Publishing graduate research

The ethics of authorship

These guidelines are based on the policy statement of the ethics committee of the American Psychological Association, but have been modified to make them more applicable to the Leisure Studies field. They are not meant as "rules" that have to be followed, but rather as points for students and supervisors to take into consideration.

While the wording of the guidelines refers primarily to publications arising out of graduate thesis research, the intent is that the guidelines can also be applied to other situations as well, such as research based on reading courses or student involvement with faculty projects. It is recognized, too, that dual authorship is not always appropriate. In some cases, students may have worked very independently on their research project and single authorship is appropriate, whereas in other cases one or more faculty members or students may be included as authors because of the significance of their contribution to the research endeavour.


When student thesis research is published or presented only second authorship is acceptable for the thesis supervisor.

Second authorship would normally be expected if the supervisor makes a major intellectual contribution to the research study through the designation of concepts, variables, or theoretical applications and/or through the interpretation of the research findings and/or through a substantial contribution to the write-up of the published manuscript or conference paper.

Second authorship is a courtesy if the supervisor designates the general area of concern and/or is involved in development of the research design and/or provides the data base and/or provides financial support.

Second authorship is not normally acceptable if the supervisor only provides encouragement, critiques or editorial contributions.

In all instances, agreement should be reviewed between student and supervisor before the writing for publication is undertaken and at the time of submission of manuscripts of conference abstracts. Manuscripts or abstracts should not be submitted without the approval of both authors.