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Analysis

The data presented in this report are weighted estimates, generated using SAS 9.4 unless otherwise noted. Estimates are not reported where specific categories include less than 30 individuals (unweighted), except where noted as not meeting Statistics Canada’s quality standards. The CTADS/CTUMS survey weights assigned by Statistics Canada in the annual datasets were used for CTADS/CTUMS analyses, and the CSTADS/YSS survey weights were used for CSTADS/YSS analyses. CTUMS/CTADS and CSTADS/YSS were not analysed together and there was no overlap of the survey weights between the two surveys.

Statistical comparisons between groups/years were tested using weighted regression analyses in SAS 9.4 or Stata 14.2. Bootstrap weights were used to perform significance testing where available. The change in the specification of the bootstrap weights from CTADS 2013 to CTADS 2015 necessitated using the variances (each calculated using their own set of bootstrap weights) to perform a z-test when testing the differences in estimates between CTADS 2013 and CTADS 2015. Where statistical testing has been performed, comparisons are marked with a superscript number, which refers to a p-value that can be found in the Index of Statistical Tests. Throughout the report, the term “significant” has been reserved for instances where statistical testing has been performed, with p<0.05 as the cut-off for significance.

Data analysis was completed by Vicki Rynard, MSc, Cheryl Madill, MSc, and Robin Burkhalter, MMath, of the Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, using datasets made available by Statistics Canada and Health Canada. Statistical guidance was provided by K. Stephen Brown, PhD, of the Department of Statistics & Actuarial Science, University of Waterloo. We are grateful to Rashid Ahmed for statistical contributions to previous editions.

This report and the views expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of Statistics Canada or Health Canada.

Please note that unless otherwise stated, all data reported in Sections I, II and IV are for Canadians age 15 and over, from the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS)/Canadian Tobacco Use Monitoring Survey (CTUMS), and data reported in Section III are for Canadian youth, grades 6-9 from the Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CSTADS)/Youth Smoking Survey (YSS), and age 15-19 from CTADS/CTUMS.