List of references

iGovernment of Canada. (2019). Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS): summary of results for 2017. Available online:

iiPhysicians for a Smoke-free Canada. (2008, August). Smoking in Canada: Percentage of Canadians who smoke (on either a daily or occasional basis), federal surveys, 1965-2007. Ottawa: Physicians for a Smoke-free Canada.  Available online:

iiiKirst, M., Mecredy, G., & Chaiton, M. (2013). The prevalence of tobacco use co-morbidities in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health 104(3), e210-e215.

ivSmoking and Health Action Foundation. (2017). Cigarette prices in Canada: A map comparing the average price of a carton of 200 cigarettes in Canada’s provinces and territories, as of April, 2017. Available online:

vStatistics Canada. Table 17-10-0088-01: Estimates of population (2011 Census and administrative data), by age group and sex for July 1st, Canada, provinces, territories, health regions (2015 boundaries) and peer groups [reference year=2001]. Available online:

viStatistics Canada. (2019). Table: 17-10-0005-01: Population estimates on July 1st, by age and sex. Available online:

viiRoyal Canadian Mounted Police. (2008). 2008 Contraband Tobacco Enforcement Strategy. Ottawa: RCMP. Available online:

viiiCanada Revenue Agency. (2012). Federal Excise Stamp Mandatory on Tobacco Products as of July 1, 2012. Available online:

ixHealth Canada. (2010, July 5). Government of Canada Ban on Flavoured Tobacco Products Now in Full Force [News Release 2010-112]. Available online:

xGovernment of Canada. (2015, April 14). Tackling Contraband Tobacco Act: Backgrounder.

xiHealth Canada. (2015). Order Amending the Schedule to the Tobacco Act. Available online:

xiiHealth Canada. (2017, April 5). Order Amending the Schedule to the Tobacco Act (Menthol). Canada Gazette, Part II 151(7). Available online:

xiiiGovernment of Canada. Tobacco and Vaping Products Act. S.C. 1997, c. 13 (last amended November 19, 2018). Available online:

xivCanadian Cancer Society. (October 2017). Overview Summary of Federal/Provincial/Territorial Tobacco Control Legislation in Canada.

xvHealth Canada. (2011). Health Labels for Cigarettes and Little Cigars. Available online:

xviHealth Canada. (2002). 2000-2002 Report on Tobacco Control - An Update.

xviiPierce, J.P.,  Choi, W.S.,  Gilpin, E.A.,  Farkas, A.J., & Merritt, R.K. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology 15, 355-361.

xviiiKlein, S.M., Giovino, G.A., Barker, D.C., Tworek, C., Cummings, K.M., & O'Connor, R.J. (2008). Use of flavored cigarettes among older adolescent and adult smokers: United States, 2004-2005. Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10, 1209-14.

xixNon-Smokers’ Rights Association / Smoking and Health Action Foundation. (2018, March 31).  Provincial/Territorial E-Cigarette Legislation in Canada. Available online:

xxHealth Canada. (2009, March 27). Notice - To all persons interested in importing, advertising or selling electronic smoking products in Canada. Available online: