Sexual Violence Response Protocol and Procedures
re: University of Waterloo Policy 42, Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence
Note: Capitalized terms used in this document have the meaning assigned to them in Section 11, and within Policy 42.
The purpose of this response protocol and procedures is to support the implementation of the University’s Policy 42 – Prevention of and Response to Sexual Violence.
These procedures apply to students. Complaints made against University employees are managed under Policy 33, Ethical Behaviour or Policy 34, Health Safety and Environment. With respect to the adjudication of Complaints made under this policy, the scope includes incidents of Sexual Violence (also see the definition in the Policy):
- where the Respondent is a University of Waterloo student and:
- which take place on University land and premises either rented or owned, or
- use University-owned or run Property or equipment including, but not limited to, telephones, computers and computer networks, or
- incidents of Sexual Violence that occur off campus when the incident is part of a University of Waterloo course or organized class activity; when the incident is part of a University of Waterloo event that has been defined as such; or when the likely consequences of the incident may adversely affect the Complainant’s course of learning, teaching, work, or living at the University.
For clarity, the policy applies to University of Waterloo students on co-op terms. In addition, and in cases where the Respondent is an employee of an external organization, the organization may have internal reporting procedures. Where this is unclear, students on co-op terms should consult with a University Sexual Violence Response Coordinator (SVRC), and/or a CECA harassment officer, or University of Waterloo Police Services.
2. The Sexual Violence Prevention and Response Unit
2.1 University of Waterloo has established the role of Sexual Violence Response Coordinator (SVRC). Based out of main campus, the SVRCs are available to support students, staff and faculty on main campus, satellite campuses, and the affiliated institutions. Most of the information in this Response Protocol and Procedure relates to students, but the SVRCs are available to assist any member of the University Community. The University will ensure that there are separate SVRCs for Complainants and Respondents.
2.2 If you are a member of the University of Waterloo Community and have experienced, or been impacted by, Sexual Violence, the SVRCs can help you navigate the supports and resources available to you. Accessing these supports and resources through the SVRCs does not initiate any formal action or an investigation.
The SVRCs will provide individualized information, advice, and assistance. The support services that can be provided include:
2.2.1 receiving Disclosures;
2.2.2 identifying, accessing, and coordinating appropriate Accommodations;
2.2.3 providing information about and referrals to University of Waterloo Counselling Services, Health Services, AccessAbility, UW Police, providing information about and referral to sources of support including the Federation of Students and Graduate Students Association;
2.2.4 providing information about and referrals to external organizations such as the Sexual Assault Domestic Violence Treatment Centre at St. Mary’s Hospital and Cambridge Memorial Hospital, the Sexual Assault Support Centre of Waterloo Region (SASC), Victim Services of Waterloo Region, Women’s Crisis Services of Waterloo Region, Community Justice Initiatives (CJI);
2.2.5 providing information about how a student’s confidentiality will be maintained if the student makes a Disclosure, Complaint, or an investigation is initiated;
2.2.6 providing information about how a student can make a Complaint, initiate a formal process, and the alternative dispute resolution processes available to them;
2.2.7 providing information about any other relevant University of Waterloo policies, such as Policy #33 – Ethical Behaviour, Policy #34 – Health, Safety and Environment, Policy #70 – Student Petitions and Grievances, Policy #72 – Student Appeals;
2.2.8 assisting students with preparing a Complaint and/or the submission of the Complaint to the Recipient;
2.2.9 acting as a Support Person to a student as referenced in section 7 of these procedures;
2.2.10 receiving allegations regarding acts of Reprisal relating to a Disclosure or Complaint of Sexual Violence and assisting with referral of these allegations to the appropriate process; and
2.2.11 providing students with information about the internal investigatory process at the University of Waterloo and providing information and support in making a report to regional Police if requested.
2.3 The Sexual Violence Response Coordinators will also:
2.3.1 serve all Members of the University of Waterloo Community, including those who have received a Disclosure, those who are supporting someone who has experienced Sexual Violence, or those who may have witnessed Sexual Violence;
2.3.2 oversee and coordinate Sexual Violence prevention and response protocols and processes, communications, resource materials,
2.3.3 collaborate with the Senior Education Officer to develop the education and training program countering broader social attitudes regarding gender, sex and sexuality that normalize Sexual Violence and undermine equality.
2.4 Annually, the University of Waterloo will publicly report anonymously on the number of:
2.4.1 Disclosures received by the SVRCs;
2.4.2 Complaints received by Recipients on campus; and
2.4.3 Complaints investigated or referred to an alternative dispute resolution process.
3. Sexual Violence Disclosures
3.1 The decision to Disclose and the decision to submit a Complaint are separate decisions. A student who has experienced Sexual Violence can decide to Disclose Sexual Violence without making a Complaint. In other words, making a Disclosure does not result in a Complaint being made and does not initiate an investigation or any other action by the University of Waterloo unless the University determines that an investigation is necessary, in accordance with Section 3.7.
3.2 To the greatest extent possible, the University’s response to a Disclosure will be guided by the wishes of the person who experienced the Sexual Violence. In response to a Disclosure, the person who experienced Sexual Violence can ask the University to provide support and resources, facilitate academic, residential, recreation and/or work Accommodations, consider the imposition of Interim Measures, and initiate an investigation of a Complaint in accordance with the procedures in applicable agreements and policies.
3.3 The University of Waterloo will make appropriate support services and Accommodations available to students when a Disclosure is provided, regardless of whether they decide to make a Complaint or whether the University of Waterloo has the jurisdiction to investigate.
3.4 Accommodations that may be available to students who have made a Disclosure or submitted a Complaint of Sexual Violence include:
3.4.1 student residence re-location or short-term emergency student housing;
3.4.2 class schedule changes;
3.4.3 academic Accommodations;
3.4.4 recreation or athletic Accommodations;
3.4.5 temporary work reassignment, location reassignment, or scheduling changes;
3.4.6 emergency funding (including, but not limited to, short term transportation needs, health care items, child care)
3.4.7 safety planning; and
3.4.8 the implementation of safety measures.
3.5 To the greatest extent possible, records of any Disclosures made to the SVRCs will be kept confidential and access to those records will be restricted to the Sexual Violence Response Unit. The SVRCs may be compelled to disclose information in certain circumstances. (See Section 6.3 in the Policy.)
3.6 The University of Waterloo recognizes that Disclosures of Sexual Violence are most often made to someone the Complainant already knows. If a Disclosure is made to a member of the University of Waterloo Community other than an SVRC, that member should contact an SVRC for support and information on how best to respond to a Disclosure and to support the individual making the Disclosure.
3.7 To the greatest extent possible, the University of Waterloo will respect an individual’s choice not to make a Complaint and will keep the Disclosure confidential. In exceptional circumstances, where required by law or where there is a risk of harm to anyone’s health or safety, the SVRC may refer the matter to be evaluated for Risk Assessment. Outcomes of the Risk Assessment process may include the following:
3.7.1 refer the matter to the relevant Recipient as a Report under section 4, in which case the individual who Disclosed has the right not to participate in any subsequent investigation;
3.7.2 notify third parties, such as the police or child protection authorities;
3.7.3 implement Interim Measures;
3.8 If the University of Waterloo takes any action under section 3.7, the SVRC will notify the individual who made the Disclosure and will ensure that appropriate support services are made available.
3.9 The University seeks to create an environment where individuals feel comfortable Disclosing and submitting a Complaint about incidents of Sexual Violence without fear of punishment or reprisal due to alcohol or other substance use.
3.10 Risk Assessment
The University will conduct a Risk Assessment when an incident has been Disclosed or Reported with sufficient identifying information and where, as a result of a preliminary assessment of the circumstances underlying the Disclosure, the SVRC is of the view that a Risk Assessment is necessary.
In all situations where it is determined that a Risk Assessment or further investigation is necessary, the University will make the safety and anonymity of those involved a priority, and will provide the Complainant with timely updates during the investigation, and information about the outcome. Where a Respondent is aware that an investigation is occurring, they will hear results from the risk assessors; if not, they will hear from the SVRC if the assessment reveals any recommendations which affect them. The University recognizes that the Complainant may refuse to participate in an investigation.
UW Police Services are contractually obligated to inform Waterloo Regional Police Services, or other local police of a Disclosure or Report of Sexual Violence that is brought to their attention, in the following circumstances:
- There is a public safety concern; or
- There is reason to believe that there is an investigation underway or charge by WRPS/local police.
3.11 Should the University Community member receiving the Disclosure be someone other than an SVRC, and they have a concern with regard to risk to the person making the Disclosure or another member of our University Community, that member should contact an SVRC, the Secretariat, UW Police and/or the Safety Office for consultation.
4. Sexual Violence Complaints
4.1 Anyone directly subjected to Sexual Violence may make a Complaint as prescribed in the Scope of the Policy against a student of the University of Waterloo Community.
4.2 Complaints must be submitted to the appropriate Recipient on the relevant campus, who will address them in accordance with the Procedures to this Policy. This includes an initial review as set out under section 6 of the Procedures to determine whether the allegations contained in the Complaint fall within the University of Waterloo’s jurisdiction to investigate. An SVRC can assist a Complainant in determining the appropriate Recipient. Recipients of a Report are strongly encouraged to consult with the Director of Conflict Management and Human Rights when reviewing the Report. The Recipient is normally the Associate Dean, Undergraduate or Graduate of the Respondent’s Faculty.
4.3 Sexual Harassment may fall within the scope of both Policy #33 – Ethical Behaviour and this Policy. Complaints that contain allegations of Sexual Violence other than Sexual Harassment will be addressed under this Policy. Complaints that contain allegations of Sexual Harassment alone will be reviewed by the Director of Conflict Management and Human Rights who will determine, based on the particular facts of the case and in consultation with the individual making the Complaint, which policy is better suited to address the allegations.
4.4 An individual can both submit a Complaint to the University of Waterloo and pursue other external processes against the individual alleged to have committed the Sexual Violence. These processes may include reporting to the Police or initiating a civil action (e.g., filing a Complaint under the Ontario Human Rights Code). To be clear, making a Disclosure the University of Waterloo does not result in a report to the Police or the initiation of a civil action – these are separate and external processes. In exceptional circumstances, the University of Waterloo may be compelled to notify third parties, such as the Police or child protection authorities, where required by law or where there is a risk of harm to anyone’s health or safety. (See Sec. 3.7).
If such action is taken, the SVRC will notify the individual who submitted the Complaint and will ensure that appropriate support services are made available to that individual.
4.5 If an investigation or alternative dispute resolution process is initiated under the Procedures to this Policy and an external process is also being pursued, both/all processes will proceed concurrently unless the internal process at the University of Waterloo will interfere with the external process.
5. Alternative Dispute Resolution
When appropriate, a Complainant may seek to address the incident informally by notifying the Human Rights, Equity and Inclusion Office (HREI).
HREI will follow-up with both the Complainant and Respondent to determine their willingness to participate in an alternative dispute resolution process. Both parties must be willing to participate voluntarily and must be informed that they are free to disengage from this process at any time without Reprisal. At any stage of the process, the Complainant may decide that they prefer to move their Complaint to an investigation and decision-making process.
5.1 Examples of alternative dispute resolution can include, but not be limited to:
i. Letter of impact: a Complainant may decide to communicate to the Respondent in writing outlining: 1) the unwanted behaviour they engaged in, 2) the impact of this behaviour on the Complainant and 3) any preferred outcome and/or expectations moving forward. This can be delivered to the Respondent directly by the Complainant, or with support from an SVRC or other appropriate representative on campus.
ii. Facilitated discussion: a Complainant may request that the HREI facilitate a discussion between themselves and the Respondent. The facilitator would “go between” the Complainant and Respondent for the purposes of discussing what terms can be agreed upon moving forward. Neither party would be required to attend a face-to-face meeting. Instead, the facilitator would go back and forth to ensure information is communicated. This process is completely voluntary and either party can decide to disengage at any time.
iii. Education: the Respondent may voluntarily agree to attend education and training related to Sexual Violence, Consent, and anti-oppression.
iv. Restorative Justice: Restorative justice is a process whereby all the parties with a stake in a particular offence or conflict come together with trained facilitators to have a conversation about what happened, what the impact has been and how things can be repaired. The purpose of using this process is to foster inclusive, equitable, and empathetic relationships between those who live, work, and study together.
6. Receipt of Complaint – Procedures (as they relate to student to student incidents)
For employees, please refer to relevant staff, faculty and CUPE agreements with the University re: Complaints and disciplinary activity. What follows is applicable to investigations involving students only.
6.1 Complaints shall be made in writing, and either submitted directly to the appropriate Recipient or with support from an SVRC. An SVRC can assist the Complainant with the preparation of the Complaint, and submit this to the Recipient on their behalf.
6.2 If the Respondent is a student, the Complaint will be first submitted to the Associate Dean of the Complainant, who will then pass the Report forward to the Associate Dean of the Respondent. This process allows the Associate Dean of the Complainant to assist with the facilitation of Interim Measures and/or Accommodations, should this be required.
6.3 The Associate Dean of the Respondent will review the Report, and determine if the Report falls within the jurisdiction of University of Waterloo Policy 42 (or Policy 33, in cases of Sexual Harassment) with support from the Director, Conflict Management and Human Rights.
6.4 If the Associate Dean of the Respondent determines that the University of Waterloo has the jurisdiction over the Complaint, they will:
Notify the Respondent in person that a Complaint has come forward, share the allegations within the Complaint, and provide information regarding next steps and desired outcomes of the Complainant both verbally and in writing. Resources and supports available to the Respondent, i.e., an SVRC, other Support Person, counselling, etc. will be communicated by the Recipient.
6.4.1 No dispute of facts – the Respondent may indicate that they do not dispute the facts of the Complaint and are agreeable with the desired outcome of the Complainant. In this instance, the Associate Dean may conclude the investigation, and determine an outcome based on the information available to them. The Respondent will be advised of resources and supports available to them.
6.4.2 Dispute of facts – the Respondent may dispute the facts of the Complaint presented to them and disagree with the desired outcome of the Complainant. In this instance, the Associate Dean will advise that an investigator will be appointed to investigate the allegations and determine if the policy has been breached. The investigator will also explain the investigative process. The Respondent will be provided with information regarding resources available to them, and their right to have a Support Person and/or representative present whenever they meet with an investigator.
If the Respondent chooses not to participate, the Associate Dean can decide to proceed with an internal investigation at the University of Waterloo based solely upon the information provided by the Complainant and any identified witnesses. The Respondent will be made aware of this at the time of notification.
6.5 Notify the Complainant of the next steps being taken. The Complainant will be advised of the resources and supports available to them. Should an investigation be pursued, the Complainant will be informed of the process, including their right to have a Support Person and/or representative present whenever they meet with an investigator.
6.6 Notify the SVRC(s) of the next steps being taken. The SVRC(s) can continue to support the Complainant and/or Respondent throughout the investigative process, should they wish, pursuant to Section 2 of these procedures.
7.1 The Associate Dean will consult with the Director of Conflict Management and Human Rights to appoint an investigator. The Director of Conflict Management and Human Rights will liaise with the Recipient and the investigator to negotiate the contract, confirm the investigation mandate, inform the investigator which University of Waterloo administrative Policy they will be investigating under, and connect the Associate Dean to the investigator. Under normal circumstances, the investigator will be appointed within fifteen (15) business days of the receipt of the Complaint.
7.2 The SVRCs will provide the name and contact information of the investigator to the Complainant and Respondent. The appropriate SVRC will gain consent from the Complainant regarding the contact information they prefer to be shared with the investigator. This will be shared with the Associate Dean and/or the investigator.
7.3 Once an investigator is appointed they normally will contact the Complainant and Respondent within seven (7) business days. Other parties to be contacted as the investigation proceeds include all relevant witnesses, including the Complainant, Respondent, and any other individuals who may have information relevant to the investigation. The investigator will arrange dates and times for interviews. Interviews with each party will be held separately and trauma informed. The principles of natural justice will be followed.
7.3.1 All those who meet with an investigator are required to keep confidential the meeting and any information shared to ensure the integrity of the proceedings. Failure to do so could be considered a breach of University policy.
7.3.2 Investigations are not adversarial processes, and hearings will not be held as a part of the investigatory process. When making factual findings in respect of the allegations, the standard of proof is the Balance of Probabilities, that is whether it is more likely than not that an event has occurred.
7.3.3 At the completion of the investigation, the investigator will prepare a written investigative report for the Associate Dean. The outcome of this report normally will be provided to the Complainant and Respondent within fifteen (15) business days. The investigative report will normally include the following information:
a. A summary of evidence considered;
b. Any assessment of credibility or reliability that is required to render a determination; and
c. The findings of fact, and a determination as to whether, on a Balance of Probabilities, Policy 42 has been breached and the reasons.
8. Outcome and Disciplinary Measures
8.1 Finding of Breach of the Policy
If the investigative report includes a determination that Policy 42 has been breached, the Associate Dean may consult with the University’s Sexual Violence Response Resources to determine appropriate disciplinary measures. These resources include:
- Counselling Services
- UW Police
- Associate Vice President, Academic
- Associate Provost, Students
- Other Associate Deans
- Dean of the Faculty
- Legal and Immigration Services
The Sexual Violence Response Resources will receive annual training with regard to Sexual Violence and trauma. In the event of a time sensitive issue, the Sexual Violence Response Resources will be expected to assist as soon as possible, and be prepared to make time sensitive decisions.
8.2 Impact Statement
8.2.1 The Complainant will be provided the opportunity to submit a written impact statement to the Associate Dean maker, within five (5) business days of receipt of the written decision, to be considered in determining the appropriate sanction(s).
8.2.3 The Respondent will also be provided the opportunity to submit a written statement to the Associate Dean, within five (5) business days of receipt of the written decision, to be considered in determining the appropriate sanction(s).
8.2.4 The Associate Dean shall consider the Complainant’s impact statement, the Respondent’s statement, and any mitigating and/or aggravating factors in determining/implementing appropriate sanctions and remedies. The reasons shall be clearly articulated in writing to the Respondent and the Complainant as follows:
a) the Respondent will be informed of all sanctions imposed;
b) the Complainant will receive information about any sanctions/remedies taken by the University, within the constraints of relevant legislation. In all cases, information about any sanctions/remedies that have a direct impact on the Complainant will be provided to them.
The Complainant and Respondent will receive a written decision from the Associate Dean within ten (10) business days of the Recipient receiving the investigation report. The decision will include:
i. An overview of the Complaint.
ii. Details of any Interim Measures put into place.
iii. Summary of investigatory steps taken.
iv. Conclusion reached by the investigator.
v. Decision and rationale for the decision.
vi. Details of the penalty.
vii. Where the parties can seek support.
viii. Appeal process.
8.3 No Finding of Breach of Policy
Same information as above only without a penalty assigned.
8.4 The outcome of the investigation will be communicated to both the Complainant and Respondent by the Recipient as supportively as possible, preferably in person if all parties are able.
9. Interim Measures
9.1 Interim measures are non-disciplinary conditions that may be imposed on a person alleged to have committed Sexual Violence. The University may impose Interim Measures in response to either a Disclosure or a Report where the allegations would:
i. if proven, constitute Sexual Violence, and
ii. with regard to all of the circumstances, be a risk to an individual, the community or the integrity of any potential investigation.
9.2 Having regard to all of the circumstances, where Interim Measures are imposed, they must be appropriate and proportionate to the seriousness of the alleged conduct, considerate of the impact the Complainant has experienced, and as minimally restrictive as possible to achieve their purposes. As a result, Interim Measures will be based on considerations including, but not limited to:
i. the reasonable wishes of the person who experienced the Sexual Violence. The preferred Interim Measures can be communicated to the SVRC, who will pass them forward to the Respondent’s Associate Dean,
ii. the nature and/or severity of the alleged conduct, as communicated by the Complainant,
iii. reasonably credible information about patterns of conduct or previous history of Sexual Violence or other misconduct,
iv. the potential impact of the measures on the person(s), including on their academic program and/or employment,
v. the potential impact of the measures on the learning, working or University Residence environment, and
vii. any other relevant information.
Examples of Interim Measures can be found in the University’s Sexual Violence Interim Measures Information Document which is attached to this protocol.
9.3 The decision to impose Interim Measures will be made by the Respondent’s Associate Dean in consultation with other supervisors of the student.
9.4 An SVRC can act as a liaison between the person who experienced Sexual Violence and the Respondent’s Associate Dean, should more information regarding impact be requested.
9.5 Associate Deans may consult as needed with the Sexual Violence Response Resources in determining whether to impose Interim Measures and the nature of those measures.
9.6 In all cases, decisions on Interim Measures must be provided in writing and include:
i. particulars of the measure(s),
ii. information about the right to request a reconsideration,
iii. information about relevant Complaint processes, if applicable, and
iv. referrals to supports and/or services.
9.7 The person(s) on whom Interim Measures are imposed may request a reconsideration from the Associate Dean after sixty (60) days or such earlier time as agreed to by the Associate Dean. Further, at any time, the Associate Dean may on his or her own initiative reconsider the Interim Measures imposed and renew, revise, or revoke any or all of the measures, or impose additional Interim Measures.
9.8 The Complainant may request modifications to the Interim measures and may make a written submission in support of their request. Requests for modifications shall be submitted to the appropriate SVRC. The request will then be brought forward to the Associate Dean for consideration. All requests for modifications to Interim Measures will be considered in relation to the safety of the University Community.
9.9 Interim measures will be re-evaluated when an investigation process is concluded.
9.10 The SVRCs will assess the efficacy of the Interim Measures on an ongoing basis with those involved until such time that the Interim Measure is concluded and will communicate to the Respondent’s Associate Dean if changes are warranted or recommended.
10. Grievances and Appeals
10.1 Refer to Policy 70 – Student Petitions and Grievances, and Policy 72 – Student Appeals
10.2 Any party wishing to grieve or appeal a Policy 42 decision is encouraged to consult with the Secretariat for support and information.
10.3 Any appeal to a Policy 42 decision will proceed directly to the University Committee on Student Appeals.
11. Definitions (also see definitions within Policy 42)
Accommodations – Accommodations under this Policy are adjustments to individuals’ academic, workplace or residence arrangements made to support them and/or enhance their safety (e.g., a change in residence room, change in assignment deadlines, change in class schedule)
Balance of Probabilities – Balance of Probabilities means that based on the evidence that is presented, it is more likely than not that a Sexual Violence incident(s) has occurred.
Complainant: refers to the person who is making a Complaint or Report.
Complaint: see Report.
Disclose/Disclosed/Disclosing/Disclosure: means to share information pertaining to an incident of Sexual Violence for the purpose of learning about and/or receiving support and resources.
Interim Measures – non-disciplinary conditions that the University may impose on a person alleged to have committed Sexual Violence to ensure the safety of the learning, working and University residence environment of the Complainant, discourage Reprisal, prevent possible further Sexual Violence and/or preserve the University’s ability to conduct a thorough investigation. Interim measures may be imposed as a result of a Disclosure or a Report.
Recipient: is normally the Associate Dean, Undergraduate or Graduate of the Respondent’s Faculty.
Report/Reported/Reporting: means to inform about an incident of Sexual Violence to learn about the University’s Complaint procedures and/or to seek redress using them and/or or pursue rights to criminal, civil or legal action.
Support Person – The Complainant or the Respondent can be accompanied by a Support Person of their choice at any time during the Disclosure or formal Complaint process outlined in this Policy. The Support Person may provide encouragement or other emotional or moral support and may accompany the Complainant or Respondent to meetings, when appropriate. The Support Person’s role is not to act or speak on behalf of the Complainant or Respondent. Representations (both oral and written) must come directly from the Complainant and Respondent. The Support Person must also agree in writing to maintain confidentiality in accordance with this Policy.
University Community: means in aggregate all individuals employed by the University, and all students registered as such at the University.
Sexual Violence Interim Measures Information Document
The following are guidelines with regard to the imposition of Interim Measures where an incident of Sexual Violence has been Disclosed or Reported to the University of Waterloo.
Examples of Interim Measures for students include:
• A no contact requirement with specified individuals
• Limited or restricted access to specified areas at specified or all times
• Change in University residence
• Change in class schedule
• Increased monitoring or supervision, for example, periodic check ins with UW Police
• Any other condition, restriction or requirement that is appropriate and proportionate to the situation, and that meets the goals identified in Sec 9 of the Sexual Violence procedures.
Students who have been alleged to have committed Sexual Violence will be provided with the following:
1. Information on the relevant University processes
2. Referrals to or information about support services, including but not limited to:
• Counselling Services
• Health Services
• Conflict Management and Human Rights
• Federation of Students
• Graduate Student Association
• Other services and resources as appropriate
Employees or postdoctoral fellows who have been alleged to have committed Sexual Violence will be provided with the following:
1. Referrals or information about available supports, including but not limited to:
• Faculty Association
• Staff Association
• Employee Family Assistance Program
• Graduate Studies and Postdoctoral Affairs
• Community counselling services
• Conflict Management and Human Rights
• Other services and resources as appropriate