. Appl. Physiol. 66(5): 2454-2461, 1989.

Green, H.J., M.J. Plyley, D.M. Smith and J.G. Kile. Extreme endurance training and fiber type adaptation in rat diaphragm. J. Appl. Physiol. 66(4): 1914-1920, 1989.

Young, A.M., M.S. Rose, J.R. Sutton, H.J. Green, A. Cymerman and C.S. Houston. Operation Everest II: plasma lipid and hormonal responses during a simulated ascent of Mount Everest. J. Appl. Physiol. 66: 1430-1435, 1989.

Campbell, M.E., R.L. Hughson and H.J. Green. Continuous increase in blood lactate concentration during different ramp exercise protocols. J. Appl. Physiol. 66(3): 1104-1107, 1989.

Green, H.J., L.L. Jones, M.E. Houston, M.E. Ball-Burnett and B.W. Farrance. Muscle energetics during prolonged cycling following exercise hypervolemia. J. Appl. Physiol.66(2): 622-631, 1989.

Green, H.J., J. Sutton, P. Young, A. Cymerman and C.S. Houston. Operation Everest II: muscle energetics during maximal exhaustive exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 66(1): 142-150, 1989.

Smith, D., H. Green, J. Thomson and M. Sharratt. Capillary and size interrelationships in developing rat diaphragm, EDL, and soleus muscle fiber types. Am. J. Physiol. 256 (Cell Physiol. 25): C50-C58, 1989.

Green, H.J., M.E. Ball-Burnett and M.A. Morrissey. Glycogen utilization in rat respiratory muscles during intense running. Can. J. Physiol. and Pharmacol. 66: 917-923, 1988.

Smith, D., H. Green, J. Thomson and M. Sharratt. Oxidative potential in developing rat diaphragm, EDL, and soleus muscle fibers. Am. J. Physiol. 254 (Cell Physiol. 23): C661-C668, 1988.

Alway, S.E., R.L. Hughson, H.J. Green and A.E. Patla. Human tibialis anterior contractile responses following fatiguing exercise with and without beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Clinical Physiol. 8: 215-225, 1988.

Green, H.J., and H. Reichmann. Differential response of enzyme activities in rat diaphragm and intercostal muscles to exercise training. J. of Neurological Sciences 84: 157-165, 1988.

Green, H.J., and I. Fraser. Differential effects of exercise intensity on serum uric acid concentration. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 20: 55-59, 1988.

Green, H.J., M.E. Ball-Burnett, M.A. Morrissey, M.J. Spalding, R.L. Hughson and I.G. Fraser. Fiber type specific glycogen utilization in rat diaphragm during treadmill exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 63: 75-83, 1987.

Green, H.J., R.L. Hughson, J.A. Thomson and M.T. Sharratt. Supramaximal following training induced hypervolemia. I. Respiratory gas exchange and acid-base balance. J. Appl. Physiol. 60: 1944-1953, 1987.

Green, H.J., J.A. Thomson and M.E. Houston. Supramaximal exercise following training induced hypervolemia. II. Blood/muscle substrate and metabolites. J. Appl. Physiol. 62: 1954-1961, 1987.

Green, H.J., L.L. Jones, R.L. Hughson, D.C. Painter and B.W. Farrance. Training induced hypervolemia: lack of an effect on oxygen utilization during exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 19: 202-206, 1987.

Alway, S.E., R.L. Hughson, H.J. Green, A.E. Patla and J.S. Frank. Contractile properties of the human triceps surae following prolonged exercise and beta-blockade. Clinical Physiol. 7: 151-163, 1987.

Hughson, R.L., H.J. Green, S.E. Alway, A.E. Patla and J.S. Frank. The effects of beta-blockade on electrically stimulated contraction in fatigued human triceps surae muscle. Clinical Physiol. 7: 133-150, 1987.

Kuzon, W.M., R. Zelot, H. Green, P. Ballard, B. Pynn, N. McKee and R.K. Daniel. Skeletal muscle energy metabolism following high voltage electrical injury. Surg. Forum 37: 621-633, 1986.

Roedde, S., J.D. MacDougall, J.R. Sutton and H.J. Green. Supercompensation of muscle glycogen in trained and untrained subjects. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 11: 42-46, 1986.

Green, H.J., and R. Hughson. Letter to Editor. The anaerobic threshold. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 17: 621-622, 1985.

Houston, M.E., H.J. Green and J.T. Stull. Myosin light chain phosphorylation and isometric twitch potentiation in intact human muscle. Pflgers Arch. 403: 348-352, 1985.

Publications to 1984

Green, H.J., H. Reichmann and D. Pette. Inter- and intraspecies comparisons of succinic dehydrogenase activity in fibre types of mammalian diaphragms. Histochem. 81: 67-73, 1984.

Green, H.J., I.G. Fraser and D.A. Ranney. Male and female differences in enzyme activities of energy metabolism in vastus muscle. J. Neurol. Sci. 65: 323-331, 1984.

Green, H.J., G.A. Klug, H. Reichmann, U. Seedorf, W. Wiehrer and D. Pette. Exercise-induced fibre type transitions with regard to myosin, parvalbumin and sarcoplasmic reticulum in muscles of the rat. Pflgers Arch. 400: 432-438, 1984.

Green, H.J., M.E. Houston, J.A. Thomson and I.G. Fraser. Fibre type distribution and maximal activities of enzymes of energy metabolism following short-term supramaximal exercise. Int. J. Sports Med. 5: 167-218, 1984.

Ball, M.E., H.J. Green and M.E. Houston. Alterations in human muscle fibre type distribution induced by acute exercise. Histochem. 79: 53-57, 1984.

Green, H.J., J.A. Thomson, M.E. Ball, R.L. Hughson, M.E. Houston and M.T. Sharratt. Alterations in blood volume following short term supramaximal exercise. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 56: 145-149, 1983.

Green, H.J., H. Reichmann and D. Pette. Fibre type specific transformations in the enzyme activity pattern of rat vastus lateralis muscle by prolonged endurance training. Pflgers Arch. 399: 216-22, 1983.

MacFarlane, B.J., R.L. Hughson, H.J. Green, D.J. Walters and D.A. Ranney. Effects of oral propranolol and exercise protocol on indices of aerobic function in normal man. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 61: 1010-1016, 1983.

Daub, W.D., H.J. Green, M.E. Houston, J.A. Thomson, I.G. Fraser and D.A. Ranney. Specificity of physiologic adaptations resulting from ice hockey training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 15: 290-294, 1983.

Green, H.J., R.L. Hughson, G.W. Orr and D.A. Ranney. Anaerobic threshold, blood lactate and muscle metabolites in progressive exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 54: 1032-1038, 1983.

Houston, M.E., E.A. Froese, S.P. Valeriote, H.J. Green and D.A. Ranney. Muscle performance, morphology and metabolic capacity during strength training and detraining. A one leg model. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 51: 25-35, 1983.

Green, H.J., H. Reichmann and D. Pette. A comparison of two ATPase based schemes for histochemical muscle fibre typing in various mammals. Histochem. 76: 21-31, 1982.

Daub, W.D., H.J. Green, M.E. Houston, J.A. Thomson, I.G. Fraser and D.A. Ranney. Cross-adaptive responses to different forms of leg training - Skeletal muscle biochemistry and histochemistry. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 60: 628-633, 1982.

Hughson, R.L., and H.J. Green. Blood acid-base and lactate relationships studied by ramp work tests. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 14: 297-302, 1982.

Orr, G.W., H.J. Green, R.L. Hughson and G.W. Bennett. A computer linear regression model to determine ventilatory anaerobic threshold. J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 52: 1349-1352, 1982.

Green, H.J., B. Daub, M.E. Houston, J.A. Thomson and I. Fraser. Human vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius muscles. A comparative histochemical and biochemical analysis. J. Neurol. Sci. 52: 201-210, 1981.

Houston, M.E., D.A. Marrin, H.J. Green and J.A. Thomson. The effect of rapid weight loss on muscle substrates and physiological functions in wrestlers. The Physician and Sportsmed. 9(11): 73-78, 1981.

Houston, M.E., D.M. Wilson, H.J. Green, J.A. Thomson and D.A. Ranney. Physiological and muscle enzyme adaptations to two different intensities of swim training. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 46(3): 283-292, 1981.

Houston, M.E., and H.J. Green. Skeletal muscle and physiological characteristics of a world champion Masters distance runner. Intl. J. Sports Med. 2: 47-49, 1981.

Green, H.J., J.A. Thomson, W.D. Daub and D. Ranney. Biochemical and histochemical alterations in skeletal muscle in man during a period of reduced activity. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 58(11): 1311-1316, 1980.

Hughson, R.L., H.J. Green, J.A. Thomson, D.R. MacLean and J.R. Sutton. Heat injuries in Canadian mass participation runs. CMA Journal 122: 1141-1144, 1980.

Hughson, R.L., J.M. Kowalchuk, W.M. Prime and H.J. Green. Open-circuit gas exchange analysis in the non steady state. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 5: 15-19, 1980.

Green, H.J. Metabolic aspects of intermittent work with specific regard to ice hockey. Can. J. Appl. Sport Sci. 4(1): 29-34, 1979.

Green, H.J., M. Houston, J. Thomson and P. Reid. Alterations in ventilatory and gas exchange kinetics during exercise induced carbohydrate depletion. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 57: 615-618, 1979.

Green, H.J., J. Thomson, W. Daub, M. Houston and D. Ranney. Fibre composition, fibre size and enzyme activities in vastus lateralis of elite athletes in high intensity exercise. Europ. J. Physiol. 41: 109-118, 1979.

Thomson, J.A., H.J. Green and M.E. Houston. Muscle glycogen depletion patterns in fast twitch fibre subgroups of man during submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Pflgers Arch. 379: 105-108, 1979.

Bagby, G., H. Green and P. Gollnick. Glycogen depletion in exercising rats infused with glucose lactate of pyruvate. J. Appl. Physiol. 45(3): 425-429, 1978.

Green, H.J. Glycogen depletion patterns during continuous and intermittent ice skating. Med. Sci. Sports 10(3): 183-187, 1978.

Green, H.J., W.D. Daub, D.C. Painter and J.A. Thomson. Glycogen depletion patterns during ice hockey performance. Med. Sci. Sports 10(4): 289-293, 1978.

Houston, M.E., H. Green, J.A. Thomson and P. Reid. The response of oxygen consumption, body temperature, blood substrates and serum enzymes to intermittent heavy work performed over twenty-four hours. Europ. J. Appl. Physiol. 39: 145-154, 1978.

Shepherd, R.E., W.L. Sembrowich, H.J. Green and P.D. Gollnick. Effect of physical training on control mechanisms of lipolysis in rat fat cell ghosts. J. Appl. Physiol. 42(6): 884-888, 1977.

Green, H.J. et al. Time-motion and physiological assessments of ice hockey performance. J. Appl. Physiol. 40(2): 159-163, 1976.

Green, H., and M.E. Houston. Effect of a season of ice hockey on energy capacities and associated functions. Med. and Sci. Sport 7(4): 299-303, 1976.

Houston, M.E., and H.J. Green. Physiologic and anthropometric characteristics of elite Canadian ice hockey players. J. Sports Med. and Phys. Fit. 16: 123-128, 1976.

Green, H.J., and M.E. Houston. Die Physiologischen Grundlogen eis-hockey Trainings. Leisfungssport 5: 103-118, 1975.

Green, H.J., and M.E. Houston. Blood lactate response to continuous and intermittent running in the rat. Pflügers Arch. 360: 283-286, 1975.

Houston, M.E. P.A. Reid and H.J. Green. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged running performance. Nutrition Rep. International 9: 277-281, 1974.

Green, H.J. et al. The physiologic stress involved in ice hockey. J. of the Natl. Athletic Trainers Assoc. 4: 1-6, 1973.