Vasudevan (Vengu) Lakshminarayanan


Vasudevan LakshminarayananProfessor (cross-appointed with Physics, Systems Design Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering)

Telephone: (519) 888-4567 x48167
Mobile: +1 202-460-3995
Office: OPT 334
Lab: OPT 241

Lab Website

Citizenship:  USA


University High School, Los Angeles, CA. (High school graduation with honors), 1970-1973.

University of Madras, India; 1973-1976 (B.Sc. Physics, First Class)

University of Madras, India; 1976-1978 (M.Sc. Physics)

University of Oregon, Eugene; 1978-1979

University of California, Berkeley; 1979-1985 (PhD)

Professional and Academic appointments

2017 , 2020 International Visiting Professor of Biophotonics, Dept. of Information Engineering, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Italy.

2019-   Member, Waterloo Center for Artificial Intelligence Waterloo@ai

2016 GIAN Professor of Physics, Dept. of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

2016- Professor of Systems Design Engineering, University of Waterloo

2015-2019: Adjunct Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto

2013-2016: Visiting Scholar, Dept. of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor

2013-2014: Visiting Professor, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Univ. Michigan

2013-2016: Member, Academic Council, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

2011- Center for Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Univ. Waterloo

2010-2013: Associate, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Ann Arbor, MI.

2007  Visiting professor, physics dept., Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi

2006 – Present, Professor, Vision Science, Physics and Electrical& Computer Engineering, University of Waterloo

2005- Royal Society of Ediburgh Visiting Professor, Glasgow Caledonian University

2001-2005: KITP Scholar,Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UC-Santa Barbara

1993-2006: Assistant and Associate Professor of Physics and Optometry, University of Missouri

1993-1994: Adjunct Associate Professor, Dept. of Cognitive Sciences, University of California, Irvine.

1991-1993: Principal Clinical Research  Scientist:  Allergan Therapeutics, Irvine, CA

1986-1991: Assistant Research Scientist: School of Optometry, University of California, Berkeley

Honors (selected, Past 8 years)

Fellow: AAAS (2007), American Academy of Optometry (1988-2014), American Physical Society (2010), Institute of Physics, UK (1999), Optical Society of America (1998), Optical Society of India (2006), SPIE- International Society for Optical Engineering (2005).

2019 OSA Fellow Lecturer, University College Dublin, Ireland

2018 Inaugural speaker, The Dr.S.S.Badrinath Oration, Indian Eye Research Group – Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology

2017 SPIE Lecturer, Optoelectronics Research Center, University of Southampton, UK

2016    Invited Speaker, International Year of Light closing ceremony, Merida,Mexico

2015  Invited Speaker, Jerome Wiesner Symposium, University of Michigan; Office of Research, Univ. of Michigan.

2015    Best Paper Award, Optronix 2015, Vacouver, BC. IEEE Photonics meeting.

2015   Invited Speaker, Heritage of Ibn al Haytham and the Golden Age of Islamic Science, UNESCO, 2015.

2014    Saturday Morning Physics Speaker, University of Michigan

2013   Keynote speaker, ETOP, Porto, Portugal, July 2013

2013   Finalist, AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellowship

2013   Visiting Lecturer, Ecole Superiore des Communication, Tunis, Tunisa

2013  Visiting Lecturer, Universidad de Valle, Cali, Colomiba

2013   Esther Hoffman Beller medal, Optical Society of America

2012  Senior Member, IEEE

2011  Optics Educator Award, SPIE

Books (past 10 years; selected)

  1. M. Viana and V. Lakshminarayanan, Dihedral Fourier Analysis, Springer, Heidelberg, 2013
  2. V. Lakshminarayanan, M.L.Calvo, T.Aliyeva, Mathematical Optics; Classical, Quantum and Computational Methods, CRC/Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL., 2012
  3. V.Sahni, V. Lakshminarayanan, D.P.Srivastava, Quantum Information Systems, McGraw Hill, New Delhi, 2011
  4. M.Bass, C.DeCusatis, J.M.Enoch, V.Lakshminarayanan, G.Li, C.Macdonald, V.Mahajan. E.Van Stryland, Handbook of Optics, 3rd Edition, 5 volumes, McGraw Hill, NY, 2010
  5. V. Lakshminarayanan and I. Bhattacharya, Advances in Optical Sciences and Engineering, Springer, 2015.
  6. V. Lakshminarayanan and L.S.Varadharajan, Special Functions in Optical Science and Engineering, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA, 2016.
  7. V. Lakshminarayanan, H.Ghalila, A.Amar and L.S.Varadharajan, Understanding Optics with Python, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, 2018.
  8. R.Rashed, A.Boudrioua, V. Lakshminarayanan, Light Based Science: Technology and Sustainable Development, Taylor and Francis/CRC Press, 2017.
  9. K. Srinivasa Rao and V. Lakshminarayanan, Generalized Hypergeometric Functions: Transformations and Group Theoretical Aspects, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK, 2018.
  10. M. Viana and V. Lakshminarayanan, Symmetry in Optics and Vision Studies, CRC Press/Taylor and Francis, submitted, Fall 2019.

Book Chapters (selected)

  1.  V.Lakshminarayanan, D.Thapa, H.Rabbani, K.Raahemifar, Compressive Sensing, Encyclopedia of Optics, ed. T. Brown, et al., Wiley, DOI: 10.1002/9783527600441.oe1020, 2015
  2.  V. Lakshminarayanan and M.Ramamurthy, Human Vision and Perception, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology, Springer, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-00295-8_46-1, 2015
  3.  J.Bertranpetit, J.Biegert and V. Lakshminarayanan, Fast, The Wonders of Light, ed. M. Garcia-Matos and L.Torner, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, Chapter 7, 2015.
  4.  H. Leopold, J.Zelek, V. Lakshminarayanan, Deep Learning Methods Applied to Retinal Image Analysis in Biomedical signal processing in big data, ed. E.Sejdic and T.Falk, CRC Press, 2018
  5.  K. Dhakal, V. Lakshminarayanan, Optical Tweezers: Fundamentals and some Biophysical Applications, Progress in Optics, Vol. 63, ed. T. Visser, Pages 1-28, 2018.
  6.  H.Leopold, S.Sengupta, A.Singh, V. Lakshminarayanan, Deep Learning on Optical Coherence Tomography for Ophthalmology, in State-of-the-art in neural networks, ed. A. El-Baz, Elsevier, NY, 2020. In press


I am/have been Technical Editor/Associate editor of a number of journals, including Optics Letters, Journal of Modern Optics, Clinical Optometry, American Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Optoelectronics and Photonics, Optics and Photonics News, Ophthalmology Research, Asian Journal of Physics, etc. I am the editor of the book series ‘Multidisciplinary and Applied Optics(Taylor and Francis) and on the Editorial Advisory Board of De Gruyter Open Access. I am also an ad hoc scientific reviewer for a number of journals, as well as various review panels for NIH, A-STAR (Singapore funding agency), DFG(German funding agency),NSERC (Canada), etc. and am a consultant to FDA (Ophthalmic and Medical Devices).


I have worked in many areas of multidisciplinary science. I have over 350 publications (papers, conference proceedings, chapters, etc.) in areas ranging from molecular spectroscopy, biomedical engineering, applied mathematics, cognitive science and perception, optical science and engineering, science education/policy as well as in physiological optics/vision science/ophthalmology/optometry.

Selected papers include (past 6 years):

  1. S.Sengupta, A.Singh, J.Zelek, V. Lakshminarayanan, Cross-domain diabetic retinopathy detection model using deep learning,Proc. SPIE 11139, Applications of Machine Learning, 111390V doi: 10.1117/12.2529450, 2019.
  2. S.Sengupta, A.Singh, H.Leopold,T.Gulati and V. Lakshminarayanan, Ophthalmic Diagnosis Using Deep Learning with Fundus Images - A Critical review, A I in Medicine, 2020.
  3. U.Bamba, D. Pandey, V. Lakshminarayanan, "Classification of brain lesions from MRI images using a novel neural network," Proc. SPIE 11232, Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XV, 112320K; doi: 10.1117/12.2543960, 2020.
  4. A.Agarwal, J. J.Balaji, V.Lakshminarayanan, "A new technique for estimating the foveal avascular zone dimensions," Proc. SPIE 11218, Ophthalmic Technologies XXX, 112181R; doi: 10.1117/12.2543906, 2020
  5. A. Gueddana, V. Lakshminarayanan, Toward the Universal Quantum Cloner Limit For Designing Compact Photonic CNOT Gate, arXiv:1906.06547 [quant-ph], 2019.
  6. A. Gueddana, V.Lakshminarayanan, "CnNOT gates for quantum computers using photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 11389, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications XII, 113890D; doi: 10.1117/12.2556223, 2020.
  7.  A. Gueddana, Ph.Gholami, V. Lakshminarayanan, Can a universal quantum cloner be used to design an experimentally feasible near-deterministic CNOT gate? Quantum Inf Processing 18: 221. , 2019
  8. H.A. Leopold, J.Orchard, J. S. Zelek, V. Lakshminarayanan, PixelBNN: Augmenting the PixelCNN with Batch Normalization and the Presentation of a Fast Architecture for Retinal Vessel Segmentation,  J. Imaging5(2),26,, 2019.
  9. V. Labishetty, W.Bobier, V. Lakshminarayanan, Is 25Hz enough to accurately measure a dynamic change in ocular accommodation? J. Optometry, , 2018.
  10.  A. Gueddana and V. Lakshminarayanan, Physical feasibility of QKDP based on probabilistic quantum circuits, IET Information Security, DOI:  10.1049/iet-ifs.2017.0375, 2018.
  11. J.R Ehrlich, L.Ojeda, D.Wicker,A.Howson, V. Lakshminarayanan, S. Moroi, Head-Mounted Display Technology for Low Vision Rehabilitation and Vision Enhancement, American Journal of Ophthalmology, invited,, 2017.
  12.  H.Leopold, J.Orchard, J.Zelek, V.Lakshminarayanan, Segmentation and Feature Extraction of Retinal Vascular Morphology, Proc. SPIE 10133, Medical Imaging: Image Processing, 101330V; doi:10.1117/12.2253744 , 2017.
  13. K.Hoschel, V. Lakshminarayanan, Genetic algorithms for lens design, J. Optics,, 2018.
  14. H.Leopold,, J.Orchard, J.Zelek, V.Lakshminarayanan, Use of Gabor filters and Deep Networks in the Segmentation of Retinal Vessel Morphology, Proc. SPIE 10068, Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XV, 100680R; doi:10.1117/12. 20179.
  15. A.Almazroa, W.Sun, S.Alodhayb, K.Raahemifar, V. Lakshminarayanan, Optic Disc Segmentation: Level Set Methods and Blood Vessels Inpainting, Medical Imaging 2017: Imaging Informatics for Healthcare, Research, and Applications, edited by T. S. Cook, J.Zhang, Proc. SPIE Vol. 10138, 1013806, doi: 10.1117/12.2254174, 2017
  16. H.Ghalila, A. Ammar, S. Varadharajan,Y. Majdi , S.Lahmar, M.Zghal and V. Lakshminarayanan “Optics Simulations: A Python Workshop”, 14th Conference on Education and Training in Optics and Photonics: Proc. SPIE Vol. 10452, 1045218, doi: 10.1117/12.2268377, 2017.
  17. M.K.Parthasarathy and V. Lakshminarayanan, A brief history of aberrometry applications in vision science, Recent Advances in Optical Science and Engineering, Optronix III, Springer, Pages 31-39. 2017.
  18. V. Lakshminarayanan, Contributions of Early Arab Scholars to color science, Light in Nature VI, Proc SPIE 10367,  DOI: 10.1117/12.2272724 , 2017.
  19. A.Almazroa, W,Sun, S.Alodhayb, K.Raahemifar, V.Lakshminarayanan, Optic disk segmentation for glaucoma screening system using fundus images. Clinical Ophthalmology, 11:2017-2029, 2017
  20.  H.Leopold, J.Orchard, J.Zelek, V.Lakshminarayanan, Segmentation and Feature Extraction of Retinal Vascular Morphology, Proc. SPIE 10133, Medical Imaging 2017: Image Processing, 101330V; doi:10.1117/12.2253744;
  21.  M.J.Purcell, M.Kumar,S.Rand, V. Lakshminarayanan, Holographic imaging through a scattering medium by diffuser-aided statistical averaging, J.Opt.Soc.Am. A., 33:1291-1297 ,  2016
  22.  A.Bakroon, V. Lakshminarayanan, Visual Function in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Exp. Clin. Optometry, DOI:10.1111/cxo.12383, 2016.
  23. V. Lakshminarayanan & M.K. Parthasarathy, Biomimetic optics: visual systems, J. Modern Optics, DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2016.1224939, 2016.
  24. A.Almazroa, S.Alodhayb, E.Osman, E.Ramadan, M.Hummadi, M.Dlaim, M.Alkatee,  K.Raahemifar, V. Lakshminarayanan, Agreement between ophthalmologists in marking the optic disc and optic cup in fundus images, Int. Ophthalmol., DOI 10.1007/s10792-016-0329-x 2016
  25. V. Lakshminarayanan, H.Ghalila, L.S.Varadharajan, A.Ammar, The role of simulations in optics education, Optics Education and Outreach IV,  Proc. SPIE Vol. 9946, 99460N,  DOI: 10.1117/12.2236159, 2016
  26.  M. Jamshedi,H.Rabbani,Z.Amini,R.Kafieh,A.Ommani and V.Lakshminarayanan Automatic Detection of the Optic Disk of the Retina: A New Method, J. Med. Signals and Sensors, 6:57-63, 2016.
  27. A. Almazroa, S. Alodhayb, R. Burman, W. Sun, K. Raahemifar, V. Lakshminarayanan, Optic Cup Segmentation Based on Extracting Blood Vessel Kinks and Cup Thresholding Using type-II Fuzzy Approach, Proc. 2nd international Conference on Opto-Electronics, Vancouver, BC,IEEE Explore, DOI: 10.1109/OPTRONIX.2015.7345519 2016; Best paper award.
  28. A Gopalakrishnan, A.Almazroa, K.Raahemifar, V.Lakshminarayanan, Optic Disc Segmentation using Circular Hough Transform and Curve Fitting, Proc. 2nd international Conference on Opto-Electronics, Vancouver, BC., IEEE Explore, DOI: 10.1109/OPTRONIX.2015.7345530 2016.
  29. C. Thatiparthi, A. Ommani, R. Burman, D. Thapa, N.Hutchings and V. Lakshminarayanan, Comparison of Performance of Some Common Hartmann-Shack Centroid Estimation Methods, BIOS, Proc. SPIE. 9693, Ophthalmic Technologies XXVI, 969321. doi: 10.1117/12.2219857, 2016.
  30. V. Lakshminarayanan and A.C.McBride, The use of high technology in STEM education, Proc. SPIE, vol. 3793, DOI: 10.1117/12.223062, 2015. Invited paper
  31.  D.Thapa, R.Raahemifar, V. Lakshminaryanan, Reduction of speckle noise from Optical Coherence Tomography images using multi-frame weighted nuclear norm minimization method J. Mod. Optics, special issue on OCT.  J. Modern Optics,. DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2015.1068392, 2015.
  32.  S. Nandy and V. Lakshminarayanan, Dark and bright soliton in nonlinear optical fiber using the decomposition method, J. Optics, DOI: 10.1007/s12596-015-0270-9, 2015.
  33. D.Thapa, K.Raahemifar, W.Bobier, V. Lakshminarayanan, A comparative survey of super-resolution algorithms, Comp. Elec. Engineering,, 2015
  34. S.Mohanty, V.Lakshminarayanan, Optical Techniques in Optogenetics, DOI:  10.1080/09500340.2015.1010620 , Invited, Journal of Modern Optics,  2015.
  35.  N.Sharma, V. Lakshmianrayanan, Retinal Response to Departure from Perfect Power Coupling: Implications for the Stiles Crawford Effect, J. Mod. Optics, DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2015.1014439, 2015.
  36.  D.Thapa, K.Raahemifar, V. Lakshminarayanan, Less is More; Compressive Sensing, invited paper, J. Mod.  Optics, DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2014.966793, 2014
  37. A.Ommani, D.Thapa, N.Hutchings, V. Lakshminarayanan, The impact of pupil scaling on the estimation of aberrations with natural pupils, Optom. Vision Sci., 91: 117511182, 2014
  38. G.Ropars, A.LeFloch, V. Lakshminarayanan, The Sunstone and polarized skylight: ancient Viking navigational tools?, Contemp. Physics, DOI: 10.1080/00107514.2014.929797,2014.
  39.  V. Jayakumar, N.Hutchings,L. Jones, V. Lakshminarayanan, Are fluctuations in dynamic anterior surface aberrations of the human eye chaotic? Optics Letters, 38:5208-5211, 2013
  40. M. Viana, V. Lakshminarayanan, Symmetry studies of refraction data, J. Mod. Optics, DOI: 10.1080/09500340.2013.871587, 2014.
  41.  D.Thapa, K.Raahemifar, W.Bobier, V. Lakshminarayanan, A comparison of super-resolution algorithms applied to retinal images, J. Biomedical Optics, 19 (5), 056002  doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.19.5.056002, 2014.

Professional Service (selected)

  1.  Member, Board of Directors, Optical Society of America, 2002-2004.
  2. Member, Member & Education Services Council, Optical Society of America, 1998-2001. Co-Chair, Forum on Education, 1999-2003. Vice-Chair, MES Council, 2000-2002; Chair, MES Council, 2002-2004
  3.  Member, United States Advisory Committee, International Commission on Optics, National Research Council. 2001-2003.  Chair 2003-2005.
  4.  Founding Member, UNESCO working group on active learning in optics and photonics, 2003-present.
  5. Member, United States delegation to IUPAP 25th general assembly (NAS/NRC Committee), Cape Town, October 2005, 27th general assembly, London, October, 2011.
  6. Member-at-large, United States IUPAP Committee, 2006-2011; member of steering committee, 2009-2011
  7. Member, scholarships and awards committees, SPIE-International Society for Optical Engineering, 2007- 2018; Chair, Biomedical Optics sub-committee, 2007- 2009; 2013-2018 Chair, Gabor Sub-committee, Member, education committee, 2009-2017; chair, developing nations sub-committee, 2012-2015 ; chair, education committee, 2015-2017; member, Strategic Planning Committee, SPIE, 2015-2017, Membership committee, 2019-
  8. Chair, Special Publications Advisory Committee, OSA, 2006-2010;
  9. Member, Forum on International Physics, American Physical Society, 2007-2011; Chair, Committee on International Scientific Affairs, 2010-2011.
  10. Member, Public Policy Committee, American Physical Society, 2017-2020
  11. Member, International advisory committee, African LAM network, 2008- present.
  12. Founding member, Trieste System Optical Sciences Advisory Committee, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, 2003-present.
  13. Member, International Organizing Committee, International Year of Light, UNESCO, 2013-2016.
  14. Organizer (with H.A. Neal, et al.) Wiesner Symposium on Role of the University in Science Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, March 2015.
  15. Member, International Day of Light Planning committee, UNESCO, 2017-2018
  16. Member, CIFS committee, APS, 2017-2020; Chair, 2020-
  17. Co-Chair, Light and Color meeting, SPIE, 2015-
  18. Member-at-large, executive committee, Forum on International Physics, APS, 2020-2023
  19. Member, History Committee, IEEE, 2020-
  20. Member, Membership and retention committee, APS, 2019-2022
  21. Membership and Communities committee, SPIE, 2020-2023

Social Media (selected, past 5 years):

  1.  Heritage of Ibn al Haytham and Islamic Golden Age of Science, UNESCO, 2015
  2.  American Institute of Physics International Year of Light, 2015
  3. Saturday Morning Physics, University of Michigan, 2014


  1. OCTID: Optical Coherence Tomography Image Database.

Has over 500 OCT retinal images classified into 4 groups (including normal) as well as 25 manually segmented images and a semi-automated method for manual segmentation

  1. RIGA: Retinal Image database for Glaucoma Analysis.

This is a de-identified dataset of retinal fundus images for glaucoma analysis (750 images).  The optic cup and disc boundaries for each image are marked and annotated.

  1. FunSyn-Net: Enhanced Residual Variational Auto-encoder and Image-to-Image Translation Network for Fundus Image Synthesis

This is a completely artificially generated dataset of fundus images with their corresponding blood vessel annotation

  1. FAZID: The Foveal Avascular Zone Image Database

The data base consists of 304 images classified into Diabetic (107), Myopic (109) and Normal (88) eye images. For each type of image, clear and manually segmented by a clinical expert (ground truth) are available.


University of Waterloo

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