Retinal blood oxygen saturation and aqueous humour biomarkers in early diabetic retinopathy

TitleRetinal blood oxygen saturation and aqueous humour biomarkers in early diabetic retinopathy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsTayyari, F., L. Khuu, J. Sivak, J. Flanagan, S. Singer, M. H. Brent, and C. Hudson
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Keywordsdiabetic retinopathy, protein biomarkers, retinal blood oxygen saturation

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between retinal blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and specific aqueous humour (AH) concentrations of proangiogenic biomarkers in diabetic patients with nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and to compare them with those of matched control subjects. Methods: The sample comprised 14 participants with mild-to-moderate NPDR (69.1 ± 6.6 years) and 17 age-matched healthy controls (69.7 ± 6.3 years); all participants were previously scheduled for routine cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation. Multiplex cytokine analyses of specific biomarkers, including vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), angiopoietin2 (Ang2), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were performed by BioPlex 200 system. Six non-invasive hyperspectral retinal images were acquired. Results: Mean SO2 was significantly higher in both arterioles (94.4 ± 1.9 versus 93.0 ± 1.6) and venules (64.4 ± 5.6 versus 55.9 ± 4.8) of NPDR than in the healthy controls (p < 0.001). AH levels of HGF (p = 0.018), Ang2 (p = 0.005) and IL-8 (p = 0.034) were significantly higher, and EGF (p = 0.030) was significantly lower in NPDR subjects. The study demonstrated a correlation between venular retinal blood oxygen saturation and proangiogenic factors HGF (r = 0.558, p = 0.038), Ang2 (r = 0.556, p = 0.039) and EGF (r = −0.554, p = 0.040), but did not find any correlation for IL-8 (r = 0.330, p = 0.249) even though this biomarker was significantly higher in the diabetic group. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the present study is the first report considering the association between SO2 and AH concentrations of protein biomarkers in diabetic retinopathy. The biomarkers of interest have been shown to participate in cell death, which may explain higher oxygen saturation in NPDR. © 2019 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd