University of Waterloo - Political Science
PSCI 282 - Foreign Policy

Pre-Requisites: one of PSCI 101, 110, 281 or permission of the instructor.

Format: Lectures and tutorials

Course Description: What explains the foreign policy choices made by decision makers? What constraints do foreign policy makers face? This course provides students with a toolbox of analytical models and theories for explaining and understanding foreign policy, as well as practice at applying those models. We consider internal and external influences on foreign policy using the individual, state, and system levels of analysis. Throughout the course we also question the boundaries of foreign policy by considering the role of non-state and other non-traditional actors, and the blurring of domestic and international policy. Examples are drawn from various states in the developed and developing world. This course is designed for students with little background in International Relations, although some knowledge of IR theory will certainly be an asset.

This course is recognized as a PACS Content Course that meets the requirements in the Peace and Conflict Studies plan.


By the end of the course, students should be able to:

-    Demonstrate, through written and oral argument and evaluation, an ability to apply the paradigms of international relations to the study of foreign policy
-     Demonstrate, through written and oral argument and evaluation, a basic understanding of the   ‘theoretical toolbox’ scholars use to understand foreign policy
-     Analyze, in written and oral arguments, current or historical events using theories of foreign policy
-     Find and analyze primary sources in foreign policy

The Fine Print

By registering in this course you agree to be familiar with and to abide by the University’s policies on academic offences and plagiarism, as well as the expectations set on the course website, on this syllabus, on individual assignments, and below:

Academic Integrity: In order to maintain a culture of academic integrity, members of the University of Waterloo are expected to promote honesty, trust, fairness, respect and responsibility.

Discipline: A student is expected to know what constitutes academic integrity, to avoid committing academic offences, and to take responsibility for his/her actions. A student who is unsure whether an action constitutes an offence, or who needs help in learning how to avoid offences (e.g., plagiarism, cheating) or about “rules” for group work/collaboration should seek guidance from the course professor, academic advisor, or the Undergraduate Associate Dean. When misconduct has been found to have occurred, disciplinary penalties will be imposed under Policy 71 – Student Discipline. For information on categories of offenses and types of penalties, students should refer to Policy 71 - Student Discipline.

Grievance: A student who believes that a decision affecting some aspect of his/her university life has been unfair or unreasonable may have grounds for initiating a grievance. Read Policy 70 - Student Petitions and Grievances, Section 4, Appeals: A student may appeal the finding and/or penalty in a decision made under Policy 70 - Student Petitions and Grievances (other than regarding a petition) or Policy 71 - Student Discipline if a ground for an appeal can be established. Read Policy 72 - Student Appeals,

Academic Integrity Office:

Turnitin (portions of this section are adapted from David Welch).

All assignments in this course will be submitted using Turnitin software. The University requires that the following statement be listed on the syllabus of all courses using Turnitin software:

Plagiarism detection software (Turnitin) will be used to screen assignments in this course. This is being done to verify that use of all materials and sources in assignments is documented. Students will be given an option if they do not want to have their assignment screened by Turnitin. In the first week of the term, details will be provided about arrangements and alternatives for the use of Turnitin in this course.
Why use Turnitin?

1.     It’s paperless!

2.     It has a very useful marking feature which allows me (and your TAs) to mark your papers from anywhere. It also makes it impossible for us to lose your paper.

3.     It easily tracks exactly when you handed in an assignment, so there’s never any dispute and you don’t have to worry about getting to the dropbox on time.

4.     It allows you to check your citations before you submit the paper by showing you an “originality report” which compares your paper to a database which includes published material and other student papers. Incorrect citation is the single biggest Academic Integrity problem I run into, and using Turnitin helps to combat that before you hand in the paper so you don’t lose marks and you aren’t accused of plagiarism. If you hand in papers with incorrect citations, you are likely to get an invitation to a friendly citation lesson from your T.A.

5.     It provides an efficient way of peer-reviewing papers.

Legal & Ethical Considerations

If you choose not to use Turnitin: the instructor or your TA will administer a 15-minute oral examination based on your paper. The oral exam must be scheduled before the due date of the assignment, but will be held at the instructor’s convenience. If you choose not to use Turnitin, your assignments must be submitted to Dr. Kitchen’s dropbox by the time indicated on the assignment. If you submit a paper on the due date but after the due time, it will usually be marked as submitted the following morning. If you submit an assignment on a weekend, email me a copy of the assignment and at the same time, put a copy in my drop box. If and only if I find a copy in my box Monday morning, and it corresponds exactly to the emailed copy, I will mark the assignment as submitted at the time and day I receive the email. For assignments submitted by email or on UW-ACE, you are responsible for ensuring that files are uncorrupted and submitted as a .pdf document.

Here are some things you might consider when making your decision:

1.     Turnitin’s servers reside in Montreal, which means retrieval of information held on them is subject to Canadian law, but not American law (ie, the Patriot Act).

2.     You retain copyright of your assignments.

3.     Your assignments are added to a database internal to the University of Waterloo. That means your paper is kept indefinitely, but only other UW papers will be compared to it. For instance, Turnitin will be able to check next year’s PSCI 282 assignments against this year’s assignments, but professors teaching courses at other universities will not be able to compare their student papers to your paper.

4.     Turnitin is a for-profit enterprise that makes money by maintaining a large database of published and student papers and charging a fee to Universities to use the plagiarism detection service. You don’t get a royalty for submitting your written work to their database.

    However, you do get the benefit of the citation-checking service.

Note for students with disabilities: The Office for Persons with Disabilities (OPD), located in Needles Hall, collaborates with all academic departments to arrange appropriate accommodations for students with disabilities without compromising the academic integrity of the
curriculum. If you require academic accommodations to lessen the impact of your disability, please register with the OPD at the beginning of each academic term.



Text Analysis Assignments: 40% (4x10%)

There are 5 small text analysis assignments in this group. Each will present you with a text (a document, film, or activity) and a question or two to direct your analysis. Each assignment requires that you write 5-6 pages (1200-1500 words) inclusive of bibliography and citations.

You may submit as many assignments as you like. Due dates are variable, but late assignments will not be accepted. There are no exceptions. Your best four marks will be counted.

Analysis Paper: 25%

Students will choose a country and a foreign policy decision and analyze it through the lens of one of the theories we discuss in class. This is not a research paper, but rather an exercise in using theory to analyze events in the real world. Papers should be approximately 8-10 pages long (2000-2500 words) plus a bibliography. Please see the course website for the full assignment. The analysis paper is due at 4pm, Friday March 23rd.

Late Analysis Papers: Extensions are granted at the discretion of the instructor and only with appropriate documentation from the OPD or Counselling Services, or with the Verification of Illness Form. Other extensions and accommodations are granted rarely and are at the discretion of the instructor.

Late assignments are penalized at the rate of 1% of the weighted final grade per day, including weekends (astute students will notice that this is equivalent to 1% of your final mark in the course). For example: If a student receives 40/50 on an assignment worth 20%, the weighted final grade is 16/20, and if the student hands in the assignment 1 day late, she would receive a mark of 15/20.

An assignment is considered one day late if you submit it to Turnitin after the time it is due on the due date. If you submit it the next day, it is also considered one day late. Two days after the due date is two days late, etc. If an assignment is due in class, it is considered 1 day late if you submit it after class is over.


Final Exam: 25%

The final exam will be given during the April exam period. The exam schedule will be published by the

Registrar’s Office on partway through the winter term. All material from the lectures, readings, and documentaries is testable. The format of the exam will be discussed in class before the exam date. Do not book summer jobs, travel, etc. before knowing the exam date, as this kind of absence is unacceptable under university policy.

Tutorial Participation 10%

Tutorial participation is mandatory. Students are expected to participate actively in tutorial, and it is not possible to receive a passing grade on this portion of your final mark strictly by attending all classes. Each student will receive a base mark out of 10 according to the rubric posted to the class website. Each student gets one ‘free’, unquestioned absence. After that, you will lose one point (from the base mark) per session you miss, regardless of the excuse. This is because tutorial learning takes place in class discussion and activities, and that time can’t be ‘made up’ the way a written assignment can be.

Extra Credit

If you don’t like the marks you have received in the course, there are several ways of improving them.

There are no other ways of receiving extra credit, and no late extra credit assignments will be accepted.

1. Blog Post on Public Lecture: Up to 2%

Attend a public lecture on an international topic at CIGI, the Balsillie School, or in the Political Science Department (other public talks must be approved by Dr. Kitchen). Write a blog post of at least 500 words and post it to the discussion forum on LEARN. Draw on concepts of foreign policy addressed in the class or in the readings. You will receive a mark out of 4 and will be awarded ½, 1, 1 ½, or 2 bonus points accordingly. You may write as many blog posts as you like, but will receive bonus points for only one. Deadline: Friday, March 30.

CIGI Events:
BSIA Events:

Note: not all the events listed at these links are public.

2. Blog Post on Current Events: Up to 2%

Write a blog post of at least 500 words about a current (ie, in the news at the time you post the blog) foreign policy event and post it to the appropriate discussion forum on LEARN. Draw on concepts of foreign policy addressed in the class or in the readings. You will receive a mark out of 4 and will be awarded ½, 1, 1 ½, or 2 bonus points accordingly. You may write as many blog posts as you like, but will receive bonus points for only one. Deadline: Friday, March 30

3. Blog Comments: Up to 2%

Write a thoughtful comment of at least 100 words on a classmate’s blog post (reply to the discussion). Draw on concepts of foreign policy addressed in class or in the readings. Comments written correctly and in good faith (ie, meet the word limit, draw on foreign policy concepts, and respond in thoughtful ways to the blog post) will receive a ½ point bonus. You may write as many comments as you like, but can only receive up to a total of 2% bonus. Deadline: Friday, March 30

4. Peer Review Assignment: 2%

Submit a complete draft of your paper to your TA dropbox during or before your tutorial on Friday, March 16th. Complete the peer review questions by Monday, March 19, 9am. Late papers will not be accepted for peer review.

If you complete both parts of this assignment in good faith (ie, submit a complete draft AND provide good answers to your classmate) you will receive 2% bonus.

5. Exam Questions: Up to 2%

Write a short answer or multiple choice question (and provide the answer) to the exam database on the LEARN website. The exam databank will be useful as a study tool for you, and I will draw particularly good questions from it to use on the final exam. You may submit as many questions as you like, at any time, but no more than 2% bonus will be awarded. The bonus will be awarded in ½ point increments. A question which I use more-or-less verbatim on a final exam or make-up exam will be awarded one point. A good question that I have to revise or re-write will receive a ½ point. Points are awarded solely at the instructor’s discretion. The deadline will be announced in class once we know the date of the final exam (usually mid-March).

Email Blackout

I will not guarantee a response to email about a course assignment after 4pm the day before it is due. It’s probably too late for me to help you anyhow, and believe it or not, I have a life outside the university. Obviously, if you get into a car crash, if you or your partner goes into labour, or if you have some other catastrophic situation the morning of the exam, you should feel free to call or email, and I will respond as soon as I can.

Course Readings

We will use the following textbook, available for purchase at the bookstore:

Steve Smith, Amelia Hadfield, and Tim Dunne, Foreign Policy: Theories, Actors, Cases (Oxford, 2008). I will refer to this in the syllabus as FP.

One copy is on reserve at the Dana Porter Library, but as we will read most of this book, I strongly recommend purchasing a copy. Be sure to get the right edition if you are buying a used copy.

All other readings are available online via the library website, the course website, or at the URL indicated on the syllabus. You should complete your readings before the class for which they are assigned, and bring your readings to class. The number of pages of reading is not equal across weeks. I have given the number of pages of reading in brackets for each week; this will allow you to budget your time appropriately.

Supplementary readings are supplementary; they are not required or testable. However, this is the place to start if you are having trouble understanding a concept, or if you wish to explore the theories further (perhaps in preparation for writing an assignment).

Lectures will complement the readings, and we will not necessarily touch on all of the readings in class. Nevertheless, all course readings and course material (including films, guest speakers, and blog posts, unless otherwise indicated) is testable in addition to the lectures.

You should also be reading a major newspaper or otherwise keeping up with international news and analysis throughout the course. I will periodically post newspaper articles or other links to the class blog; these are testable.

Schedule of Classes

Week of January 2 (8 pages)

Monday, January 4: Introduction: What is foreign policy? What is this course about? (6 pages)

FP, “Introduction” (8 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, January 6: Review: World Views in International Relations


Kropatcheva, Elena. “Ukraine’s Foreign Policy Choices after the 2010 Presidential Election.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27, no. 3-4 (2011): 520-540. [realism and foreign policy]


I highly recommend you read & review FP, Chapters 2, 3, and 4 early in the semester. It overlaps with this lecture, but provides more detail, and we will come back to these core concepts over and over through the semester. The material is testable.

Week of January 9 (63 pages)

Monday, January 9: World Views and the Analysis of Foreign Policy

FP, Chapter 5 “Actors, structures, and foreign policy analysis” (Walter Carlsnaes) (24 pages)

Wednesday, January 11: Do Individuals Matter? (I): personality, rational choice and economic explanations

Daniel Byman & Kenneth Pollock, "Now Let Us Praise Great Men" International Security 25(4) Spring 2001, p. 107-146 (39 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, January 13: Writing Skills

Jacob Levy’s Guidelines for Writing Papers (2012)
Levy doesn’t mention either of them, but I have 2 additional pet peeves relevant to international relations:

a)     States do not have gender. Therefore, they should be referred to as “it”, not “he” or “she”
b)     Borders divide territorial units. Boarders rent space in your house.

Week of January 16 (52 pages)

Monday, January 16: Do Individuals Matter? (II): cognitive and psychological explanations

FP Chapter 6: “Foreign Policy decision-making: rational, psychological, and neurological models”
(Janice Gross-Stein) (15 pages)


Ziv, Guy. “Cognitive Structure and Foreign Policy Change: Israel’s Decision to Talk to the PLO.”
International Relations 25, no. 4 (December 1, 2011): 426 -454.

Wednesday, January 18: Advisors
No additional readings

Tutorial: Friday, January 20: What role for advisors?

Dennis Stairs, “Professionals and Amateurs in the Diplomacy of the Age of Information” in Janice

Gross Stein, Diplomacy in the Digital Age: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Allan Gotlieb. Signal, 2011, p. 193-208 (15 pages)

Niccoló Machiavelli, The Prince, Ch. XXII “Concerning the secretaries of princes” and XXIII “How flatterers should be avoided” Available online at: (4 pages)

Iver B. Neumann, “A Speech That the Entire Ministry May Stand for, or: Why Diplomats Never Produce Anything New” International Political Sociology (2007) 1, 183-200. (18 pages). [There is some complicated theory in this article; we are more concerned with understanding the process of foreign policy making Neumann describes here.]


Janice Gross-Stein and Eugene Lang, “Too Many Hilliers” The Walrus April 2008. Available online at: (4 pages)

Leonard Wong and Douglas Lovelace, “Knowing When to Salute” (op-ed) Strategic Studies Institute Available online at: (6 pages)

Week of January 23 (35 pages)

Monday, January 23: Domestic Constraints on Foreign Policy

FP Chapter 14: “Neoconservatism and the domestic sources of American foreign policy: the role of ideas in Operation Iraqi Freedom” (Yuen Foong Khong) (15 pages)

Wednesday, January 25: Decision-making in Bureaucracies

FP Chapter 12: “The Cuban Missile Crisis” (Graham Allison) (21 pages)


Rhodes, Edward. “Do Bureaucratic Politics Matter?: Some Disconfirming Findings from the Case of the U.S. Navy.” World Politics 47, no. 1 (October 1, 1994): 1-41.

Tutorial: Friday, January 27: The Democratic Peace Hypothesis

Week of January 30 (36 pages)

Monday, January 30: Guest Speaker: John English, Former Parliamentarian

Dr. English’s Parliamentary Profile:
Dr. English’s Wikipedia Bio:

Brian Bow & David Black, “Does Politics stop at the Water’s Edge in Canada? Parties and Partisanship in Canadian Foreign Policy” International Journal 64(1) 2008, 7-27. (20 pages)

Wednesday, February 1: The Role of the Media

FP Chapter 8 “The role of media and public opinion” (Piers Robinson) (15 pages)


Canadian International Council, “Tweeting Genocide” Open Canada (2 November 2011). [there are several short videos you can watch]

Ira Basen, Spinning War (Episode 5 in The Spin Cycles), Originally Broadcast on The Sunday Edition 15 Feb 2007 on CBC Radio 1. Audio available for download at (runs 49:52)

Rogers, Will, and Richard Fontaine. Internet Freedom: A Foreign Policy Imperative in the Digital Age. Washington DC: Center for a New American Security, May 23, 2011.

Tutorial: Friday, February 3: Domestic Politics Simulation

Week of February 6 (33 pages + one magazine article + one webpage)

Monday, February 6: The Role of Public Opinion
No additional reading

Wednesday, February 8: Gender

Swanee Hunt and Cristina Posa, "Women Waging Peace", Foreign Policy May/Jun 2001 p. 38-47. (9 pages)

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) (1 page)
Available online at

Molly M. Wood, “Diplomatic Wives: The Politics of Domesticity and the "Social Game" in the U.S. Foreign Service, 1905-1941” Journal of Women’s History 17(2) 2005, 142-165 (23 pages)


Sondra Gotlieb, “Observations of a Saloon Keeper’s Spouse in Janice Gross Stein. Diplomacy in the Digital Age: Essays in Honour of Ambassador Allan Gotlieb. Signal, 2011, p. 30-36 [a first-hand account by the wife of one of Canada’s most important diplomat’s, Allan Gotlieb].

Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, Beaches and Bases - Chapter 5 "Diplomatic Wives", p. 93-123 (30 pages)

Katie Hickman, Daughters of Britannia: The Lives and Times of Diplomatic Wives (New York, 1999)

Tammy M. Proctor, “Family Ties in the Making of Modern Intelligence” Social History 39(2) 451-466

Tutorial: Friday, February 10: Library Visit: Using Government Documents with Jane Forgay

Tutorials 1&2 and 3&4 meet together; all in HH 2107

The National Archives. “Using primary sources.” The National Archives, n.d.

Serwer, Daniel. “A diplomat’s guide to reading Wikileaks.” Embassy Magazine. Ottawa, October 6, 2011, online edition.

Week of February 13 (35 pages)

Monday, February 13: Political Culture, Norms, and Identity I

Peter Katzenstein, "Same War, Different Views: Germany, Japan, and the War on Terrorism" Current History, December 2002 p. 427-435 (8 pages) (If this topic interests you, you should read the longer version of by the same title in International Organization 57, Fall 2003, p. 751-760)


FP, Chapter 4 “Constructivism and Foreign Policy” (Jeffrey Checkel)

Wednesday, February 15: Political Culture, Norms and Identity II

Michael Clancy. “Re-presenting Ireland: tourism, branding and national identity in Ireland.” Journal of International Relations and Development 14, no. 3 (July 2011): 281-308. (27 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, February 17: Nation Branding


Peter Van Ham, “The Rise of the Brand State” Foreign Affairs 80(5) 2001, p. 2-6. (5 pages)

Krittinee Nuttavuthisit, “Branding Thailand: Correcting the negative image of sex tourism” Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 3(1) 2007, p. 21-30. (10 pages)
David Black, “The Symbolic Politics of Sport Mega-Events: 2010 in Comparative Perspective,”
Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies 34, no. 3 (2007), p. 261-276. (15 pages)

Week of February 20: Reading Week

Week of February 27 (47 or 51 pages):

Monday, February 27: Strategy

Stephen Biddle, “Strategy in War” PS: Political Science & Politics 40(3) 2007 p. 461-466. (6 pages)

McGurk, Brett. “Agreeing on Afghanistan.” Foreign Affairs, June 21, 2011. (2 pages)

And one of the following two case studies:

FP Chapter 16 “Israeli-Egyptian (in)security: the Yom Kippur War” (Gareth Stansfield) (13 pages)

FP Chapter 19 “Britain and the gathering storm over Iraq” (Tim Dunne) (17 pages)

Wednesday, February 29: Ethics

Thucydides, “The Melian Dialogue” History of the Peloponnesian War Ch. XVII. Available online at: (2 pages)

Niccoló Machiavelli, “Concerning things for which men, and especially princes, are praised or blamed” (Ch. XV), “Concerning Liberality and Meanness” (Ch. XVI) and “Concerning Cruelty and Clemency, and Whether it is better to be loved than feared” (Ch. XVII) The Prince Available online at: (9 pages)

Michael Ignatieff, “Lesser Evils” New York Times Magazine 2 May 2004. Available online at: (9 pages)

Leslie H. Gelb and Justine A. Rosenthal “The Rise of Ethics in Foreign Policy” Foreign Affairs 82(3) 2003, p. 2-7 (6 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, March 2: TBA / TA’s discretion

Week of March 5 (56 pages)

Monday, March 5: Economic Statecraft

FP Chapter 10 “Economic Statecraft” (Michael Mastanduno) (18 pages)

Matthias Matthijs, and Mark Blyth. “Why Only Germany Can Fix the Euro.” Foreign Affairs, November 17, 2011. blyth/why-only-germany-can-fix-the-euro. (2 pages)

If you need to review IR theory as it applies to economics, please read:

J. Golstein, J.C. Pevehouse, & S. Whitworth, International Relations Ch. 9, p. 303-340 (37 pages)

Wednesday, Marcy 7: Foreign Aid & Development Policy

Carol Lancaster, Foreign Aid: Diplomacy, Development, Domestic Politics – Chapter 2 “Aid’s Purposes: A Brief History” p. 25-61 (36 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, March 9: Case Study: the European Debt Crisis

A moving target…so we’ll decide what to read a bit later in the semester. A good place to start:

New York Times European Debt Crisis Tracker

Week of March 12 (28 pages)

Monday, March 12: Diplomacy in Practice

Readings TBA

Wednesday, March 14: The View from the Top: Great Powers

FP Chapter 9 “The Primacy of National Security” (Brian C. Schmidt) (13 pages)

FP Chapter 18 “Energy and Foreign Policy: EU-Russia energy dynamics” (Amelia Hadfield) (15 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, March 16: Chinazambia / Boliviafranca Simulation (Part I)
No additional readings.

Week of March 19 (53 pages + one article)

Monday, March 19: The Rest of the World: Middle & Medium Powers

FP Chapter 13 “Canada and antipersonnel landmines: human security as a foreign policy priority”
(Lloyd Axworthy) (19 pages)

FP Chapter 15 “India and the World Trade Organization” (Amrita Narlikar) (14 pages)


Welch, David, and Rafet Akgunay. Turkey’s Emerging Regional and Global Role. Inside the Issues, 19 October 2011.

Death, Carl. “Leading by Example: South African Foreign Policy and Global Environmental Politics.” International Relations 25, no. 4 (December 1, 2011): 455 -478.

Wednesday, March 21: The Rest of the World: Small Powers

Korosteleva, Elena. “Belarusian Foreign Policy in a Time of Crisis.” Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics 27, no. 3-4 (2011): 566-586. (20 pages)

Branch, Daniel. “Why Kenya Invaded Somalia.” News. Foreign Affairs, November 15, 2011.

Tutorial: Friday, March 23: Chinazambia / Boliviafranca Simulation (Part II)
No additional readings

Week of March 26 (39 pages)

Monday, March 26: Non-State Actors and Foreign Policy

Byman, Daniel L., and Charles King. “The Phantom Menace.” The New York Times, August 15, 2011, sec. Opinion.

FP Chapter 20: “New actors, new foreign policy: EU and enlargement” (Lisbeth Aggestam) (16 pages)

Wednesday, March 28: Questioning our Assumptions: What is Foreign? Who Makes Policy?

Parag Khanna, “Beyond City Limits” Foreign Policy Sept / Oct 2010. Available online at: (6 pages)

FP Chapter 17 “China and the Tian’anmen bloodshed of June 1989” (Rosemary Foot) (17 pages)


Ann-Marie Slaughter, "The Real New World Order", Foreign Affairs Sept / Oct 1997, p. 183 (11 pages)

Tutorial: Friday, March 30: Review

Week of April 2

Monday, April 2: Exam Prep and Review

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