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Radiation

University of Water radiation safety

Radiation safety introduction

Radioactive material in the laboratory

Information needed to safely use radioactive material in the laboratory.

A quiz at the end of this section must be successfully completed and participation in a practical training session is required prior to working with radioactive material in laboratories under the care and control of the University of Waterloo.

Logging sources and moisture gauges

Information needed to safely use and transport logging sources and moistures gauges.

A quiz at the end of this section must be successfully completed and participation in a practical training session is required prior to working with and transporting logging sources and moisture gauges under the care and control of the University of Waterloo.

Instruments using radioactive materially

Information needed to safely use instruments containing radioactive material in laboratories. These instruments include electron capture detectors and anti-static devices.

A quiz at the end of this section must be successfully completed prior to working with instruments containing radioactive material in laboratories under the care and control of the University of Waterloo.

Transportation of radioactive material

Information needed to safely transport small quantities of radioactive material or instruments containing radioactive material to other Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) authorized laboratories or field sites.

A quiz at the end of this section must be successfully completed prior to transporting radioactive material or instruments containing radioactive material.

Forms

Various forms in PDF format needed for routine work with or transportation of radioactive material.

Other information

Interesting material relating to working with radioactive material.

University of Waterloor radiation safety program laboratories

Radiation safety program in laboratories

Scope

University of Waterloo's (UW) Radiation Safety Program encompasses all work with radioactive material in laboratories under UW control.

This program reflects the requirements outlined by the Nuclear Safety Control Act and Regulations.

Purpose

This program outlines procedures and controls to ensure safe working conditions when working with or near radioactive material at the University of Waterloo.

Radiation Safety Program

The following sections outline the structure of the Radiation Safety Program and its participants. The duties and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Committee, Radiation Safety Officer and Permit holder are listed.

The management structure of the University of Waterloo ensures that all aspects of the purchase, use, storage and disposal are under direct control of the Radiation Safety Committee.

Matter

diagram of an atomThis section outlines the basic concepts of atomic structure, nomenclature  and radioactive decay.

Learning objectives

  1. To be familiar with the basic concepts of matter including:
    • Parts of the atom
    • Nomenclature (Atomic mass and atomic number)
    • Concept of an isotope
    • Concept of a nuclear stability and radioisotope
    • Radioactive decay and unit of decay

Types of nuclear decay

This section will discuss different types of radiation and how these types of radiation are produced.

Learning objectives

  1. Introduce electromagnetic and particulate radiation
  2. The relationship between mass and energy
  3. The unit of energy (electron volt)
  4. Radiation types
    • Size
    • Charge
  5. Overview on how the various types of radiation are produced (information only).

Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter

interaction of ionizing radiation with matterThe following sections will review the various types of electromagnetic and particulate ionizing radiation and how they interact with matter. We can use this information to help us understand the effects of ionizing radiation on humans.

Learning objectives

  1. Interaction of the various type of radiation with matter.
  2. The  relative hazards of various types of radiation.
  3. Energy loss for various types of radiation when interacting with matter (LET).

Biological effects of radiation

This next section will discuss the relationship between exposure (dose) and response as well as describe various effects of ionizing radiation.

Paracelsus (16 th Century): "It's the dose that makes the poison"

Learning objectives

  1. Review the types of radiation exposures
  2. Understand biological responses to radiation exposures.
  3. Review the effects of radiation on the foetus

Radiation dose

The effects of ionizing radiation are directly proportional to the amount received, a system had to be set up to measure the quantity of ionizing radiation. The following section will cover units of measure for ionizing radiation, conversion from SI units and the dosimetry requirements for workers at UW.

Learning objectives

  1. Definition and units of exposure.
  2. Definition and units of absorbed dose.
  3. Definition and units of equivalent dose.
  4. How to convert units using a conversion table.
  5. Dosimetry requirements for the University of Waterloo.

Radiation hazard perspective

It is important to be aware of the effects of radiation exposure, but it is also important for the worker to have some perspective as to the expected dose received from the use of radioisotopes compared to that received from the environment.

However, the small doses received by workers at UW should not be trivialized, as all radiation doses should be kept to a minimum as outlines in ALARA, one of the guiding principals of radiation protection.

Learning objectives

  1. Sources of radiation exposure
  2. Exposure comparison

Radiation detection

To insure that ionizing radiation dose rates are not to be exceeded and radioisotope contamination is not spread around the work place, various ionizing radiation detectors have been developed and sold commercially. 

This section deals with the most common types of radiation detectors use at the University of Waterloo.

Learning objectives

  1. Theoretical and operation aspects of radiation detectors.
  2. Type of detectors used to measure dose
  3. Type of detector used for contamination surveys.
  4. Calibration of radiation detectors.
  5. The definition of the term Minimal Detectable Amount (MDA).
  6. Detector efficiency.
  7. Regulatory requirements for radiation detectors.

Controlling exposures

Radiation doses to workers may result from two types of exposures, external and internal. 

Both types of exposure carry a potential risk. When handling radioactive materials, workers must understand and implement basic radiation safety principles to protect themselves and others from the radiation energy emitted by the radioactive materials and from radioactive contamination in the work place.

Learning objectives

  1. Concepts of internal and external exposures.
  2. External hazard potential for different types of ionizing radiation.
  3. Methods of controlling external hazards.
  4. Internal hazard potential for different types of ionizing radiation.
  5. Modes of entry for internal radiation hazards.
  6. Methods of controlling internal hazards.

Contamination control

Control of radioactive contamination is one of the most important methods of reducing exposures. The CNSC (Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission) also specifies that a contamination control program must be in place as a licence requirement.

Unlike chemical contamination, radioactive contamination can be monitored quickly and inexpensively.

The following sections will discuss procedures for monitoring radioactive contamination as well as method for cleaning up radioactive contamination.

Learning objectives

  1. Survey methods.
  2. Instrument selection.
  3. Calculation of contamination (formula will be available during exam).
  4. Contamination limits.
  5. Decontamination procedures.
  6. Who is responsible for leak testing of sealed sources.

Control of radioisotopes

Control of radioisotopes from receipt to disposal is a regulatory requirement as well as an effective means of preventing inadvertent spread of contamination.

Learning objectives

  1. Be familiar with ordering procedures.
  2. Maintaining inventory forms.
  3. Segregation and disposal of waste.

Facilities

To ensure that all radiation laboratories meet minimum criteria, the CNSC classifies laboratories by the amount of radioisotopes used, specifies design criteria, and signage.

Learning objectives

  1. Types of laboratories.
  2. Familiar with the types of signs and postures used to identify radioisotope laboratories.
  3. Security requirements for radioisotopes.

Emergency procedures

This section outlines different types of spills and persons to be contacted.

Learning objectives

  1. How to contact the Radiation Safety Officer.
  2. Response to different types of spills.
  3. Reference methods for decontamination of equipment and personnel.

 Radiation data sheets

Radioisotope data sheets are to be used as a reference. Most of the relevant safety information for the handing of the various radioisotopes are contained in these sheets.

If you require information about isotopes not listed here please contact your RSO Greg Friday at ext. 35755.

Learning objectives

  1. Be familiar with the type of information in the data sheets (the sheets will be available to you when you write the exam).

Supervisors information page

To view the following information click on the links below.

You will be asked to authenticate using your WatIM UserID and password.

View a list of all workers listed under your radiation permit

View all UW Open Source Radiation Workers (only Committee Members have access)

View all UW Sealed Source Radiation Workers(only Committee Members have access)

Quiz introduction

  • This quiz is limited to persons working in UW Open Source Laboratories.
  • You must have an active WatIAM account and know your userid and password.
    See http://watiam.uwaterloo.ca/search/ for information or contact your faculty computer support person
  • Please insure you e-mail is redirected if you do not monitor you UW e-mail address.

Radiation safety in laboratories quiz

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University of Waterloo radiation safety program sealed source

Sealed source introduction

Scope

UW's Radiation Safety Program encompasses all work with Radioisotopes in laboratories under UW control.

This program reflects the requirements outlined by the Nuclear Safety Contol Act and Regulations

Purpose

This program outlines procedures and controls to ensure safe working conditions when working with or near devices containing radioisotopes at the University of Waterloo. 

Radiation safety program

The following sections outline the structure of the Radiation Safety Program and its participants. The duties and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Committee, Radiation Safety Officer and permit holder are listed.

The management structure of the University of Waterloo insures that all aspects of the purchase, use, storage and disposal are under direct control of the Radiation Safety Committee.  

Matter

Structure of an atomThis section outlines the basic concepts of atomic structure, nomenclature and radioactive decay.

Learning objectives

  1. To be familiar with the basic concepts of matter including:
    • Parts of the atom
    • Nomenclature (Atomic mass and atomic number)
    • Concept of an isotope
    • Concept of a nuclear stability and radioisotope
    • Radioactive decay and unit of decay

Types of nuclear decay

This section will discuss different types of radiation and how these types of radiation are produced.

Learning objectives

  1. Introduce electromagnetic and particulate radiation.
  2. The relationship between mass and energy.
  3. The unit of energy (electron volt).
  4. Radiation types
    • Size
    • Charge
  5. Overview on how the various types of radiation are produced (information only).

Interaction of ionizing radiation with matter

The following sections will review the various types of electromagnetic and particulate ionizing radiation and how they interact with matter. We can use this information to help us understand the effects of ionizing radiation on humans

LInteraction of ionizing radiation with matterearning objectives

  1. Interaction of the various type of radiation with matter.
  2. The relative hazards of various types of radiation.
  3. Energy loss for various types of radiation when interacting with matter (LET).

Biological effects of radiation

This next section will discuss the relationship between exposure (dose) and response as well as describe various effects of ionizing radiation.

Paracelsus (16 th Century): "It's the dose that makes the poison".

Learning objectives

  1. Review the types of radiation exposures.
  2. Understand biological responses to radiation exposures.
  3. Review the effects of radiation on the foetus.

Radiation dose

The effects of ionizing radiation are directly proportional to the amount received, a system had to be set up to measure the quantity of ionizing radiation. The following section will cover units of measure for ionizing radiation, conversion from SI units and the dosimetry requirements for workers at UW.

Learning objectives

  1. Definition and units of exposure.
  2. Definition and units of absorbed dose.
  3. Definition and units of equivalent dose.
  4. How to convert units using a conversion table.
  5. Dosimetry requirements for the University of Waterloo.

Radiation hazard perspective

It is important to be aware of the effects of radiation exposure, but it is also important for the worker to have some perspective as to the expected dose received from the use of radioisotopes compared to that received from the environment.

However, the small doses received by workers at UW should not be trivialized, as all radiation doses should be kept to a minimum as outlines in ALARA, one of the guiding principals of radiation protection.

Learning objectives

  1. Sources of radiation exposure.
  2. Exposure comparison.

Radiation detection

To insure that ionizing radiation dose rates are not to be exceeded and radioisotope contamination is not spread around the work place, various ionizing radiation detectors have been developed and sold commercially. 

This section deals with the most common types of radiation detectors use at the University of Waterloo.

Learning objectives

  1. Theoretical and operation aspects of radiation detectors.
  2. Type of detectors used to measure dose.
  3. Type of detector used for contamination surveys.
  4. Calibration of radiation detectors.
  5. The definition of the term Minimal Detectable Amount (MDA).
  6. Detector efficiency.
  7. Regulatory requirements for radiation detectors.

Controlling exposures

Radiation doses to workers may result from two types of exposures, external and internal. 

Both types of exposure carry a potential risk. When handling radioactive materials, workers must understand and implement basic radiation safety principles to protect themselves and others from the radiation energy emitted by the radioactive materials and from radioactive contamination in the work place.

Learning objectives

  1. Concepts of internal and external exposure.
  2. External hazard potential for different types of ionizing radiation.
  3. Methods of controlling external hazards.
  4. Internal hazard potential for different types of ionizing radiation.
  5. Modes of entry for internal radiation hazards.
  6. Methods of controlling internal hazards.

General procedures for using logging sources

  1. Radioactive logging sources must only be transported in University of Waterloo vehicles by personnel having a valid training certificate issued by UW Safety Office.
  2. Radioactive logging sources are to be transported in approved locked containers.
  3. Containers for radioactive logging sources are to have labels with University of Waterloo permit holder and phone number available from Safety Office.
  4. The owner of the property where the radioactive logging source is being used shall be informed when the source is on their property.
  5. When the radioactive source is stored off campus it shall be :

    • Stored in an room or vehicle which is locked
    • Posted with a radioactive warning sign
    • Posted the name and phone number of a contact person in case of emergency (available from the Safety Office)
    • Insure that the dose rate not exceed 25 uSv/hr at any point out side the storage area
  6. All workers using radioactive logging sources are to wear Neutron dosimetry.
  7. All workers using radioactive sources are to complete the University of Waterloo Radiation Safety Training program.
  8. All incidents or suspected damage to the radioactive logging source are to be reported to the Radiation Safety Officer at ext. 35755.
  9. Radiation Logging Sources must never be used in an unlined hole.
  10. Use only tools supplied by the manufacture to handle radioactive logging sources.
  11. Do not leave a radioactive logging source exposed.
  12. Barricade and place "Danger Radiation" signs around work area where the radiation dose exceeds 25 uSv/hr.
  13. The work site must not be left unattended while the radioactive logging source is in use.
  14. If a radioactive logging source is kept at a site off the UW campus for more than 30 days, the Safety Office is to be informed to notify the CNSC.

Sealed source signage

Rooms where sealed sources are stored or used must have the following signage.

Rayonnement Danger Radiation

  1. Areas where the radiation field is in excess of 25 uSv/hr marked with:
  • Radiation warning symbols and the words " Danger Radiation" (see image above). Contact the RSO for labels
  • The rate of ionizing radiation in R/hr or Sv/hr
  1. Equipment containing more than 1 Exempt Quantity:
  • Radiation Warning Symbol and the words "Danger Radiation" (see image above). Contact the RSO for labels.
  • The name of the radioisotopes
  • The quantity in Bq or Ci
  • Contact person
  1. Storage areas off campus must have a warning sign posted on the entrance:
  • Radiation Warning Symbol and the words "Danger Radiation" (see image above). Contact the RSO for labels
  • The name of the radioisotopes
  • The quantity in Bq or Ci
  • Contact person
  1. Misuse (marking non radioactive material) of radioactive warning signs is a federal offence.

Emergencies

Emergency procedures for portable gauges and logging sources

  1. Establish a control zone having a radius of a least 2m from the device. Do not enter the area unless absolutely necessary.
  2. If you must leave the area have an informed person guard the area in order to prevent entry.
  3. Inform local authorities of vehicle contents in case of accident or fire (Fire or Police).
  4. Contact:

    Phone Greg Friday (RSO)
    • Work (519) 888-4567 ext. 35755
    • Home (519) 745-1910
    • If unavailable, UW Police (519) 888-4911
  5. The RSO will contact the the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (If RSO unavailable please contact the CNSC)
    • Mississauga (416) 821-7760 (normal office hours)
    • Ottawa (613) 995-0479 (24 Hr Duty Officer)
  6. The CNSC must be notified within 24 hrs of any accident and they will also provide phone or personal assistance.
  7. Contact the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy if the radioactive material is likely to have an adverse affect on the environment.
    • Spills hot-line: 1-(800) 268-6060
  8. If damaged tool or source is located in an occupied area or in the way of vehicles or pedestrians, the device may be moved using a long handled tool (shovel or broom) to a control area as long as the risk to the worker is minimal.
  9. If it is necessary to pick up any portion of the damaged unit keep hands at least 15cm from source and use gloves. Place unit and gloves in a plastic bag and seal.
  10. Keep complete set of drawings with the logging source to provide the recovery personnel access to the physical construction of the logging tool in the event of loss down a bore hole.

Transportation

Transportation of radioisotopes is regulated by:

  1. The Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act and Regulations 
    http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/tdg/clear-tofc-211.htm
  2. The Canadian Nuclear Safety and Security Act Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations.
    http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/N-28.3/index.html

Learning objective

  1. Training requirements
  2. Classification
  3. Shipping names
  4. Packaging
  5. Labeling of radioactive material
  6. Shipping documents
  7. Emergency procedures

Shipping documents

Shipping document for: CPN 503 moisture gauge (PDF)
Special forms certificate:

CPN 501/503 (PDF) UAS/0627/S  Rev.1

Expiry date: Feb 28, 2017

Type A package test results: CPN 503 moisture gauge (PDF)

Quiz introduction

  • This quiz is limited to persons working in UW Open Source laboratories
  • You must have an active WatIAM account and know your userid and password
    See http://watiam.uwaterloo.ca/search/ for information or contact your faculty computer support person
  • Please insure you e-mail is redirected if you do not monitor your UW e-mail address.

Sealed source program quiz

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University of Waterloo radiation safety program devices

Radiation devices introduction

Scope

UW's Radiation Safety Program encompasses all work with radioisotopes in laboratories under UW control.

This program reflects the requirements outlined by the Nuclear Safety Control Act and Regulations

Purpose

This program outlines procedures and controls to ensure safe working conditions when working with or near devices containing radioisotopes at the University of Waterloo.

Radiation safety program

The following sections outline the structure of the Radiation Safety Program and its participants. The duties and responsibilities of the Radiation Safety Committee, Radiation Safety Officer and permit holder are listed.

The management structure of the University of Waterloo insures that all aspects of the purchase, use, storage and disposal are under direct control of the Radiation Safety Committee.

Radiation and nuclear devices

This section will discuss different types of radiation and how these types of radiation are produced.

Learning objectives

  1. Introduce electromagnetic and particulate radiation.
  2. The relationship between mass and energy.
  3. The unit of energy (electron volt).
  4. Radiation types
    • Size
    • Charge

Radiation and the worker

This next section will discuss the relationship between exposure (dose) and response as well as describe various effects of ionizing radiation.

Paracelsus (16 th Century): "It's the dose that makes the poison"

Learning objectives

  1. Understand biological responses to radiation exposures.
  2. Review legislative limits to ionizing radiation exposures
  3. What is your exposed dose from devices using radioisotopes.

Procedures

This section will discuss procedures and facilities used when operating devices containing radioisotopes at the University of Waterloo.

Learning Objectives

  1. Facilities and signage required.
  2. Permits.
  3. Inventory control.
  4. Contamination control.
  5. General operational procedures.

Quiz introduction

  • This quiz is limited to persons working in UW Open Source laboratories
  • You must have an active WatIAM account and know your userid and password
    See http://watiam.uwaterloo.ca/search/ for information or contact your faculty computer support person
  • Please insure you e-mail is redirected if you do not monitor you UW e-mail address.

Program devices quiz

Once you have logged in you may review the information above while completing the quiz.

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University of Waterloo transportation of radioactive material/sources

  1. Please review all sections of the Radiation Safety Training course material for transportation.
  2. Answer all questions at the course, under the section titled "Quiz".
  3. If you leave the course before finishing, please remember to LOGON each time.
  4. After completion I will contact you to review some of the material and issue you a training certificate.

Requirements

Transportation of radioisotopes is regulated by:

  1. The Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act and Regulations 
    http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/tdg/clear-tofc-211.htm

  2. The Canadian Nuclear Safety and Security Act Packaging and Transport of Nuclear Substances Regulations.
    http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/N-28.3/index.html

Learning objective

  1. Training requirements
  2. Classification
  3. Shipping names
  4. Packaging
  5. Labeling of radioactive material
  6. Shipping documents
  7. Emergency procedures

Emergency procedures

  1. Establish a control zone having a radius of a least 2 m from the device. Do not enter the area unless absolutely necessary.
  2. If you must leave the area have an informed person guard the area in order to prevent entry.
  3. Inform local authorities of vehicle contents in case of accident or fire (Fire or Police).
  4. Contact:

    Phone Greg Friday (RSO)
    • Work (519) 888-4567 ext. 35755
    • Home (519) 745-1910
    • If unavailable, UW Police (519) 888-4911
  5. The RSO will contact the the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (if RSO unavailable please contact the CNSC)
    • Mississauga (416) 821-7760 (normal office hours)
    • Ottawa (613) 995-0479 (24 Hr duty officer)
  6. The CNSC must be notified within 24 hrs. of any accident and they will also provide phone or personal assistance.
  7. Contact the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy if the radioactive material is likely to have an adverse affect on the environment.
    • Spills hot-line (800) 268-6060
  8. If damaged tool or source is located in an occupied area or in the way of vehicles or pedestrians, the device may be moved using a long handled tool (shovel or broom) to a control area as long as the risk to the worker is minimal.
  9. If it is necessary to pick up any portion of the damaged unit keep hands at least 15 cm from source and use gloves. Place unit and gloves in a plastic bag and seal.
  10. Keep complete set of drawings with the logging source to provide the recovery personnel access to the physical construction of the logging tool in the event of loss down a bore hole.

Forms and documents

Expected package instruments or articles (PDF)

Expected package materials (PDF)

Shipping document type A package (PDF)

Shipping document CPN 503 moisture metre (PDF)

Quiz introduction

  • This quiz is limited to persons working in UW Open Source laboratories
  • You must have an active WatIAM account and know your userid and password
    See http://watiam.uwaterloo.ca/search/ for information or contact your faculty computer support person
  • Please insure you e-mail is redirected if you do not monitor you UW e-mail address

Transportation of dangerous goods quiz

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Radiation program

The following sections outline the structure of the Radiation Safety Program and its participants. The duties and responsibilities of the Laboratory Safety Committee, Radiation Safety Officer and Permit holder are listed.

The management structure of the University of Waterloo insures that all aspects of the purchase, use, storage and disposal are under direct control of the Laboratory Safety Committee.

Forms

This section contains various forms in PDF format that are required in the laboratory or for shipping radioactive material.

University of Waterloo radioisotope license

University of Waterloo radioisotope license (PDF)

For the laboratory

Permit application (PDF)

Inventory form (PDF)

Contamination Monitoring Forms:

  1. Form used to monitor removable contamination using a liquid scintillation counter (PDF)

  2. Form used to monitor removable contamination using a crystal scintillation counter (PDF)

  3. Form used to monitor fixed contamination using a geiger mueller counter (PDF)
  4. Laboratory design compliance check list (PDF)

Forms for shipping

Expected package instruments or articles (PDF)

Expected package materials (PDF)

Shipping document type A package (PDF)

Shipping document CPN 503 moisture metre (PDF)

Package contamination form (PDF)

Committee members page

Other information

This section contains various pages and links to that may be useful to UW researchers and workers.

Acts and regulations

The Government of Canada controls the usage and possession of nuclear substances under the following legislative tools:

  1. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was created under The Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The CNSC has the authority to creates and enforces radiation regulations base on the latest scientific information.
  2. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission approves for use in Canada all devices containing radioactive material.
  3. Regulations are created under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act.  These describe operational responsibilities of various persons involve in using and handling of radioisotopes.
  4. A licence issued by the CNSC outlines operational requirements specific to the type of activity.  University of Waterloo radioisotope license (PDF)

The applicable portions of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations are incorporated in the Radiation Safety Training Program Manual.

Full text of the Nuclear Energy Control Act and Regulations

Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)

Chart of the nuclides

Web elements