List of references

iPhysicians for a Smoke-free Canada. (2008, August). Smoking in Canada: Percentage of Canadians who smoke (on either a daily or occasional basis), federal surveys, 1965-2007. Ottawa: Physicians for a Smoke-free Canada.  Available online:

iiPhysicians for a Smoke-free Canada. (2021). Taxes on cigarettes in Canadian jurisdictions: Price of an ‘average’ pack of cigarettes in Canadian provinces, July 2021. Available online:

iiiGovernment of Canada. Tobacco Reporting Regulations (SOR/2000-273), Section 13 (last amended March 4, 2019). Available online:

ivStatistics Canada. Table 17-10-0088-01: Estimates of population (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group and sex for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2015 boundaries) and peer groups [reference year=2001]. Available online:

vStatistics Canada. Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Catalogue no. 98-316-X2021001. Released April 27, 2022. Available online: (accessed May 30, 2022).

viHealth Canada. (2010, July 5). Government of Canada Ban on Flavoured Tobacco Products Now in Full Force [News Release 2010-112]. Available online:

viiHealth Canada. (2015). Order Amending the Schedule to the Tobacco Act. Available online:  

viiiHealth Canada. (2017, April 5). Order Amending the Schedule to the Tobacco Act (Menthol). Canada Gazette, Part II 151(7). Available online:

ixGovernment of Canada. Tobacco and Vaping Products Act. S.C. 1997, c. 13 (last amended November 19, 2018). Available online:

xCanadian Cancer Society. (October 2017). Overview Summary of Federal/Provincial/Territorial Tobacco Control Legislation in Canada. Available online:

xiPierce, J.P.,  Choi, W.S.,  Gilpin, E.A.,  Farkas, A.J., & Merritt, R.K. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology 15, 355-361.

xiiKlein, S.M., Giovino, G.A., Barker, D.C., Tworek, C., Cummings, K.M., & O'Connor, R.J. (2008). Use of flavored cigarettes among older adolescent and adult smokers: United States, 2004-2005. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10, 1209-14.

xiiiHealth Canada. (2009, March 27). Notice - To all persons interested in importing, advertising or selling electronic smoking products in Canada. Available online:

xivGovernment of Canada. (2021, June 10). Nicotine Concentration in Vaping Products Regulations (SOR/2021-123). Available online: